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White Paper

Studies into Additive Manufacturing for In-Space Manufacturing

2017-06-26
WP-0001
NASA has embarked on an ambitious program to integrate additive manufacturing techniques and to develop processes for the microgravity environment. The most recent example of this program is the successful launch and deployment of the first 3D printer on the International Space Station. In this one-year effort, students were required to meet a series of milestones to design, manufacture, and test their ideas in close cooperation with members of the NASA Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM) concept team.The participants in this project were tasked with thinking of new solutions using AM that would simultaneously be recyclable with minimal loss in mechanical properties but also have the capacity for high mechanical properties. Working in interdisciplinary teams, the participant teams investigated the use of recycled materials, characterization, testing, modeling, and tool development.
White Paper

Electric Flight Technology

2017-10-25
WP-0002
The environmental impact of hydrocarbon-burning aircraft, both from the perspective of gas emissions and that of noise, is one of the main motivations for the move to electric propulsion. The added benefit from this shift to electric propulsion is that it has resulted in lowering the costs of electrical components such as motors, power electronic (PE) circuits, and batteries that are essential to this technology. This white paper seeks to explore the history, architecture, electrical components, and future trends of electric flight technology.
Technical Paper

Influence of Ethanol Content in Gasoline on Speciated Emissions from a Direct Injection Stratified Charge SI Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1206
The influence of ethanol content in gasoline on speciated emissions from a direct injection stratified charge (DISC) SI engine is assessed. The engine tested is a commercial DISC one that has a wall guided combustion system. The emissions were analyzed using both Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and conventional emission measurement equipment. Seven fuels were compared in the study. The first range of fuels was of alkylate type, designed to have 0, 5, 10 and 15 % ethanol in gasoline without changing the evaporation curve. European emissions certification fuel was tested, with and without 5 % ethanol, and finally a specially blended high volatility gasoline was also tested. The measurements were conducted at part-load, where the combustion is in stratified mode. The engine used a series engine control unit (ECU) that regulated the fuel injection, ignition and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR).
Technical Paper

Study of the Noise Characteristics of Motorcycle Silencers

2001-03-05
2001-01-1209
This paper describes methodologies developed to reduce the noise radiated from silencers while keeping or improving engine performance; i.e. whilst minimising the pressure loss through the silencer. This work was successfully developed to help motorcycle designers to meet the current legal noise limitations with minimum detriment to engine performance. Innovative designs for reactive silencers have resulted, with improved acoustic and engine performance levels, compared with traditional systems. The methodology was developed using the boundary element method (BEM). This method is able to calculate the acoustic variables in the interior and exterior fluid of the silencer. Furthermore, it is possible to simulate the temperature gradient along the silencer. A further important characteristic of the method is the ability to simulate the proper boundary conditions at the outlet without the need of hand calculations or “guesses”.
Technical Paper

A Review of Fuel, Intake and Combustion System Deposit Issues Relevant to 4-Stroke Gasoline Direct Fuel Injection Engines

2001-03-05
2001-01-1202
The recent emergence of production Gasoline Direct Fuel Injection (GDFI) engines into the world markets offers the promise of both improved fuel economy and emissions for 4-stroke Spark Ignition (SI) engines. However with all new technologies there are new challenges that accompany them. The subjects of fuel and intake system and combustion chamber deposits in Port Fuel Injected (PFI) SI engines are well researched and documented. Today only a small amount of specific research exists for GDFI engines [1,2,3,4]. In any case, based on available PFI deposit literature it is possible to make a number of observations about the likely GDFI fuel and intake system deposit issues and their effect on fuel economy, exhaust emissions and performance during a lifetime of service.
Technical Paper

Piston Wetting in an Optical DISI Engine: Fuel Films, Pool Fires, and Soot Generation

2001-03-05
2001-01-1203
Piston-wetting effects are investigated in an optical direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. Fuel spray impingement on the piston leads to the formation of fuel films, which are visualized with a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging technique. Oxygen quenching is found to reduce the fluorescence yield from liquid gasoline. Fuel films that exist during combustion of the premixed charge ignite to create piston-top pool fires. These fires are characterized using direct flame imaging. Soot produced by the pool fires is imaged using laser elastic scattering and is found to persist throughout the exhaust stroke, implying that piston-top pool fires are a likely source of engine-out particulate emissions for DISI engines.
Technical Paper

Liquid Film Evaporation Off the Piston of a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1204
An optical access engine was used to image the liquid film evaporation off the piston of a simulated direct injected gasoline engine. A directional injector probe was used to inject liquid fuel (gasoline, i-octane and n-pentane) directly onto the piston of an engine primarily fueled on propane. The engine was run at idle conditions (750 RPM and closed throttle) and at the Ford World Wide Mapping Point (1500 RPM and 262 kPa BMEP). Mie scattering images show the liquid exiting the injector probe as a stream and directly impacting the piston top. Schlieren imaging was used to show the fuel vaporizing off the piston top late in the expansion stroke and during the exhaust stroke. Previous emissions tests showed that the presence of liquid fuel on in-cylinder surfaces increases engine-out hydrocarbon emissions.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Fuel Volatility and Structure on HC Emissions from Piston Wetting in DISI Engines

2001-03-05
2001-01-1205
Piston wetting can be isolated from the other sources of HC emissions from DISI engines by operating the engine predominantly on a gaseous fuel and using an injector probe to impact a small amount of liquid fuel on the piston top. This results in a marked increase in HC emissions. All of our prior tests with the injector probe used California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline as the liquid fuel. In the present study, a variety of pure liquid hydrocarbon fuels are used to examine the influence of fuel volatility and structure. Additionally, the exhaust hydrocarbons are speciated to differentiate between the emissions resulting from the gaseous fuel and those resulting from the liquid fuel. It is shown that the HC emissions correspond to the Leidenfrost effect: fuels with very low boiling points yield high HCs and those with a boiling point near or above the piston temperature produce much lower HCs.
Technical Paper

Development of New Concept Iridium Plug

2001-03-05
2001-01-1201
In the field of automotive gasoline engines, new products aiming at greater fuel economy and cleaner exhaust gases are under development with the aim of preventing environmental destruction. Severe ignition environments such as lean combustion, stronger charge motion, and large quantities of EGR require ever greater combustion stability. In an effort to meet these requirements, an iridium plug has been developed that achieves high ignitability and long service life through reduction of its diameter, using a highly wear-resistant iridium alloy as the center electrode.(1)(2) Recently, direct injection engines have attracted attention. In stratified combustion, a feature of the direct injection engine, the introduction of rich air-fuel mixtures in the vicinity of the plug ignition region tends to cause carbon fouling. This necessitates plug carbon fouling resistance.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of a 16V Pent-Roof Engine Fueled by Gasoline and CNG

2001-03-05
2001-01-1191
A systematic experimental investigation was undertaken to compare the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of a production SI engine fueled by either gasoline or compressed natural gas (CNG). The investigation was carried out on a two-liter four-cylinder engine featuring a fast-burn pent-roof chamber, one centrally located spark plug, four valves per cylinder and variable intake-system geometry. The engine was originally designed at Fiat to operate with unleaded gasoline and was then converted at Politecnico di Torino to run on CNG. A Magneti Marelli IAW electronic module for injection-duration and spark-advance setting was used to obtain a carefully controlled multipoint sequential injection for both fuels.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Analysis of a Full System Durability Test in Vehicle Exhaust Systems

2001-04-30
2001-01-1438
A vehicle exhaust system model is implemented into the verified vibration table model. (A dynamic model of the Multi-Axial Simulation Table (MAST) was presented at the SAE 2000 World Congress, Paper No. 2000-01-1187.) The ultimate motivation of this model is to develop and demonstrate advanced dynamic modeling tools in exhaust system design, especially in predicting ‘what if’ situations. The process of the vehicle exhaust system model development is described and the results of a correlation study between the dynamic model analysis, the Full System Durability Test experiments, and the vehicle four-poster tests are presented in this paper. Both sinusoidal and proving ground excitations are used in the experiment. A dynamic model of the rubber isolator is also briefly discussed.
Technical Paper

Transfer Path Analysis of Structure-Borne Shock Absorber Noise in a Passenger Car

2001-04-30
2001-01-1441
This paper describes a method to separate structure-borne noise, which comes from the shock absorber, from the measured vehicle interior sound pressure. The transfer path analysis (TPA) was used. Shock absorber was considered as an input source while the sound pressure at the driver seat as its output. It was found that the sound pressure at the driver seat position and accelerations at the shock absorber mounting points are strongly correlated. Using one-third octave band analysis, the contribution of shock absorber structure-borne noise to the driver seat sound pressure was analyzed. Also the relationship between the measured acceleration and sound pressure was studied.
Technical Paper

Flow-Acoustic Coupling in Quarter-Wave Resonators Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2001-04-30
2001-01-1430
Quarter-wave resonators are commonly used as acoustic silencers in automotive air induction systems. Similar closed side branches can also be formed in the idle air bypass, exhaust gas recirculation, and positive crankcase ventilation systems of engines. The presence of a mean flow across these side branches can lead to an interaction between the mean flow and the acoustic resonances of the side branch. At discrete flow conditions, this coupling between the flow and acoustic fields may produce high amplitude acoustic pressure pulsations. For the quarter-wave resonator, this interaction can turn the silencer into a noise generator, while for systems where a valve is located at the closed end of the side branch the large pressure pulsations can cause the valve to fail. This phenomenon is not limited to automotive applications, and also occurs in natural gas pipelines, aircraft, and numerous other internal and external flows.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Truck Cooling System Design Using Co-Simulation

2001-05-14
2001-01-1707
In order to meet the legislated emissions levels, future diesel engines will likely utilize cooled exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR) to reduce emissions. The addition of the EGR cooler to the conventional vehicle coolant system creates several challenges. Firstly, the engine cooling system flow and heat rejection requirements both increase as it is likely that some EGR will be required at the rated power condition. This adversely affects packaging and fuel economy. The system design is further complicated by the fact that the peak duty of the EGR cooler occurs at part load, low speed conditions, whereas the cooling system is traditionally designed to handle maximum heat duties at the rated power condition of the engine. To address the system design challenges, Ricardo have undertaken an analytical study to evaluate the performance of different cooling system strategies which incorporate EGR coolers.
Technical Paper

Nanofluids for Vehicle Thermal Management

2001-05-14
2001-01-1706
Applying nanotechnology to thermal engineering, ANL has addressed the interesting and timely topic of nanofluids. We have developed methods for producing both oxide and metal nanofluids, studied their thermal conductivity, and obtained promising results: (1) Stable suspensions of nanoparticles can be achieved. (2) Nanofluids have significantly higher thermal conductivities than their base liquids. (3) Measured thermal conductivities of nanofluids are much greater than predicted. For these reasons, nanofluids show promise for improving the design and performance of vehicle thermal management systems. However, critical barriers to further development and application of nanofluid technology are agglomeration of nanoparticles and oxidation of metallic nanoparticles. Therefore, methods to prevent particle agglomeration and degradation are required.
Technical Paper

Impact of US02 and Euro4 Emission Legislation on Power Train Cooling Challenges and Solutions for Heavy Duty Trucks

2001-05-14
2001-01-1716
Step by step US and European legislation are defining more stringent emission limits for diesel engines. Depending on these limits for NOx and particulate emissions different emission reduction concepts including or excluding cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) appear over time. Most probable cooled EGR will be the solution for US02 and, in combination with particulate traps, for many Euro4 applications. Competitive aftertreatment solutions like selective catalytic reduction (SCR) may need cooled EGR in addition to meet even tougher emission targets. Therefore cooled EGR can be assumed to be a long term task. The impacts on the power train cooling system arise from the need of high performance EGR systems. This results in increased heat rejection from the EGR cooler and increased pressure and temperature loads on the charge air cooling system.
Technical Paper

Effect of Soot Loading on the Thermal Characteristics of Diesel Engine Oils

2001-05-14
2001-01-1714
When compared with new oil, used diesel engine oils exhibited thermal conductivity that increases as the concentration of soot increases. The magnitude of the effect depends on the oil composition, and on the size and dispersion of the soot particles. Although soot in engine oil is generally deleterious to engine performance from the standpoint of wear and deposits, no negative effects were observed on the thermal performance of the oil itself; indeed, even slight positive effects are expected for oils that maintain soot in stable dispersion. Therefore, the thermal challenge for engine oils in diesel engines that use exhaust gas recirculation will be to prevent soot deposition on engine surfaces.
Technical Paper

High Performance Climate Control for Alternative Fuel Vehicle

2001-05-14
2001-01-1719
Conventional gasoline-powered automotive heating systems use the abundant coolant waste heat to achieve acceptable comfort. Engine thermal losses in alternative fuel vehicles (ULEVs, HEVs and EVs) are too small to meet the heating load. The mobile heating and air conditioning systems in use today on internal combustion vehicles do not lend themselves to efficient application in the Low Emission Vehicle market. A climate control system (including heating, cooling, ventilating and dehumidifying) has been developed by Groupe Énerstat inc. The Climate Control System has been designed from the ground up specifically for high efficiencies vehicles and it integrates a high performance hermetically sealed heat pump and a thermal storage unit. Energy regeneration allows for constant exchange of the cab's air and optimum air quality with efficient defogging and defrosting of windows without serious energy expenditure.
Technical Paper

Application of Mathematical Models to Detect and Diagnose Reciprocating Compressor Valve Leakage

2001-05-14
2001-01-1724
This report presents results from the model simulation of the pressure, vibration, and current signatures as derived in the accompanying publication [1] and compares the simulated data with measured data from an actual laboratory motor-compressor system. The simulations from the models were used to determine the information content of the sensor signals, compare the various diagnostic techniques and develop a multisensor approach based on the integration of these techniques to detect and diagnose reciprocating compressor valve leakage.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Metal-free Solar Reflective Film on Vehicle Climate Control

2001-05-14
2001-01-1721
The air-conditioning system can significantly impact the fuel economy and tailpipe emissions of automobiles. If the peak soak temperature of the passenger compartment can be reduced, the air-conditioner compressor can potentially be downsized while maintaining human thermal comfort. Solar reflective film is one way to reduce the peak soak temperature by reducing the solar heat gain into the passenger compartment. A 3M non-metallic solar reflective film (SRF) was tested in two minivans and two sport utility vehicles (SUV). The peak soak temperature was reduced resulting in a quicker cooldown. Using these data, a reduction in air-conditioner size was estimated and the fuel economy and tailpipe emissions were predicted.
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