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Technical Paper

Soft Control – Utilizing Existing I/O

1999-05-10
1999-01-1623
The Timken Company's Faircrest Steel Plant has numerous automated control systems. The Raw Material Handling System and a grinder application on the Billet Conditioning system needed upgrading; however, to control costs the upgrades had to use the existing I/O. The overall functionality of these two systems is vastly different. Soft control packages proved capable of interfacing with the existing I/O, satisfied the functional needs of the systems, and enhanced the overall functionality of the systems.
Technical Paper

Investigation of a Roll Control System for an Off-road Vehicle

2000-05-01
2000-01-1646
The current popularity of the Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) market has led to new developments aiming to increase product performance. Such vehicles pose a significant challenge as they must perform to a high standard over a large variety of road conditions. Previously, emphasis has been placed on off-road ability. However, SUVs are now seen as an alternative to conventional luxury cars, and hence are expected to perform similarly, but without significantly degrading off-road performance. The introduction of a roll control system can achieve body roll levels lower than a conventional sports saloon, whilst improving off-road ability by removing the compromises associated with conventional anti-roll bars. This paper investigates the characteristics of such a system by developing a computer simulation of the vehicle and the associated roll control scheme.
Technical Paper

Bosch ESP Systems: 5 Years of Experience

2000-05-15
2000-01-1633
Although the total number of car occupants involved in accidents in Germany has not significantly reduced during the past 10 years, the number of fatalities has steadily decreased. Most of the severe accidents result from a loss of control of the car. The problem of the driver losing control of his car will be explained. This problem is then used to formulate the goal for the vehicle dynamics control system ESP (Electronic Stability Program, also known as VDC). The approach chosen to reach this goal will then be shown. It will be shown that the vehicle slip angle is a crucial indicator for the maneuverability of the automobile. Since the complete vehicle state is not readily available, estimation algorithms are used to supply the control algorithms with sufficient information. With the automatic control of the slip angle the required yaw moment can be generated by individual wheel slip control.
Technical Paper

Design of Front Wheel Active Steering for Improved Vehicle Handling and Stability

2000-05-15
2000-01-1619
Active steering has received lot of attention in the recent years because of the development of vehicle stability control systems and intelligent vehicle highway systems. Active steering systems allow for correction of the steer angle to achieve the desired vehicle yaw gain. The proposed system can be easily integrated with the vehicle stability control systems that use braking to control the vehicle yaw gain. The paper describes the concept of front wheel active steering system and the design techniques involved in order to achieve the desired performance from the system. The design techniques demonstrated in the paper do not address noise (gear rattles, motor noise, gear whine etc), electromagnetic compatibility and thermal issues related to DC motor and digital controller.
Technical Paper

New Electronically-Controlled Trolling System for Marine Gear

1999-09-28
1999-01-3262
A marine gear is a reversible reduction gear provided in an inboard engine typically used as a propulsion unit for fishing boats. One of its functions is to provide “trolling speed” to make the boat go very slow. Some devices to attain the trolling speed is already available, in which hydraulic oil pressure for clutch coupling is mechanically controlled to achieve the boat's slow speed. However, conventional device is not satisfactory in view of performance and operational handiness. The new control system reported here resolves such problem by utilizing a solenoid to achieve optimal control over the hydraulic oil pressure. It assures easy handling, and provides the most desirable performance for a fishing boat to go dead slow. The system has an additional function to deal with another concern about a marine gear, that is, the rattling noise of the driving gear which often occurs while the engine is running in the low speed range.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effects of Recirculated Exhaust Gas Upon NOx and Soot Emissions in Diesel Engines with Scrubber EGR System

1999-09-28
1999-01-3266
The effects of recirculated exhaust gas on the characteristics of NOx and soot emissions under a wide range of engine loads are experimentally investigated using a four-stroke, four-cylinder, indirect injection, water-cooled marine diesel engine operating at two engine speeds. The aim of this study is to develop the EGR control system for reducing NOx and soot emissions simultaneously in diesel engines. The EGR system is used to reduce NOx emissions. And a novel diesel soot-removal device with a cylinder-type scrubber for the experiment system is specially designed and manufactured to reduce soot contents in the recirculated exhaust gas to the intake system of the engine. It is found that NOx emissions decrease markedly, especially at higher loads, while soot emissions increase owing to the drop of intake and exhaust oxygen concentrations, and the rise of equivalence ratio as the EGR rate is elevated.
Technical Paper

Verification of Heavy Truck EBS and ABS Using MatrixX Hardware in the Loop Tools

1999-11-15
1999-01-3713
The development of advanced ABS, EBS, and vehicle dynamics control systems requires significant resources and testing. Even in the most controlled environment, on-track vehicle tests are not repeatable. A heavy vehicle model combined with pneumatic brake hardware connected to actual brake system controllers creates a powerful engineering tool. This tool is useful for control system development, electro-mechanical actuator development, and brake system development. An existing heavy vehicle model is modified to interact with the realtime simulation hardware and the pneumatic brake system hardware. Data from several hardware in the loop simulations are presented.
Technical Paper

Emulating the Behavior of Truck Drivers in the Longitudinal Control of Headway

1999-11-15
1999-01-3706
This paper describes control system and psychological concepts enabling the development of a simulation model suitable for use in emulating driver performance in situations involving the longitudinal control of the distance and headway-time to a preceding vehicle. The developed model has mathematical expressions and relationships pertaining to the driver's skill in operating the brake and accelerator (“inverse dynamics”) and the driver's perceptual and decision-making capabilities (“desired dynamics”). Simulation results for driving situations involving braking and accelerating are presented to aid in understanding the research work.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Sulfur Sensitivity and Reversibility in Late-Model Vehicles

1999-10-25
1999-01-3676
The emissions impact associated with increasing gasoline sulfur content was investigated using eight late-model vehicles, most of which were equipped with advanced emission control systems and certified as California Low-Emission Vehicles. The effect of returning to operation on low-sulfur fuel on emissions was also investigated. Vehicle testing was performed using California Phase 2 Certification test fuels with nominal sulfur levels of 40 and 540 ppm in combination with the LA4 and US06 driving cycles. In addition to exhaust emission measurements, engine-out emissions, air-fuel ratio, catalyst composition, and catalyst temperature data were collected. The data showed that most of the vehicles were sensitive to gasoline sulfur content as emissions increased when the vehicles were operated on the higher-sulfur test fuel; however, the degree of sensitivity varied from vehicle to vehicle.
Technical Paper

Effects of Catalyst Formulation on Vehicle Emissions With Respect to Gasoline Fuel Sulfur Level

1999-10-25
1999-01-3675
Proposed emissions standards will require that emissions control systems function at extremely high efficiency. Recently, studies have shown that elevated gasoline fuel sulfur levels (GFSL) can impair catalytic converter efficiency. In this study, a variety of tri-metal catalysts were evaluated to determine if formulation changes could reduce emissions sensitivity to GFSL. Catalysts with elemental composition similar to an OEM, but with double the precious metal (PM) loading, were evaluated using 38 and 620 ppm GFSL. Doubling the PM loading significantly reduced catalyst sensitivity to sulfur. Doubling the rhodium loading, at the expense of the platinum loading, significantly improved NOx emission sulfur sensitivity.
Technical Paper

Fast Filling of NGV Fuel Containers

1999-11-15
1999-01-3739
Studies have been published which address fast filling of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) fuel containers. Diggins states that NGV fuel containers cannot be fully filled during a fast fill, and that all-composite fuel containers cannot be filled as full as other types of fuel containers. There are issues in this prior work which may have a significant effect on the author’s conclusions. Fast fill testing conducted by Powertech Labs shows the Lincoln Composites’ fuel container has significantly better fill performance than projected by Diggins. Testing of a dispenser control system by Kountz and Blazek demonstrates all types of fuel containers can be properly filled with proper dispenser control algorithms and performance.
Technical Paper

Vocational and Body Builder Controls Features of the Allison 1000/2000/2400 Series™ Automatic Transmission

1999-11-15
1999-01-3744
Light and Medium Duty Trucks (N.A. Classes 2–7) make up of a wide variety of vehicle configurations. These vehicles, in addition to providing the basic hauling needs of the industry, also provide distinct operational features dictated by the vocation they serve. This results in additional auxiliary equipment and control features being employed. The control system for Allison Transmission's new 1000/2000/2400 Series™ transmission was designed to satisfy the many requirements of this complex market. This paper will describe these features and how they interact with various control aspects of the vehicle. Also, future control features will be discussed.
Technical Paper

A Strategy of On-board Fault Diagnosis of Automated Mechanical Transmission

2000-03-06
2000-01-1160
The paper introduces an on-board fault diagnosis strategy based on analytical redundancy suit for automated mechanical transmission (AMT). Through experiment and theory analysis an identified engine model, a gear box model and a dry clutch model controlled by hydraulic actuators are respectively established. The information redundancy in the local models of the power train and the structure logic relations among the assemblages is used to detect and diagnose the fault in the sensors, the actuators and the unit assemblages of the AMT system. The method has been used in the AMT control system developed for the SVWSANTANA2000.
Technical Paper

Transmission Clutch Pressure Control System: Modeling, Controller Development and Implementation

2000-03-06
2000-01-1149
This paper describes the modeling, controller development, and implementation of a transmission clutch pressure control system. A nonlinear analytical model for the clutch pressure control system is developed and implemented using Matlab/Simulink, and validated by experimental data. The dominant dynamics are identified via model analysis, and a linear model is derived for controller design. Openloop (feedforward) and closed loop (feedback) pressure control strategies are designed and implemented in a test setup. Experimental results show that the combined feedforward and feedback control gives superior performance as compared to feedforward control alone.
Technical Paper

Evaporative Leakage from Gas Caps

2000-03-06
2000-01-1171
The AirCare® vehicle emissions inspection and maintenance program is briefly described, together with the benefits which the program has already achieved. Additional benefits have been projected should the program include some more sophisticated assessment of evaporative emission control systems. The feasibility of including such an assessment has been investigated, and a pilot study has been conducted in the regular inspection lanes. The operational and systems implications are described. The pilot study has resulted in an analysis of the incidence of faulty gas caps in the Lower Fraser Valley light-duty vehicle fleet, and how this relates to other vehicle characteristics such as vehicle make, model, model year, mileage etc.; and inspection data including emission control system components tampering and tailpipe emissions. Approximately 10% of all gas caps tested failed the pressure test, compared to the 1% that were failed by visual inspection.
Technical Paper

Composability in the Time–Triggered Architecture

2000-03-06
2000-01-1382
The next generation of automotive control systems will consist of a set of networked electronic control units (ECUs) that operate in tight coordination to achieve the desired optimal control of the vehicle. The design of these systems must be guided by a composable system architecture that supports the constructive integration of the independently developed components. This paper discusses the four principles of composable architectures and shows how the interoperability of the ECUs is achieved in the time–triggered architecture.
Technical Paper

MOTRONIC - Torque Guided Engine Management Systems to Meet Future Challenges in Emissions and Fuel Consumption Reduction

2000-01-15
2000-01-1420
Due to the social and legal requirements on the engine and the entire vehicle the functional scope of modem Engine Management Systems (EMS) has dramatically grown. As driving forces of this ongoing process the reduction of fuel consumption and emissions have to be considered - in the past as well as in the future. But also increasing comfort and diagnosis demands lead to a further increasing complexity of today's and future EMS. In order to securely control this complexity a well structured functional architecture in combination with physically based functions forms the necessary basis. With the launch of the MOTRONIC ME7 Bosch introduced a torque based functional architecture to meet these requirements. This includes not only the mentioned optimization of engine performance and compliance with legal standards on emission, fuel consumption and diagnosis.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Development of Mechatronic Systems - New Approaches in Rotational and Torsional Vibration Analysis

2000-03-06
2000-01-1333
Rotational analysis plays an important role in many automotive engineering areas, such as design and evaluation of drivelines, timing and auxiliary drives. Previous developments have tended to focus on the analysis of the mechanical rotation system, with particular attention being paid to the dynamic behaviour of one or more rotating shafts and its elements. The control of these mechanisms by electronic control systems has become increasingly more apparent in today's industry. This is especially the case for the camshaft of the combustion engine, as this is ‘phased’ for performance and emission purposes. The approach introduced here enhances the classical methods of driveline rotational analysis, by integrating the control unit strategy as an additional point of interest. This expands the analysis of the complete mechatronic system.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Sensor and Actuator Arrays for ASAC Noise Control

2000-05-09
2000-01-1707
This paper summarizes the development of an approach to optimizing the locations for arrays of sensors and actuators in active noise control systems. A type of directed combinatorial search, called Tabu Search, is used to select an optimal configuration from a much larger set of candidate locations. The benefit of using an optimized set is demonstrated. The importance of limiting actuator forces to realistic levels when evaluating the cost function is discussed. Results of flight testing an optimized system are presented. Although the technique has been applied primarily to Active Structural Acoustic Control systems, it can be adapted for use in other active noise control implementations.
Technical Paper

Overview of Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects Program

2000-06-19
2000-01-1879
This paper describes the results of Phase 1 of the Diesel Emission Control - Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program. The objective of the program is to determine the impact of fuel sulfur levels on emissions control systems that could be used to lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from vehicles with diesel engines. The DECSE program has now issued four interim reports for its first phase, with conclusions about the effect of diesel sulfur level on PM and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions from the high-temperature lean-NOx catalyst, the increase of engine-out sulfate emissions with higher sulfur fuel levels, the effect of sulfur content on NOx adsorber conversion efficiencies, and the effect of fuel sulfur content on diesel oxidation catalysts, causing increased PM emissions above engine-out emissions under certain operating conditions.
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