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Technical Paper

A Driving Simulator Using Microprocessors

1988-03-01
871156
An inexpensive driving simulation system with sufficient fidelity has been developed. The system produces motion cues of four degrees of freedom, visual and auditory cues, and control feel on the steering wheel. This paper describes the features of this newly developed system and gives examples that demonstrate its effectiveness. The motion cues provided in this system are yaw, heave, and lateral and fore/aft accelerations. The lateral and fore/aft accelerations are simulated by tilting the simulator compartment. A computer-processed road image is given through a CRT monitor. The restoring torque of the steering wheel is produced by an electrical servosystem via a coil spring. Cruising sound is given in order to improve speed perception. Since the system uses digital computers, the vehicle characteristics are altered easily by merely rewriting the software. This enables us to simulate special vehicle dynamics such as front & rear wheel steering.
Technical Paper

A Procedure for Evaluating Cycle Emissions from Raw Exhaust Gas Analyses

1988-03-01
871194
A procedure has been developed for evaluating equivalent drive cycle emission results from raw exhaust gas emissions data obtained from an engine under test on a computer controlled Vehicle Simulator Engine Dynamometer. The emitted species data is integrated with the air intake flow rate to determine the total mass of emissions, after correcting for the reduction in exhaust gas mass due to precipitation of the moisture of combustion. This procedure eliminates the need for the Constant Volume Sample (CVS) System attached to the vehicle exhaust while undergoing simulated drive testing on a chassis dynamometer to evaluate compliance of the test vehicle with the Australian Design Rules, ADR27 and ADR37. Sources of error with the procedure are examined by comparing the fuel consumption measured using a volumetric technique during the test with that evaluated by a carbon balance procedure as given in the Australian Design Rules.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of the Noise Emitting Parts of a Rotating Tire in the European Research Project TINO

1999-05-17
1999-01-1732
One of the objectives in the European Research project TINO is to identify, in detail, the surfaces of a rotating tire which actually generate the radiated noise. The approach is completely experimental and is based upon the ASQ (Airborne Sound Quantification) technique. The quantification of the contribution of the different tire surfaces to the sound pressure measured under defined conditions is carried out through a process of near-field measurements during rotation of the tire and static acoustic transfer function measurements. The ASQ method is further developed and tested when focussing at the applications. In first instance, the procedure has been validated and fine-tuned under well-controlled boundary conditions at a tire chassis dynamometer. The results of this first investigation served also as a “reference” set of data which has been used for verification and validation of numerical tire models.
Technical Paper

Tire/Pavement Interaction Noise Source Identification Using Multi-Planar Nearfield Acoustical Holography

1999-05-17
1999-01-1733
In this study, multi-planar Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) is used to investigate noise radiated from the front, side and rear areas of single tires on a two-wheel trailer. Contributions to the radiated noise from the leading edge, trailing edge, and sidewall of the tire are identified. Two tires - an experimental monopitch tire and a production passenger car tire - are evaluated on a smooth asphalt pavement at 58 km/hr. From the measured complex pressure, acoustic intensity is reconstructed on three planes surrounding the tire using modified NAH procedures. Additionally, sound power levels are presented in tabulated and spectra forms. Tire noise generating mechanisms are inferred based on the results.
Technical Paper

The Reality of Problem Solving

1999-05-10
1999-01-1626
Structured problem solving methods are utilized in the automotive industry for the efficient resolution of quality issues in manufacturing. Several problem solving methodologies have been developed, each with the same basic philosophy to prevent problem reoccurrence. Numerous barriers inhibit the effectiveness of problem solving. Although some tactical barriers may be overcome by training personnel, the majority of barriers are strategic or cultural in nature. Barriers at these two levels can only be removed by management level personnel. Management must shift its focus from firefighting to problem prevention. This shift can only be realized if problem prevention is addressed during design.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Ice Adhesion

1999-04-20
1999-01-1584
An experimental study was conducted to investigate ice-adhesion on clean and coated aluminum surfaces. A test apparatus using the parallel plate linear shear technique was designed along with a data acquisition system for conducting the tests and recording the experimental data. A low pulling rate was applied to specially prepared test specimens for measuring the strength of ice adhesion for a range of test conditions. The effects of surface roughness, surface contamination, and water impurity on ice adhesion were investigated. In addition, tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a low ice-adhesion coating applied to aluminum test specimens. The results obtained showed that the bond between ice and metal was considerably lower for tap water than for distilled water. For the clean and coated aluminum surfaces the strength of ice adhesion varied with specimen roughness. However, no clear trend was established between ice adhesion strength and surface roughness.
Technical Paper

Application of Shape Memory Alloys for Leading Edge Deicing

1999-04-20
1999-01-1585
Ice accumulation on aircraft wings during flight is a dangerous situation. To deal with this problem, current deicing systems either prevent ice accumulation by heating or break the ice layer once it is formed by dynamic motion of a leading edge device such as a boot. These systems may be deficient due to excessive energy requirements or ineffectiveness. In this project, the feasibility of using shape memory alloy (SMA) composite material for deicing purposes is investigated. SMA such as Nitinol wire has an unusual characteristic where it can be trained to generate a compressive strain upon application of an electric current through the wire. Several different versions of two inch radius semi-circular SMA composite specimen were manufactured and tested at Wichita State University. Ice was successfully shed in static icing tests while each of the subsequent versions reduced the power input requirement.
Technical Paper

Lean Ergonomics: Twelve Simple Rules to Fit Jobs to People

1999-05-10
1999-01-1636
This paper provides twelve rules to help reduce four key ergonomic risk factors (force, frequency, posture and mechanical stress). These rules were developed to assist individuals who may not have received extensive ergonomic training but who are involved in implementing any changes (major or minor) to manufacturing work stations. This includes changes in task and/or changes in equipment. A complete ergonomic analysis of a work situation is a good idea in most cases, but these rules will avoid many of the commonly occurring problems if applied early in the design or modification of a workplace.
Technical Paper

Preparing for High Performance Work Organizations – The UDM / GC Bachelor of Manufacturing Engineering Program

1999-05-10
1999-01-1637
There are many analogies between the development of education and industrial development in the United States during the 1900s. In both segments of our society the emphasis on quantity of output led to the use of ever more specialized tools and concepts with sub-optimization often reducing the overall output quality. More recently both education and industry, especially the manufacturing sector, have recognized the value added concepts of integration, i.e., applying a holistic approach to their operations. In so doing a new workplace has been defined, the “High Performance Work Organization” (HPWO) (1). The discussion of the effects this development has had on manufacturing of goods and services is left to other presentations in this conference. This presentation focuses on an example from education which illustrates how integration of experiential and academic activities has been set as the cornerstone of a new construct for engineering education.
Technical Paper

Gaining Engineering Competence in Plastics

1999-05-10
1999-01-1641
Plastics are largely regarded as commodity materials. However, they differ considerably from the materials which we became acquainted with during our college education. Although one can proceed to design plastic components and manufacture them without seriously considering a training program, the consequences can be substantial sacrifices to quality, development cost, part cost, and time to market, as well as adding a great deal of unnecessary stress to the workplace. This presentation explains why plastics are different and recommends a training curriculum that should be a part of strategic planning.
Technical Paper

Graduate Education in Manufacturing Engineering for the Automotive Industry of the Future

1999-05-10
1999-01-1638
This paper discusses the evolution of graduate education in manufacturing engineering and the curriculum needed to educate manufacturing engineers in the automotive industry. This paper examines the master's and doctoral curriculum in manufacturing engineering at the University of Michigan-Dearborn. Finally, it proposes future direction for graduate education in manufacturing that will be needed for the automotive industry of the future.
Technical Paper

Neural Network-Based Diesel Engine Emissions Prediction Using In-Cylinder Combustion Pressure

1999-05-03
1999-01-1532
This paper explores the feasibility of using in-cylinder pressure-based variables to predict gaseous exhaust emissions levels from a Navistar T444 direct injection diesel engine through the use of neural networks. The networks were trained using in-cylinder pressure derived variables generated at steady state conditions over a wide speed and load test matrix. The networks were then validated on previously “unseen” real-time data obtained from the Federal Test Procedure cycle through the use of a high speed digital signal processor data acquisition system. Once fully trained, the DSP-based system developed in this work allows the real-time prediction of NOX and CO2 emissions from this engine on a cycle-by-cycle basis without requiring emissions measurement.
Technical Paper

Transmission Oil Degradation Warning Systems and Computing in Agricultural Tractors

2000-06-19
2000-01-1873
This communication examines three strategies of predictive lubricant monitoring and replacement, used for farm tractors or similar vehicles. These strategies optimise the draining periodicity. They are the off-line follow-up, the sensors follow-up and the analytical model follow-up. The implementation of the suggested analytical model will be discussed, on the basis of field collected data (on a series of tractors, either customer's or on loan). Regular oil samples, and significant ones carried out at the end of the study, were taken and analysed in order to predict the evolution of the lubricant characteristics. Extensions to the experimental study were carried out at the end of this work. They are discussed in the paper (FZG gear scuffing, 4 ball wear and EP…).
Technical Paper

Artificial Neural Network Based Energy Storage System Modeling for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1564
The modeling of the energy storage system (ESS) of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) poses a considerable challenge. The problem is not amenable to physical modeling without simplifying assumptions that compromise the accuracy of such models. An alternative is to build conventional empirical models. Such models, however, are time-consuming to build and are data-intensive. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of an artificial neural network (ANN) to modeling the ESS. The model maps the system's state-of-charge (SOC) and the vehicle's power requirement to the bus voltage and current. We show that ANN models can accurately capture the complex, non-linear correlations accurately. Further, we propose and deploy our new technique, Smart Select, for designing ANN training data.
Technical Paper

Investigation of a Roll Control System for an Off-road Vehicle

2000-05-01
2000-01-1646
The current popularity of the Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) market has led to new developments aiming to increase product performance. Such vehicles pose a significant challenge as they must perform to a high standard over a large variety of road conditions. Previously, emphasis has been placed on off-road ability. However, SUVs are now seen as an alternative to conventional luxury cars, and hence are expected to perform similarly, but without significantly degrading off-road performance. The introduction of a roll control system can achieve body roll levels lower than a conventional sports saloon, whilst improving off-road ability by removing the compromises associated with conventional anti-roll bars. This paper investigates the characteristics of such a system by developing a computer simulation of the vehicle and the associated roll control scheme.
Technical Paper

Breaking Down Technology Barriers for Advanced Vehicles: The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

2000-04-02
2000-01-1595
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT), in partnership with industry, is developing transportation technologies that will improve the energy efficiency of our transportation system. Most OAAT programs are focused exclusively on technology development. However, the twin goals of developing innovative technologies and transferring them to industry led OAAT to realize the growing need for people trained in non-traditional, emerging technologies. The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) program combines graduate-level education with technology development and transfer by training a new generation of automotive engineers in critical multi-disciplinary technologies, by fostering cooperative research in those technologies, and by transferring those technologies directly to industrial organizations.
Technical Paper

An Architecture for Autonomous Agents in a Driving Simulator

2000-04-02
2000-01-1596
The addition of synthetic traffic to a driving simulation greatly enhances the realism of the virtual world. Giving this traffic human-like behavior is likewise desirable, and has been the focus of some research over the past few years. This paper presents a modular architecture for including autonomous traffic in a driving simulation, and describes the first steps taken toward the application of this architecture to the DaimlerChrysler Auburn Hills Simulator. By separating the planning part of the agent from the low-level control and vehicle dynamics systems, the described architecture permits the inclusion of powerful, previously developed components in a straightforward way; in the present application, agents use Soar to reason about their actions. This paper gives an overview of the structures of the agents, and of the entire system, describes the components and their implementations, and discusses the current state of the project and plans for the future.
Technical Paper

Accurate Models for Complex Vehicle Components using Empirical Methods

2000-05-01
2000-01-1625
Conventional computer models for complex vehicle components (like bushings and dampers) are often inadequate to represent behavior over wide frequency ranges, and/or at large amplitudes. New modeling methods circumvent these limitations by using laboratory measurements with neural networks. The new methods enable accurate simulation for nonlinear, frequency dependent components, having multiple inputs and outputs, under arbitrary excitation. This paper describes one such method, known as Empirical Dynamics Modeling. Examples are presented for vehicle shock absorbers and a rubber bushing. Benefits and limitations are discussed, along with requirements for interfacing to a conventional virtual prototyping environment.
Technical Paper

Utilizing a Genetic Algorithm to Optimize Vehicle Simulation Trajectories: Determining Initial Velocity of a Vehicle in Yaw

2000-05-01
2000-01-1616
A method was developed for determining the unknown initial velocity of vehicles in yaw based upon evidence of the vehicle’s trajectory. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem by minimizing the error between a simulation trajectory and the known vehicle trajectory as per tire marks. A search simulation is coded in Matlab. An objective function is formulated based upon the error between the search simulation’ trajectories and the trajectory prescribed by the tire mark evidence. Initial conditions and step driver inputs are the design variables. A genetic algorithm routine coded in Matlab, GAOT (Genetic Algorithm Optimization Toolbox), is implemented to determine the solution vector that results in a simulation trajectory that minimizes the objective function. Target simulations are created using EDVSM (Engineering Dynamics Vehicle Simulation Model). The optimization algorithm is implemented and errors in the resultant velocities are reported.
Technical Paper

Vehicle and Tire Modeling for DynamicAnalysis and Real-Time Simulation

2000-05-01
2000-01-1620
This paper reviews the development and application of a computer simulation for simulating ground vehicle dynamics including steady state tire behavior. The models have been developed over the last decade, and include treatment of sprung and unsprung masses, suspension characteristics and composite road plane tire forces. The models have been applied to single unit passenger cars, trucks and buses, and articulated tractor/trailer vehicles. The vehicle model uses composite parameters that are relatively easy to measure. The tire model responds to normal load, camber angle and composite tire patch slip, and its longitudinal and lateral forces interact with an equivalent friction ellipse formulation. The tire model can represent behavior on both paved and off-road surfaces. Tire model parameters can be automatically identified given tire force and moment test data.
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