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Technical Paper

Manager--Waste Management Programs Europe

1996-04-01
91A125
As one of the major materials suppliers to the automotive industry, Du Pont is playing an active role in helping that industry to provide solutions for effectively managing automotive waste. This is both good corporate environmentalism and sound business sense. Rightly, our partners in the industry-the car manufacturers and the components suppliers-expect us to work with them on tackling this issue. We are prepared to provide an active contribution. And, as I shall demonstrate, we are-all of us-making a vigorous effort in this area.
Technical Paper

Particulate Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites Obtained By Indirect Squeeze-Casting

1996-04-01
91A115
Indirect squeeze casting technology is one of the most attractive fabrication techniques of near net shape components constituted by aluminum matrix composite (AMC) materials. AMCs reinforced with both continuous and discontinuous ceramic elements have been mainly produced by infiltration of porous preforms. Nevertheless, a further promising production route offered by this technique is given by the possibility to employ ingots of pre-reinforced aluminum alloys containing ceramic particles (silicon carbide or alumina); ingots are remelted and, under suitable operative conditions, high quality composite castings of simple and complex shape are produced by squeeze casting. The present paper describes the results of an extensive experimental work carried out by Alures-Centro Tecnico Porcessi on a pilot plant scale employing a vertical squeeze casting machine with a clamping force of 315 tons.
Technical Paper

Manufacture of Automotive Components By Semi-Liquid Forming Process

1996-04-01
91A113
Semi-liquid forming process, applied to pressure die-casting, permits to obtain low cost components with high qualitative characteristics and adequate mechanical performances. The technology is based on the employment of material with globular microstructure (flow-cast alloys) obtained subjecting a metal alloy at the time of solidification to an elevated shear rate. Such microstructure permits the accomplishment of conventional forming processes at temperatures in solidification range. The particular fluid-dynamic properties of the semi-liquid slurry and the lower injection temperature allow to obtain casting with improved soundness, without need of impregnation, and to extend die life. The present work describes the Weber (Magneti Marelli) activity of the process industrialization and some applications for the manufacture of automotive components.
Technical Paper

A Driving Simulator Using Microprocessors

1988-03-01
871156
An inexpensive driving simulation system with sufficient fidelity has been developed. The system produces motion cues of four degrees of freedom, visual and auditory cues, and control feel on the steering wheel. This paper describes the features of this newly developed system and gives examples that demonstrate its effectiveness. The motion cues provided in this system are yaw, heave, and lateral and fore/aft accelerations. The lateral and fore/aft accelerations are simulated by tilting the simulator compartment. A computer-processed road image is given through a CRT monitor. The restoring torque of the steering wheel is produced by an electrical servosystem via a coil spring. Cruising sound is given in order to improve speed perception. Since the system uses digital computers, the vehicle characteristics are altered easily by merely rewriting the software. This enables us to simulate special vehicle dynamics such as front & rear wheel steering.
Technical Paper

Trends and Forecasts for Turbocharging

1988-03-01
871147
Predictable and unpredictable forces will change the direction of the charge-air systems industry. The driver of diesel engine development will be the stringent emissions regulations of the 1990s. The drivers in the gasoline engine market will be improved fuel economy, performance, durability and emissions. Forces will also influence the charge-air marketplace, including changes in emission standards, national fiscal policies, political issues, fuel prices, alternate fuels and consumer tastes. The world community mandate for engines that are clean, quiet, durable and fuel efficient will be satisfied, increasingly, by first-tier component suppliers developing integrated systems solutions.
Technical Paper

A Procedure for Evaluating Cycle Emissions from Raw Exhaust Gas Analyses

1988-03-01
871194
A procedure has been developed for evaluating equivalent drive cycle emission results from raw exhaust gas emissions data obtained from an engine under test on a computer controlled Vehicle Simulator Engine Dynamometer. The emitted species data is integrated with the air intake flow rate to determine the total mass of emissions, after correcting for the reduction in exhaust gas mass due to precipitation of the moisture of combustion. This procedure eliminates the need for the Constant Volume Sample (CVS) System attached to the vehicle exhaust while undergoing simulated drive testing on a chassis dynamometer to evaluate compliance of the test vehicle with the Australian Design Rules, ADR27 and ADR37. Sources of error with the procedure are examined by comparing the fuel consumption measured using a volumetric technique during the test with that evaluated by a carbon balance procedure as given in the Australian Design Rules.
Technical Paper

Calculating Partial Contribution Using Component Sensitivity Values: A Different Approach to Transfer Path Analysis

1999-05-17
1999-01-1693
Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) is a widely used methodology in Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) analysis of motor vehicles. Either it is used to design a vehicle from scratch or it is applied to root cause an existing NVH problem, TPA can be a useful tool. TPA analysis is closely related to the concept of partial contribution. The very basic assumption in TPA is that the summation of all partial contributions from different paths constitutes the total response (which could be either tactile or acoustic). Another popular concept in NVH analysis of vehicles is the component sensitivity. Component sensitivity is a measure of how much the response changes due to a change in one of the components of the system, i.e., the thickness of a panel or elastic rate of an engine mount. Sensitivity rates are more popular among CAE/Simulation community, simply because they are reasonably easy to calculate using mathematical models.
Technical Paper

The Reality of Problem Solving

1999-05-10
1999-01-1626
Structured problem solving methods are utilized in the automotive industry for the efficient resolution of quality issues in manufacturing. Several problem solving methodologies have been developed, each with the same basic philosophy to prevent problem reoccurrence. Numerous barriers inhibit the effectiveness of problem solving. Although some tactical barriers may be overcome by training personnel, the majority of barriers are strategic or cultural in nature. Barriers at these two levels can only be removed by management level personnel. Management must shift its focus from firefighting to problem prevention. This shift can only be realized if problem prevention is addressed during design.
Technical Paper

Error/Mistake Proofing During New Vehicle Launches

1999-05-10
1999-01-1632
The engineering community is becoming increasingly aware of the significant benefits of performing error proofing on product and tooling designs. If a part or tooling can be designed or redesigned to allow for one-way assembly, the option of incorrect assembly at the plant is eliminated, making the process more robust. The goal of the error proofing exercise is to reduce operator decisions, eliminate misbuilds, and improve quality. Through participation in this type of exercise, all key stakeholders, including product, process, tooling, and production personnel, have greater opportunity to identify, prevent, and resolve potential production issues well in advance of launch.
Technical Paper

Corporate Aviation on the Leading Edge: Systemic Implementation of Macro-human Factors in Aviation Maintenance

1999-04-20
1999-01-1596
While majority of the airlines are struggling to implement macro human factors principles in their maintenance activities, at least eleven corporate aviation departments (CADs) in the country are showing signs of success. The implementation philosophy of these CADs differs from others, and from the airlines in one fundamental aspect: it enforces a behavior change rather than an attitude change among the CAD employees. Consequently, they strive to achieve an employee behavior which is consistent within and across their flight operations, maintenance, and management functions. Ethnographic research was conducted at one of the eleven eligible sites to develop a theoretical model which is representative of the structure, the strategy, and the processes used by these aviation departments to implement macro human factors principles in aviation maintenance. This model was then tested at three other CADs that have a implemented similar approach.
Technical Paper

Application of Shape Memory Alloys for Leading Edge Deicing

1999-04-20
1999-01-1585
Ice accumulation on aircraft wings during flight is a dangerous situation. To deal with this problem, current deicing systems either prevent ice accumulation by heating or break the ice layer once it is formed by dynamic motion of a leading edge device such as a boot. These systems may be deficient due to excessive energy requirements or ineffectiveness. In this project, the feasibility of using shape memory alloy (SMA) composite material for deicing purposes is investigated. SMA such as Nitinol wire has an unusual characteristic where it can be trained to generate a compressive strain upon application of an electric current through the wire. Several different versions of two inch radius semi-circular SMA composite specimen were manufactured and tested at Wichita State University. Ice was successfully shed in static icing tests while each of the subsequent versions reduced the power input requirement.
Technical Paper

Lean Ergonomics: Twelve Simple Rules to Fit Jobs to People

1999-05-10
1999-01-1636
This paper provides twelve rules to help reduce four key ergonomic risk factors (force, frequency, posture and mechanical stress). These rules were developed to assist individuals who may not have received extensive ergonomic training but who are involved in implementing any changes (major or minor) to manufacturing work stations. This includes changes in task and/or changes in equipment. A complete ergonomic analysis of a work situation is a good idea in most cases, but these rules will avoid many of the commonly occurring problems if applied early in the design or modification of a workplace.
Technical Paper

Preparing for High Performance Work Organizations – The UDM / GC Bachelor of Manufacturing Engineering Program

1999-05-10
1999-01-1637
There are many analogies between the development of education and industrial development in the United States during the 1900s. In both segments of our society the emphasis on quantity of output led to the use of ever more specialized tools and concepts with sub-optimization often reducing the overall output quality. More recently both education and industry, especially the manufacturing sector, have recognized the value added concepts of integration, i.e., applying a holistic approach to their operations. In so doing a new workplace has been defined, the “High Performance Work Organization” (HPWO) (1). The discussion of the effects this development has had on manufacturing of goods and services is left to other presentations in this conference. This presentation focuses on an example from education which illustrates how integration of experiential and academic activities has been set as the cornerstone of a new construct for engineering education.
Technical Paper

Gaining Engineering Competence in Plastics

1999-05-10
1999-01-1641
Plastics are largely regarded as commodity materials. However, they differ considerably from the materials which we became acquainted with during our college education. Although one can proceed to design plastic components and manufacture them without seriously considering a training program, the consequences can be substantial sacrifices to quality, development cost, part cost, and time to market, as well as adding a great deal of unnecessary stress to the workplace. This presentation explains why plastics are different and recommends a training curriculum that should be a part of strategic planning.
Technical Paper

Graduate Education in Manufacturing Engineering for the Automotive Industry of the Future

1999-05-10
1999-01-1638
This paper discusses the evolution of graduate education in manufacturing engineering and the curriculum needed to educate manufacturing engineers in the automotive industry. This paper examines the master's and doctoral curriculum in manufacturing engineering at the University of Michigan-Dearborn. Finally, it proposes future direction for graduate education in manufacturing that will be needed for the automotive industry of the future.
Technical Paper

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Fleet Buyer's Guide

1999-05-03
1999-01-1510
Fleet managers need a tool to assist them in assessing their need to comply with EPAct and to provide them with the ability to obtain information that will allow them to make alternative fuel vehicle purchasing decisions. This paper will describe the Web-based tool that will inform a fleet manager, based on their geographic location, the type of fleet they own or operate, and the number and types of vehicles in their fleet, whether or not they need to meet the requirements of EPAct, and, if so, the percentage of new vehicle purchases needed to comply with the law. The tool provides detailed specifications on available OEM alternative fuel vehicles, including the purchase cost of the vehicles, fuel and fuel system characteristics, and incentives and rebates surrounding the purchase of each vehicle. The full set of federal, state, and local incentives is made available through the tool, as well as detailed access to refueling site and dealership locations.
Technical Paper

Artificial Neural Network Based Energy Storage System Modeling for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1564
The modeling of the energy storage system (ESS) of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) poses a considerable challenge. The problem is not amenable to physical modeling without simplifying assumptions that compromise the accuracy of such models. An alternative is to build conventional empirical models. Such models, however, are time-consuming to build and are data-intensive. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of an artificial neural network (ANN) to modeling the ESS. The model maps the system's state-of-charge (SOC) and the vehicle's power requirement to the bus voltage and current. We show that ANN models can accurately capture the complex, non-linear correlations accurately. Further, we propose and deploy our new technique, Smart Select, for designing ANN training data.
Technical Paper

Investigation of a Roll Control System for an Off-road Vehicle

2000-05-01
2000-01-1646
The current popularity of the Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) market has led to new developments aiming to increase product performance. Such vehicles pose a significant challenge as they must perform to a high standard over a large variety of road conditions. Previously, emphasis has been placed on off-road ability. However, SUVs are now seen as an alternative to conventional luxury cars, and hence are expected to perform similarly, but without significantly degrading off-road performance. The introduction of a roll control system can achieve body roll levels lower than a conventional sports saloon, whilst improving off-road ability by removing the compromises associated with conventional anti-roll bars. This paper investigates the characteristics of such a system by developing a computer simulation of the vehicle and the associated roll control scheme.
Technical Paper

Estimating the Rate of Technology Adoption for Cockpit Weather Information Systems

2000-05-09
2000-01-1662
This paper summarizes the results of a survey to estimate the market penetration rate of cockpit weather information systems in five aviation markets: transport, commuter, general aviation, business, and rotorcraft. It begins by describing the general features that survey respondents identified as necessary characteristics for the market success of cockpit weather systems. Next the paper analyzes the financial benefit of cockpit weather systems for each market segment. Decision reversal tables and Monte Carlo simulation are employed to examine the sensitivity of the financial results to changes in the cost and savings elements. Finally, estimates for adoption rates in the five aviation market segments are presented.
Technical Paper

Development of a Sensor-Less Speed Control Inverter for an Automotive Accessory Permanent Magnet Motor

2000-04-02
2000-01-1605
Visual Computing Systems (VCS) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are partnered in a research effort to design and build a power inverter for use with an automotive accessory permanent magnet (PM) motor provided by VCS. The inverter is designed so it can fit within the volume of the housing, which is integrated with the motor. Moreover, a modular design for both the inverter and motor is employed for easily expanding the power capability to other applications. A simple back electromotive force (EMF) based position detection scheme is implemented with a digital signal processor (DSP) to eliminate the need for position sensors. Issues related to position detection errors are addressed and correction methods are suggested and implemented in DSP software. Finally, since the motor has very low inductance because of its core-less stator structure, the influences of the low inductance on the motor current ripple are analyzed.
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