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The New Audi A6/A7 Family - Aerodynamic Development of Different Body Types on One Platform

The presentation describes the aerodynamic development and optimization process of the three different new models of the Audi A6/A7 family. The body types of these three models represent the three classic aerodynamic body types squareback, notchback and fastback. A short introduction of the flow structures of these different body types is given and their effect on the vehicle aerodynamic is described. In order to achieve good aerodynamic performance, the integration into the development process of the knowledge about these flow phenomena and the breakdown of the aerodynamic resistance into its components friction- and pressure drag as well as the induced drag is very important. The presentation illustrates how this is realized within the aerodynamic development process at Audi. It describes how the results of CFD simulations are combined with wind tunnel measurements and how the information about the different flow phenomena were used to achieve an aerodynamic improvement.

Challenges in Automotive Electrification and Powertrain Component Development

An overview of Daimler?s progression to advance powertrain technology in a growth industry shows many different solutions to improvement in transportation. Daimler continues to make breakthroughs in technology development and application building on 125 years of automotive development. Optimization of current powertrains will enable a significant gain in CO2/mi reductions, that dependent on product mix can be augmented with additional technologies. There is however no bypass to some form of electrification, enabling efficiency gains and alternative forms of power supply. Development of hybrid powertrains continues in an established manner and enhanced development of further electrified powertrains are in development. Organizationally and technically, significant skills and adjustments need to continue to be undertaken enabling OEMs and in particular the supply base to develop optimized solutions efficiently. The outlook is bright for novel component development and innovation.

Test Method for Seat Wrinkling and Bagginess

This study evaluates utilizing an accelerated test method that correlates customer interaction with a vehicle seat where bagginess and wrinkling is produced. The evaluation includes correlation from warranty returns as well as test vehicle results for test verification. Consumer metrics will be discussed within this paper with respect to potential application of this test method, including but not limited to JD Power ratings. The intent of the test method is to aid in establishing appropriate design parameters of the seat trim covers and to incorporate appropriate design measures such as tie downs and lamination. This test procedure was utilized in a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project as an aid in optimizing seat parameters influencing trim cover performance using a Design of Experiment approach. Presenter Lisa Fallon, General Motors LLC

Optimization of Rule-Based Control Strategy for a Hydraulic-Electric Hybrid Light Urban Vehicle Based on Dynamic Programming

This paper presents a low-cost path for extending the range of small urban pure electric vehicles by hydraulic hybridization. Energy management strategies are investigated to improve the electric range, component efficiencies, as well as battery usable capacity. As a starting point, a rule-based control strategy is derived by analysis of synergistic effects of lead-acid batteries, high efficient operating region of DC motor and the hydraulic pump/motor. Then, Dynamic Programming (DP) is used as a benchmark to find the optimal control trajectories for DC motor and Hydraulic Pump/Motor. Implementable rules are derived by studying the optimal control trajectories from DP. With new improved rules implemented, simulation results show electric range improvement due to increased battery usable capacity and higher average DC motor operating efficiency. Presenter Xianke Lin

Business Model for Successful Commercialization of Aircraft Designs

In any new aircraft development program there are many important design decisions that determine profitability potential. The key to making new aircraft profitable is to design features that will command more money than the cost to provide them within the market's ability to absorb them. The business model in this paper shows how to predict or find: 1) the costs to provide various aircraft features; 2) the values that aircraft buyers place on these features; 3) the amount of money that buyers have to commit to them, 4) the open spaces in the market in which to place new designs and 5) the predicted profits from new designs. In this process, this paper extends previous work on the law of value and demand, which states that attributes determine value; value determines price; and that price determines demand. This four-dimensional, non-negative system hosts a business model that describes the features needed to enable aircraft designs to go from concepts to profitable assembly lines.

Hydraulic Hybrid System Optimization Using Design For Six Sigma

There are several variables to consider when specifying a hydraulic hybrid system in a commercial vehicle. Parameters which can be controlled include various component sizes and some hybrid system calibration parameters. Presenter Paul Schwark, Bosch Rexroth AG

Toyota Plug-In Hybrid (PHV) Demonstration Program Results

From 2009 until present Toyota has had a demonstration program of Prius PHV which is comprised of 600 vehicles throughout Japan, Europe and in the US. The vehicles were given to government agencies, corporations, utility companies and private individuals to use. With these demo units Toyota wanted to understand the market reaction and real world impact of plug-in technology on gasoline displacement with increased use of electricity as a fuel. This presentation shows that approximately 50% of fuel was saved using the PHVs in the US. An experiment in Toyota City shows that if public infrastructure is optimized to be convenient and located where people normally park, there is a potential to achieve an ideal fuel savings of 61%. The demonstration program shows that plug-in technology in fact saves fuel and that the proper infrastructure can optimize the fuel savings of plug-in hybrids. Presenter Avernethy Francisco, Toyota

Using Programming and Simulation to Develop Optimized Processes for Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) CNC Machines

Many manufacturing companies want to apply AFP technology to complex high-curvature part shapes. As new AFP machine technologies are developed to specifically apply material over complex shapes, new and innovative NC programming approaches are needed to successfully, reliably, and accurately apply material with good consolidation, while meeting the fiber direction and coverage requirements. A big issue with AFP is the production rate vs. part complexity. Most complex shapes can be created with a single .125? wide strip (tow) of material. But the production time would be impractically long. So machine builders create 6, 8, 16, even 32 tow AFP heads, and use the widest tow possible for the highest laydown rates. But then wide compaction rollers on these systems have difficulty consolidating material over curved surfaces, and the minimum steering radius of wider tows challenge the software?s ability to meet the layup requirements.