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Technical Paper

An Advanced High Flow PCABS for Improving Injection Molding Processes and Cycles

2001-03-05
2001-01-0846
An advanced high flow PCABS was developed for improving the efficiency of injection molding processes and cycle times. Proprietary technology was used to develop this new blend while maintaining key properties (heat resistance and impact) necessary to meet end use part requirements. Significant rheological improvements in melt flow rate (MFR) and flow capabilities throughout the entire viscosity versus shear rate range were obtained. These improvements allowed for lower cooling times (21-27% reduction) and injection pressures. Molders using this resin have the potential to improve cycle times, improve processes, and save money. This paper will document cycle time and process improvements in automotive instrument panel applications with the new high flow PCABS blend, PULSE*2000EZ.
Technical Paper

Thin-Sheet Austenite Stainless Steel Pipe for Automotive Fuel Filler Pipe Application

2001-03-05
2001-01-0980
The automotive industry is exhibiting the trend of positively adopting stainless steel pipe as one of the means for improving weight reduction and rust resistance. In particular, austenite stainless steel pipe (hereafter referred to as “SUS pipe”) is widely used in automotive parts due to its excellent rust resistance, heat resistance, and magnetic properties. Nevertheless, reports regarding the forming technology of SUS pipe are rare. In particular, reports on the thin-sheet SUS pipe, which this paper discusses, are extremely rare. Up until now, the application of SUS pipe for various parts consisted primarily of 1.0mm-thick materials. The thin-sheet SUS pipe material is known to be difficult to shape because of its low sheet rigidity relative to the forming force, resulting in wrinkles and buckling. Moreover, it is susceptible to galling in the die due to the hardness of the material, making it also difficult to shape.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Heat Resistance for Bioplastics

2003-03-03
2003-01-1124
We studied the adoption of plastics derived from plants (bioplastics) such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA) for automotive parts in order to contribute to suppressing the increase in CO, emissions. For this application. major improvements of heat and impact resistance are needed. As a method to improve heat resistance, we developed PLA combined with clay of high heat resistance. As a result. we succeeded in synthesizing a PLA-clay nanocomposite using 18(OH)2-Mont. In-mold crystallization of PLA-clay nanocomposite lead to the great suppression of storage modulus decrease at high temperature. which in turn improved the heat resistance of PLA.
Technical Paper

SPS Crystalline Polymer: A New Material for Automotive Interconnect Systems

1997-02-24
970305
Syndiotactic Polystyrene (SPS) is a new semi-crystalline polymer under development by Dow Plastics. The material is completely different from conventional styrenics in structure, physical properties and synthetic method, and represents the basis for an entirely new family of materials based on crystalline polystyrene. SPS has a melting point of 270°C (520°F) combined with excellent resistance to moisture and automotive fluids. Additionally, SPS products exhibit exceptional electrical performance and competitive toughness and stiffness. A wide range of products have been formulated for specific applications including impact-modified and glass-reinforced grades. This paper was designed to discuss the performance attributes of SPS as they relate to use of this material in automotive, interconnect systems where a combination of heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability and enhanced processability are required.
Technical Paper

Counter-Gravity Casting Process for Making Thinwall Steel Exhaust Manifolds

1997-02-24
970920
Casting technology developmentshave led to a manufacturing process that allows the casting of thin wall (2-3mm) heat resistant ferritic stainless steel exhaust manifolds which can replace stamped and tubular weldments as well as iron castings where temperature requirements are increased. This casting process combines the thin wall and clean metal benefits of the counter gravity, vacuum-assist casting process using thin, light-weight bonded sand molds supported by vacuum-ridgidized sand. This combination is called the LSVAC (Loose Sand Vacuum Assisted Casting) process, a patented process. This process will significantly contribute to the growth of near-net shape steellstainless steel castings for automotive and allied industries. For exhaust manifolds, a modified grade of ferritic stainless steel with good oxidation resistance to 950°C in high dew point synthetic exhaust gas atmospheres was developed.
Technical Paper

A Study on New-Type Heat Resistant Elastomers, Based on Fluoroelastomer/Acrylic-Elasomer Blends

1997-02-24
971081
We studied new-type heat-resistanct elastomers. They are based on fluoroelastomer/ acrylic-elastomer blands. Their heat resistance temperature for long term use are about 175°C. They are graded E to F class for heat resistance and G to H class for oil resistance within the ASTM D2000/SAE J200 framework. In this presentation, newly developed elastomers are discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of Ti 6Al-4v Two Sheet Superplastic Formed and Diffusion Bonded (SPF/DB) Applications

1997-06-03
972221
Resolving earlier industry recognized problems associated with two sheet SPF/DB, results in a process that will provide light weight [8], strong, corrosion and heat-resistant structures for aircraft and other applications. Solutions to the normally inherent problems of stiffening bead collapse/distortion and other associated anomalies have been resolved by utilizing gas-management methods and developing press operating techniques which removes these aesthetic and structural defects from the two sheet SPF/DB process. In addition, the design of this type of structure must be robust and consider bondline locations, weight control methods, stiffening bead definition [1] and overall producibility. Finite Element Modeling [4] has greatly assisted in better product and forming definitions prior to final design of two sheet SPF/DB structures.
Technical Paper

Alternate Binders for Molded Acoustical Insulators

1997-05-20
971883
The development of binder systems for automotive sound insulators as an alternative to phenolic resin is presented. Various thermoplastic binder systems were evaluated. The non-woven airlay process technology was used in manufacturing the padding. Subsequent cold thermoforming techniques were employed to produce molded sound insulators. Material characterization and part performance evaluation of mechanical properties, heat resistance, and acoustical performance were determined. Manufacturing process for the molded sound insulator was also demonstrated. The study concluded that a thermoplastic binder system, as an alternate to phenolic binder resin, can be used to produce functional molded fiber floor insulators.
Technical Paper

Development of Non-Adhesive Acrylic Rubber for Engine Oil Filter

1998-02-01
980990
In recent years, the use of acrylic rubber has grown because of improved low temperature performance and heat resistance. Acrylicrubber is now being adopted as a replacementof NBR because it has good oil and heat resistance. One special feature inherent toacrylic rubber is that if it is in contact withmetal, upon heating, it will adhere to the metal. This adhesion would not be a problem with a fixed O-ring; however, in the case of an oilfilter (O/F) gasket which is regularly changed,the rubber which remains due to adhesion couldbe problematic for sealing. In the past, this problem was overcome by utilizing a coating, such as silicone, on the rubber surface, although this adds another step to the rubber process. Therefore, we developed a new method to prevent the adhesion of acrylic rubber by analyzing the mechanism by which the acrylic rubber adheres to a metal surface.
Technical Paper

Influence of New Engine Oil Additives on the Properties of Fluoroelastomers

1998-10-19
982437
Fluoroelastmers are well known for their resistance to heat and fluids, and have become major material for crankcase oil seals. On the other hand, new additive formulations are developed for engine lubricants used for fuel economic gasoline engines. In this paper, the effects of those additives on properties of fluoroelastmers are investigated. The results of the immersion tests of both test plaques and oil seal products indicate that dithiocarbamates, friction modifier, have hardening effects on fluoroelastmers. The fluoroelastmer deterioration mechanism is determined by analysis of elastmer samples after immersion in oil.
Technical Paper

Modeling of the Combined Heat Protection and Thermal Control Systems

1998-07-13
981638
Mathematical models of the combined thermal protection systems of the radiation-evaporation type are proposed. The systems considered consist of an outer heat-resistant screen sensitive to force loading, a high-temperature porous insulation, and a layer of a material saturated with a coolant and arranged on the external surface of the protected structure. Appropriate coupled boundary-value problems describing heat and mass transfer in these systems are formulated and solved. Combined and passive radiation thermal protection systems are compared. It is shown that both the thermal insulation thickness and the total weight of the combined heat protection systems may be considerably less then the passive equivalents.
Technical Paper

New Ductile, Heat Resistant ABS Resin for Energy Management Applications

1998-02-23
980969
Automotive manufacturers must satisfy a myriad of criteria when selecting a polymer for interior trim applications. Additional challenges have been presented with the future phase-in requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 201U. This federal mandate requires vehicles to provide protection when an occupant's head strikes upper interior components such as thermoplastic pillars during an automobile crash. One limitation of FMVSS 201U is that it only prescribes performance requirements for simulated impact tests conducted at ambient test conditions. Many automobile crashes, however, occur at a multitude of vehicle temperatures. Moreover, thermoplastics are known to undergo a ductile to brittle transition whereby test specimens exhibit brittle failure upon impact at cold temperature. Therefore, reasonable engineering concern must be exercised to design robust systems that provide occupant protection across a wide range of test temperatures.
Technical Paper

Excellent Oxygen Storage Capacity of Perovskite-PD Three way Catalysts

1995-02-01
950256
Increasingly stringent emissions controls have led to a greater emphasis on strategies designed to minimize emission during cold start. One strategy employed is that of close-coupling the catalyst to the exhaust manifold of the engine in an effort to minimize catalyst light-off time. In this configuration, the catalyst must exhibit a high degree of thermal stability. Further, since the catalyst is situated nearer to the engine, it is more liable to sense cylinder-to-cylinder variations in exhaust gas composition and thus needs to possess a wider operating window than a catalyst positioned further underbody. We have previously reported that Perovskite-Pd catalysts exhibit excellent heat resistance and have three-way catalyst activity comparable with or superior to that of Pt-Rh/ Al2O3 catalysts and Pd/Al2O3 catalysts [1]*. Durability at high temperatures and oxygen storage capacity under large air/fuel (A/F) ratio fluctuation conditions have now been tested.
Technical Paper

Comparative Performance of Ethylene Glycol/Water and Propylene Glycol/Water Coolants in Automobile Radiators

1996-02-01
960372
The heat transfer and hydraulic performance of the following coolants was examined in five automobile radiators in a wind tunnel: 100% Water 100% Propylene Glycol 70/30 Propylene Glycol/Water (Volume) 50/50 Propylene Glycol/Water (Volume) 70/30 Ethylene Glycol/Water (Volume) 50/50 Ethylene Glycol Water (Volume) The results of these studies are presented to demonstrate the relative performance of these coolant mixtures in terms of heat transfer, coolant pressure drop and radiator effectiveness for a range of coolant flowrates and air flowrates. It is concluded that the most effective of the coolants in transferring heat in the test radiators was water, followed by 50/50 ethylene glycol/water, 50/50 propylene glycol/water, 70/30 ethylene glycol/water, 70/30 propylene glycol and, finally, 100% propylene glycol.
Technical Paper

Evaluation Method for Long Term Life of Heat-Resistant Lube Oil for Automotive Ceramic Gas Turbine

1996-10-01
962110
The Automotive ceramic gas turbine(CGT) is intended for operation at a turbine inlet temperature of 1,350°C and a turbine speed of 100,000 rpm. High temperature lubricating oil has to satisfy the heat-resistant and lubricity under a severe condition such as a bearing temperature of 300 °C, a reduction gear tooth pressure of 1 GPa and a peripheral speed of 120 m/s. The practical performance and durability tests of the high temperature lubricating oil based on polyolester were performed using a high-temperature and high speed bearing simulator and a high speed gear tester under the actual engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Composite Materials and Structures Development in FHI for High-Speed Civil Transport

1996-10-01
965582
Development of a light structure with composite materials is one of the key technologies to realize an economic HSCT(High Speed Civil Transport). FHI(Fuji Heavy Industries) has continued to investigate heat resistance polymer (thermoplastic polyimide) matrix composite materials and their application to aircraft structures since 1987 jointly with MTC (Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals), Inc[1, 2 and 3]. FHI has started Ti Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Development and Fiber/Metal Laminate Development for high temperature aircraft structures. The status of above studies FHI has ever investigated and the concerns for future studies are summarized herein.
Technical Paper

Development of Damping SMC and Its Application as Material for a Rockercover

1996-02-01
960146
When replacing a metal engine part with plastic, it is necessary to regard vibration damping as one of the important factors in terms of noise reduction as well as strength and heat resistance as being characteristics of the material. Plastics are far better for vibration damping than steel or aluminum, but this property is reduced by the addition of glassfiber-reinforced or high heat-resisting resins. We have taken notice of SMC (Sheet Molding Compound) which has the excellent strength and heat resistance properties and studied it in order to increase its vibration damping property. Since organic polymers show the peak value for vibration damping performance in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature (Tg), we studied a method to shift the Tg near the operating temperature region in order to improve the vibration damping property.
Technical Paper

Experiments on Capsules with TPS-Materials

1995-07-01
951575
This paper presents results from flown Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) material specimens, the status of development of TPS and hot structure components as well as the programmatic for planned flight experiments on reentry capsules. Here, not only TPS is considered in its strict meaning but also “hot structures” as thermal and mechanical load carrying primary structure without any active cooling system. First TPS material specimens, developed in Germany, have flown on Russian Foton capsules successfully. In a national technology project TPS and hot structure components will be developed for flight demonstration to investigate the reusability. The importance of representative tests to verify the TPS design early in the design and development phase is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

IMPROVED HEAT RESISTANT ACRYLIC RUBBER FOR ENGINE OIL SEALS

1998-02-23
980848
Fluoro rubber (FKM) is commonly applied to oil seals which are used in areas such as gasoline engines or associated components that require high heat resistance. Based on this, the recent high temperature performance engines and engine oil improvements are remarkable and present a real challenge for elastomeric materials. FKM can be expensive and can sometimes exceeds the requirements depending on the engine heat condition. This report will show the development and evaluation of heat resistant acrylic rubber designed for oil seal applications of today's high temperature engines with FKM type performance and acrylic rubber type value. Rubber hardness was mainly used as an evaluation index to measure heat resistance and durability in the material development process to verify the effect. Oil seals with this improved material has 3 times the durable life to the current acrylic rubber material when compared in the oil seal bench test.
Technical Paper

An Alternative Tubing and Heat Shield Material for Under Hood Application in the Automotive Industry

1994-03-01
940313
The future emission requirements for Transitional Low Emission Vehicle (TELV) and Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) will force automobile manufacturers to use extraordinary design measures. Compliance is likely to increase the need for heat shielding. Two system types have been available for some time as design options. These are emission reduction systems such as EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) and A. I. R. (Air Injection Reactor). Both systems create temperature difficulties because of hot exhaust gases. Shielding is needed to insulate other under hood components from high temperature and to retain heat within the emission system. Heat shielding and air conducting tubes have to be flexible, withstand vibration, resist corrosion from the exhaust gas and endure many cycles of heating over the life of the vehicle. Traditionally stainless steel has been the material of choice.
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