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Technical Paper

Back to the Future of Personal Aviation

1990-09-01
901990
This paper reviews the status of personal aviation and proposes that information technology has made possible a personal aviation industry on a scale last imagined in the nineteen forties. The market goal of the system is 100 thousand sales per year, 100 times more than the current sales of general aviation airplanes. Seven specifications are set forth to meet the goal. They concern price, liability, performance, control, convenience, safety, and environmental impact. Helicopters and lift fans are examined in light of the specifications, but a kind of flying car seems more plausible. Personal aviation emerges as a system of three levels, including the Global Positioning System for navigation, an infrastructure called Skyways, and modular conveyances called Starcars that function as automobiles and airplanes. The system is under study at The University of Arizona, where a base station and mobile platform have been built to explore means for navigation, communication, and control.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Vision-Based Tractor Guidance System

1990-09-01
901589
A vision based tractor guidance system was designed and developed using distributed control techniques. The components and their interaction with each other are discussed. A geometric steering model was used to predict offset error based on heading error. Simulated straight crop rows were developed to test the system. Results show that the overall performance of the steering correction system was good for sufficient initial tractor orientation. The system proved to be unstable for large errors and that the geometric model incorporated was not capable of handling large heading and offset errors.
Technical Paper

Route Planning and Scheduling in Dynamic Traffic Environments

1990-09-01
901722
Applications in electronic mapping are gaining in popularity because of the increased availability of both digital roadmap databases and sophisticated graphics processing capabilities. Based on this technology and using information provided by vehicle navigation and traffic reporting systems, we've developed an automated navigation system, called the Driver's Assistant, that plans and schedules routes for vehicles travelling on city streets. Texas Instruments initiated the Driver's Assistant program to develop the required technology to meet the needs of customers building automotive electronics systems. This paper summarizes the progress of the Driver's Assistant program toward achieving two objectives: (1) feasibility of real-time route planning, dynamic replanning, and route scheduling using very large digital road maps (2) compatibility with both portable, digital traffic reporting and automotive navigation systems.
Technical Paper

The Driver Information System for the Rest of Us

1997-02-24
970171
Today's car navigation systems are mainly built up of separate modules such as CD-ROM drive, GPS module, navigation module, LCD display. This approach makes them expensive and ergonomically not optimized. Cost of such systems can be drastically reduced through high integration at semiconductor level. This paper describes a localization unit integrating GPS and processing of sensor signals built up with only four chips, and gives an outlook on further system integration built around a dedicated 32 bit navigation processor.
Technical Paper

Driver Car Following Behavior Under Test Track and Open Road Driving Condition

1997-02-24
970170
This paper describes the results of an experiment concerning driver behavior in car following tasks. The motivation for this experiment was a desire to understand typical driver car following behavior as a guide for setting the automatic control characteristics of an ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) system. Testing was conducted under both test track and open road driving conditions. The results indicate that car following is carried out under much lower bandwidth conditions than typical steering processes. Dynamic analysis shows driver time delay in response to lead vehicle velocity change on the order of several seconds. Typical longitudinal acceleration distributions show standard deviations of less than 0.05 g (acceleration due to gravity).
Technical Paper

Driving Cycle Test Simulation for Passenger Cars and Motorcycles

1997-02-24
970274
This paper describes a simulation package developed for predicting the dynamic performance of passenger cars and motorcycles under standard driving cycle test conditions. The package is a combination of a transient engine performance synthesis, a set of algorithms of driveline dynamics, a chassis dynamometer model, and a fuzzy driver behavior model. These models are described in simple mathematics in this paper. The paper also demonstrates simulation results of the performance of a passenger car tracking the USA FTP 75 test cycle, and a motorcycle under ECE R40 test cycle conditions. (These two cycles are currently adopted by the Taiwanese Government as the standard driving patterns for passenger cars and motorcycles respectively.) The results show that the simulation package is extremely useful for the motor industry to determine the design specifications and control strategies before a prototype vehicle is produced.
Technical Paper

Driver Behavior Under a Collision Warning System - A Driving Simulator Study

1997-02-24
970279
Collision warning systems are expected to be an effective countermeasure to reduce traffic accidents; however there have been relatively few studies on the effects of such warning systems on the driver's collision avoidance behavior. In this study, a driving simulator which had a large motion system was used, and 45 subjects experienced crash imminent situations in which the preceding cars suddenly decelerated while the subject looked off the road. Analyzing the subjects' collision avoidance behaviors, it was found that the braking response time and the number of simulated collisions were substantially decreased with collision warnings. Furthermore, potential reduction of rear-end collisions on the road was estimated by modeling the driver's braking response.
Technical Paper

Autobahn Fatality Rates and General Speed Limits: What Really Happened in 1973/74?

1997-02-24
970280
Data collected from public and private institutions and officials (including universities, libraries, auto companies and traffic police in five countries during two months and 10,000+km of mostly autobahn travel in Europe) is presented and reviewed following micro/macro economic theory and the ‘3P’ principle* of correlation analysis. (*Plausible Physical Path) The results demonstrate that both the major reductions in autobahn fatality rates throughout Europe in the '72 to '75 period, and the horrific increases during the decade previous to that, can be adequately explained by the business investment activity (or lack thereof) in the sequential phases of the business cycle. The general speed limits imposed by most countries (in late '73) thus played an insignificant role in reducing accidents. Some evidence is presented supporting the hypothesis that the 3P connecting the fatality rate with the business cycle is the degree of driver distraction associated with the latter.
Technical Paper

Test Planning, Analysis, and Evaluation System (Test PAES): A Data Archiving Tool for Engineers and Scientists

1997-02-24
970453
As Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) become more prevalent, the need to archive data from field tests becomes more critical. These data can guide the design of future systems, provide an information conduit among the many developers of ITS, enable comparisons across locations and time, and support development of theoretical models of driver behavior. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is interested in such an archive. While a design for an ITS data archive has not yet been developed, NHTSA has supported the enhancement of the Test Planning, Analysis, and Evaluation System (Test PAES), originally developed by Calspan SRL Corporation for the U. S. Air Force Armstrong Laboratory, for possible use in such an archive. On a single screen, Test PAES enables engineering unit data, audio, and video, as well as a vehicle animation, to be time synchronized, displayed simultaneously, and operated with a single control.
Technical Paper

Visual Behavior of Novice Drivers as Affected by Traffic Conflicts

1990-02-01
900141
In this study, the novice driver behavior involved in traffic conflicts is investigated in order to obtain the cues of driver education program for avoiding traffic accidents. Following results are obtained that when the novice drivers encounter the oncoming vehicles, they fixate the vehicles at higher rate than the conflict objects and induce the traffic conflicts. In case of no oncoming vehicles, they also induce the conflicts because their strategies of visual search are critically concerned with the vehicle's direction of travel. They cause other traffic conflicts because it is difficult for them to maintain their vehicle on the correct lane position.
Technical Paper

Development of Gas Pressure Sintered Silicon Nitride and Its Automotive and industrial Application

1989-02-01
890423
The gas pressure sintering (GPS) process of silicon nitride is capable of producing sintered material of better quality than that obtained with the conventional normal sintering methods, and can be performed in a procedure simpler than the HIP method. These features of the GPS process have made it a promising manufacturing process for high quality silicon nitride ceramics. However, because sintering is performed in a high pressure atmosphere in this process, a 2-step sintering method had to be developed before applying it to practical industrial manufacture. The gas pressure sintered silicon nitride (GPSSN) ceramics densified to high density have already been used in turbocharger rotors for automotive applications, cutting tools, and bearing balls for industrial applications, etc., and have been highly evaluated for high strength and reliability.
Technical Paper

Development of Simple In-Vehicle Information System by Two-Way Optical Communication with Vehicle Detector

1995-02-01
950473
In Japan, autonomous navigation systems are coming into wide use. However, UTMS (Universal Traffic Management System) research and development activities for communication between the infrastructure and the automobiles is being advanced by UTMS Japan (Universal Traffic Management Society of Japan) under the guidance of the National Police Agency. These activities are very much anticipated by the public. Toyota Motor Corporation and Sumitomo Electric Industries, LTD. approve of the activities and have jointly developed a simple in-vehicle navigation display system. The effectiveness of this system was demonstrated at the UTMS demonstration and test drive in cooperation with the Kanagawa Prefectural Police Headquarters on July 19, 1994 in Yokohama. The aim of this system is to realize, at low cost, a system for providing traffic information that drivers can easily read and understand while driving.
Technical Paper

Angular Rate Sensor for Automotive Application

1995-02-01
950535
The automotive industry has sought accurate, durable, and low cost mass produced angular rate sensors for chassis system control and navigational systems. An angular rate sensor based on the Coriolis force imposed on vibrating tuning forks has been developed for automotive applications. This newly developed angular rate sensor uses tuning forks made with fabricated elinvar metallic material. Size reductions in these sensors have reduced their weight and allowed for mounting directly on the printed circuit board of the electronic control module. Zero point temperature drift improvements have been developed through precision metal fabrication techniques. Reduced weight improved the sensor's impact resistence.
Technical Paper

A Survey of Mid-Level Driving Simulators

1995-02-01
950172
The characteristics, functionality, limitations, and applications of mid-level driving simulators are reviewed and discussed. For this paper a mid-level simulator is defined as one which has a large roadway scene display typically comprising animated computer graphics, it may have a motion system or be fixed base, it should have a dedicated cab with a steering feel system and interactive controls and displays, it has a parametrically configurable vehicle dynamics model, data acquisition is provided for, and the simulator is intended to be used for driver behavior research and vehicle or highway research and development studies. Possible simulator sickness issues are discussed, and categories of mid-level driving simulator applications are noted. Approximately 20 different contemporary driving simulators are included in the survey.
Technical Paper

Human Performance Evaluation of Heavy Truck Side Object Detection Systems

1995-02-01
951011
Side object detection systems (SODS) are collision warning systems which alert drivers to the presence of traffic alongside their vehicle within defined detection zones. The intent of SODS is to reduce collisions during lane changes and merging maneuvers. This study examined the effect of right SODS on the performance of commercial vehicle drivers as a means of assessing the impact of these systems on safety. In this study, eight professional truck drivers drove a tractor-semitrailer equipped with four different sets of SODS hardware or side view mirror configurations. These subjects had no previous experience with SODS. Subjects were tested with two right SODS (a radar-based system and an ultrasonic-based system), a fender-mounted convex mirror, and, for comparison, standard side view mirrors only. For each case, subjects drove the test vehicle through a set route for one day.
Technical Paper

Starcar Design and GPS Control

1992-08-01
921569
This paper explores a new transportation concept based on a confluence of aeronautical, automotive, and information technologies. The concept employs the Navstar Global Positioning System for navigation and control, Skyways to manage flight operations, and Starcars that function as automobiles and airplanes. The role of the Global Positioning System is to locate the Starcars within the Skyways accurately enough to facilitate automatic landings. To prove the feasibility of precision GPS control, we equipped an automobile with a differential GPS control system and sophisticated estimation software. The vehicle can steer itself around a prescribed path with accuracies within 1 m. Modern kit airplanes are about ten times more efficient than automobiles for travel at high speeds. The paper presents a specific Starcar design that combines features of a Lancair 320 airplane and Mazda RX-7 automobile.
Technical Paper

Integration of Charting into the Glass Cockpit

1992-10-01
921905
Pilots of aircraft flown in instrument conditions, during periods of darkness, or restricted visibility are not provided with information that is essential to maintain the situational awareness required for the safe operation of their aircraft. The pilot's critical need for this information is neither widely perceived nor being quickly acted upon. This paper describes these information deficiencies and suggests methods of utilizing the pictorial display of electronic charting information, coupled with a precision navigation device such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), to satisfy this critical need.
Technical Paper

Reduction in Arousal Level of a Driver

1992-09-01
922084
One of the leading causes of traffic accidents is the reduction of driver's arousal level. Only a driver with an appropriate arousal level can drive an automobile properly. The purpose of this research is to find the possibility of quantifying the reduction of this arousal level. Two methods are used to quantify the reduction in arousal level: one is related to the driver's behavior, and the other is related to his physiological status. The characteristics of controlling the steering wheel are used as indicators of the driver's behavior, which represents the status of information processing in the brain. The variation of heart rate is used as an indicator of physiological status, which could directly represent arousal level related to drowsiness. Eight male and two female drivers participate both in on-the-road tests for the characteristics of controlling the steering wheel and in a test with a driving simulator for the heart rate variation.
Technical Paper

Survey of Airbag Involved Accidents An Analysis of Collision Characteristics, System Effectiveness and Injuries

1994-03-01
940802
In May, 1989, State Farm began to collect field data on crashes involving airbag deployments. The data include crash configurations and locations, driver actions, deployment thresholds and rates, repair cost contributions, and injury profiles. The effectiveness of airbags in reducing injuries is described, including efforts by one manufacturer to reduce abrasion and contusion injuries, which are among the most common minor injuries in airbag deployments. Analysis shows that airbag systems are working as intended; that is, in frontal crashes where moderate to severe injuries to the face and torso would otherwise be likely.
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