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Neural Network-based Optimal Control for Advanced Vehicular Thermal Management Systems

2011-12-05
Advanced vehicular thermal management system can improve engine performance, minimize fuel consumption, and reduce emissions by harmoniously operating computer-controlled servomotor components. In this paper, a neural network-based optimal control strategy is proposed to regulate the engine temperature through the advanced cooling system. Presenter Asma Al Tamimi, Hashemite University
Video

Cooling Airflow System Modeling in CFD Using Assumption of Stationary Flow

2011-11-29
Today CFD is an important tool for engineers in the automotive industry who model and simulate fluid flow. For the complex field of Underhood Thermal Management, CFD has become a very important tool to engineer the cooling airflow process in the engine bay of vehicles. Presenter Peter Gullberg, Chalmers University of Technology
Video

High Speed Machining of CFRP Parts

2012-03-16
High Speed Machining of CFRP Parts Investigation of the influence of new geometries, cutting datas and coolant capabilities on the surface finish of CFRP parts. State of the art: Different CFRP grades and machining conditions make geometry adjustments to the tool necessary. Mechanical failures through machining operations can be avoided in most of the cases. New unidirectional CFRP grades and dry machining processes again lead to machining problems. This study investigates new geometries to avoid heat damage with dry maching and air coolant in case of unidirectional CFRP. With help of a thermo camera and the surface investigation with a scanning electron microscope, heat damage can be analysed and therefore new geometries can be developed and tested. Target is to develop a new multi purpose CFRP geometry to meet the requirements of the future. The reduction of different geometries used leads to major cost savings. Presenter Ingo von Puttkamer, Guhring oHG
Video

The Use of Metallurgical Waste Gases as Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines

2020-09-15
The article concerns the use of waste metallurgical gas as a fuel for an internal combustion engine. Since the metallurgical gas parameters exclude the possibility of its use as the only fuel supplying the combustion engine, the concept of the so-called co-combustion of metallurgical gas with a secondary fuel with better energy parameters, which was natural gas. The positive effect of this concept was the energetic use of metallurgical gas, which is waste gas and was normally utilized by burning on a flare, emitting heat and toxic exhaust components to the environment. Benefits were also obtained in the form of: electricity generation and heat generation from the engine cooling system and from the exhaust system, which were used in the processes of purifying metallurgical production waste.
Video

Combustion Stability Study with Low Cetane Number Diesel and Biodiesel with 2-EHN Addition under LTC Conditions during Cold/Warm Start and Steady State Conditions

2020-09-15
A single cylinder Diesel engine was used to study combustion stability changes from a cetane number improver: 2-EHN. It has been added to a low cetane number diesel and two biodiesels blends with 20 % of SME or RME. All fuels have been raised to a CN of 51 with 2-EHN. Those fuels have been compared to a reference diesel with a CN of 55. Cold and warm start have been recreated for measurements at three conditions: cranking, engine speed increase and idle. Engine coolant temperature has been set to 20?C and 80?C for cold and warm start respectively. 2-EHN effects on combustion stability have been monitored through the IMEP covariance. Under cold-start, only the low cetane number diesel showed combustion stabilities improvements with 2-EHN addition. Moreover, the combustion stability was better than the reference diesel and the heat release rate show an enhancement of the cold flame. On the contrary, the biodiesel fuels exhibited higher IMEP covariances.
Video

Improving the Processes of Thermal Preparation of an Automobile Engine with Petrol and Gas Supply Systems (Vehicle Engine with Petrol and LPG Supplying Systems)

2020-09-15
This article deals with the features of the thermal preparation system application on automobile engine, the heating of which to operating temperatures is carried out on petrol, and subsequent operation on liquefied petroleum gas. The main element of the heat treatment system is a phase-transfer heat accumulator, the task of which is to minimize the engine warm-up time and, therefore, reduce petrol consumption on warm-up modes. An information system has been developed (is being used) for remote monitoring and control of the thermal preparation processes of an engine with a thermal accumulator. The results of experimental studies on a passenger vehicle engine under various operating conditions have confirmed the effectiveness of using a phase-transfer heat accumulator to reduce the heating time of the coolant and reduce the consumption of petrol to warm up the engine. In particular, it was shown, that the proposed system, where engine was warmed up on petrol to 50 ?
Video

The Use of CuO Nanoparticles as Additive to the Engine Coolant

2020-09-14
Cooling is one of the most important processes conditioning proper operation of combustion engines. The development of the higher-power engines entails greater thermal loads, in which in turn require an increased cooling. The use of nanofluids (NFs) with admixture of metallic or nonmetallic nanoparticles (NPs) promises a potential platform for miniaturization of heat exchangers and/or lower energy consumption. This is attributed to an extended surface area related to NPs in the fluid, which allows for increase of thermal conductivity and a considerable increase of the heat transfer coefficient of the fluid with NPs. Their thermo-physical properties, such as particle size, stability, viscosity, dispersion, heat dissipation efficiency, zeta potential and thermal conductivity and also their behavior under different amount in the base fluid are systematically investigated from the point of view of the choice of the best candidate for coolant applied in modern engines.
Video

The Effect of CuO Nanoparticle Additive into SI Engine Coolant on the Engine Power

2020-09-14
The goal of the study was to investigate the effect of different amounts of the CuO nanoparticles used as additive in the coolant on the power and efficiency of the analyzed SI engine. The temperature gradients in the engine body and its components were obtained using the elaborated model of the heat exchange in engine cooled with different fluids. The simplified model of combustion was used to estimate the temperature and power values generated during the combustion process in the engine under given load and speed values. The efficiency of the engine was estimated using the model taking into account various resistances generated during the operation of a given type of engine. The obtained changes in the engine power and efficiency resulted from the changed composition of the engine coolant were presented.
Video

The Effect of CuO Nanoparticle Additive into SI Engine Coolant on the Engine Power

2020-09-16
The goal of the study was to investigate the effect of different amounts of the CuO nanoparticles used as additive in the coolant on the power and efficiency of the analyzed SI engine. The temperature gradients in the engine body and its components were obtained using the elaborated model of the heat exchange in engine cooled with different fluids. The simplified model of combustion was used to estimate the temperature and power values generated during the combustion process in the engine under given load and speed values. The efficiency of the engine was estimated using the model taking into account various resistances generated during the operation of a given type of engine. The obtained changes in the engine power and efficiency resulted from the changed composition of the engine coolant were presented.
Video

Design and Analysis of Modified Radiator Fins to Improve Overall Cooling Efficiency

2020-09-16
Internal Combustion engines have been a significant component of the industrial development in the 20th and 21st centuries. However, the high working temperatures cause extensive wear and tear among the parts and results in a loss in fuel efficiency and ultimately seize the engine. To prevent this, there was a need for a cooling system. The current systems cool the vehicle's engine by transferring heat from the engine to the coolant/water in the water jacket from where it reaches the radiator via tubes, and the hot temperature coolant is cooled. This article proposes a change in the design of radiator fins to improve the overall cooling efficiency of such systems. As radiator fins are instrumental in the heat transfer process, a design change in them results in substantial changes in the output efficiency results. The central concept that is utilized is to increase the surface area of the fins, which would increase the rate of heat loss from the pipes.
Video

The Use of Metallurgical Waste Gases as Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines

2020-09-16
The article concerns the use of waste metallurgical gas as a fuel for an internal combustion engine. Since the metallurgical gas parameters exclude the possibility of its use as the only fuel supplying the combustion engine, the concept of the so-called co-combustion of metallurgical gas with a secondary fuel with better energy parameters, which was natural gas. The positive effect of this concept was the energetic use of metallurgical gas, which is waste gas and was normally utilized by burning on a flare, emitting heat and toxic exhaust components to the environment. Benefits were also obtained in the form of: electricity generation and heat generation from the engine cooling system and from the exhaust system, which were used in the processes of purifying metallurgical production waste.
Video

Optimization and Evaluation of a Low Temperature Waste Heat Recovery System for a Heavy Duty Engine over a Transient Cycle

2020-09-16
Powertrain efficiency is a critical factor in lowering fuel consumption and reducing the emission of greenhouse gases for an internal combustion engine. One method to increase the powertrain efficiency is to recover some of the wasted heat from the engine using a waste heat recovery system e.g. an organic Rankine cycle. Most waste heat recovery systems in use today for combustion engines use the waste heat from the exhaust gases due to the high temperatures and hence, high energy quality. However, the coolant represents a major source of waste heat in the engine that is mostly overlooked due to its lower temperature. This paper studies the potential of using elevated coolant temperatures in internal combustion engines to improve the viability of low temperature waste heat recovery.
Video

The Use of CuO Nanoparticles as an Additive to the Engine Coolant

2020-09-17
Cooling is one of the most important processes conditioning proper operation of combustion engines. The development of the higher-power engines entails greater thermal loads, in which in turn require an increased cooling. The use of nanofluids (NFs) with admixture of metallic or nonmetallic nanoparticles (NPs) promises a potential platform for miniaturization of heat exchangers and/or lower energy consumption. This is attributed to an extended surface area related to NPs in the fluid, which allows for increase of thermal conductivity and a considerable increase of the heat transfer coefficient of the fluid with NPs. Their thermo-physical properties, such as particle size, stability, viscosity, dispersion, heat dissipation efficiency, zeta potential and thermal conductivity and also their behavior under different amount in the base fluid are systematically investigated from the point of view of the choice of the best candidate for coolant applied in modern engines.
Video

Development of Measurement Methodology for Sub 23 nm Particle Number (PN) Measurements

2020-09-17
A proposal for sub-23 nm Solid Particle Number (SPN) measurement method was developed by the Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) group, based on the current SPN measurement method. In the proposal, a Particle Number Counter (PNC) having (65 ?15)% counting efficiency at 10 nm and >90% at 15 nm (PNC10) replaces the current regulation PNC efficiency of 50?12% at 23 nm and >90% at 41 nm. Additionally, a catalytically active evaporation tube (CS) is required for sub-23 nm measurement method instead of the non-reactive evaporation tube (ET) of the current regulation. Here experimental work carried out at the JRC to address the issues of sub-23 nm SPN-measurement method is presented. The PNC10 was shown to be less dependent on the particle material than the PNC23, thus soot-like particles are still allowed for PNC-calibration. The high charging probability of soot-like particles was shown to have a low effect on PNC calibration uncertainties.
Video

Combustion Stability Study with Low Cetane Number Diesel and Biodiesel with 2-EHN Addition Under LTC Conditions During Cold / Warm Start and Steady State Conditions

2020-09-17
A single cylinder Diesel engine was used to study combustion stability changes from a cetane number improver: 2-EHN. It has been added to a low cetane number diesel and two biodiesels blends with 20 % of SME or RME. All fuels have been raised to a CN of 51 with 2-EHN. Those fuels have been compared to a reference diesel with a CN of 55. Cold and warm start have been recreated for measurements at three conditions: cranking, engine speed increase and idle. Engine coolant temperature has been set to 20?C and 80?C for cold and warm start respectively. 2-EHN effects on combustion stability have been monitored through the IMEP covariance. Under cold-start, only the low cetane number diesel showed combustion stabilities improvements with 2-EHN addition. Moreover, the combustion stability was better than the reference diesel and the heat release rate show an enhancement of the cold flame. On the contrary, the biodiesel fuels exhibited higher IMEP covariances.
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