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Neural Network-based Optimal Control for Advanced Vehicular Thermal Management Systems

2011-12-05
Advanced vehicular thermal management system can improve engine performance, minimize fuel consumption, and reduce emissions by harmoniously operating computer-controlled servomotor components. In this paper, a neural network-based optimal control strategy is proposed to regulate the engine temperature through the advanced cooling system. Presenter Asma Al Tamimi, Hashemite University
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Siemens ELFA Drive System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2011-12-05
Concerned with fuel consumption and emissions, especially public transportation in urban areas, the ELFA electric drive system has been developed for hybrid bus applications. This modular system provides bus manufactures a cost effective solution with a maximum degree of design flexibility. Presenter Joshua Nelke, siemens industry inc.
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Challenges and Opportunities in Adoption of Hybrid Technologies in Medium and Heavy Duty Applications

2011-12-05
A key strategy to improving the real-world fuel consumption and emissions of medium and heavy duty vehicles is the hybridization of these applications. Unlike the passenger vehicle market, medium and heavy duty applications are typically comprised of a range of components from a variety of manufacturers. Presenter Monika A. Minarcin, Navistar, Inc. Eric Rask, Argonne National Laboratory Matthew R. Smith, Navistar, Inc.
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Model-Based Approach to Estimate Fuel Savings from Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle: Model Development and Validation

2011-12-05
A simulation framework with a validated system model capable of estimating fuel consumption is a valuable tool in analysis and design of the hybrid vehicles. In particular, the framework can be used for (1) benchmarking the fuel economy achievable from alternate hybrid powertrain technologies, (2) investigating sensitivity of fuel savings with respect to design parameters (for example, component sizing), and (3) evaluating the performance of various supervisory control algorithms for energy management. Presenter Chinmaya Patil, Eaton Corporation
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Improvement in OBD Development Process for HEV's

2012-02-01
Hybrid technology has the potential to enable dramatic reductions in greenhouse gases (GHG), such as the California goal of reducing GHG by 80 percent from 1990 levels by 2050. As a result it is expected that hybrid systems will occupy a growing proportion of the market. However, introducing a hybrid system in a vehicle may adversely affect the performance of the engine OBD system in monitoring malfunctions impacting pollutant emissions. For example, a hybrid system that reduces time of the engine in idle or deceleration overrun conditions could make a well-performing engine OBD system noncompliant, by reducing in-use frequency of some OBD monitors below acceptable levels. In this presentation, Ricardo will present a process for evaluating the impact that a hybrid system which has been optimised to minimise GHG emission over a specified drive-cycle will have on the effectiveness of engine OBD monitors.
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Development of Hybrid System for Mid-Size Sedan

2011-11-07
The energy crisis and rising gas price in the 2000s led to a growing popularity of hybrid vehicles. Hyundai-Kia Motors has been challenging to develop the new efficient eco-technology since introducing the mild type compact hybrid electric vehicle for domestic fleet in 2004 to meet the needs of the increasing automotive-related environmental issues. Now Hyundai has recently debuted a full HEV for global market, Sonata Hybrid. This system is cost effective solution and developed with the main purpose of improving fuel consumption and providing fun to drive. Presenter Seok Joon Kim, Hyundai Motor Company
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General Motors Hybrid Systems and New e-Assist Powertrain

2011-11-18
Hybrid systems have been available for several years now, and offer customers a decrease in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions at an incremental price. Hybrids, in some cases, have offered improved other customer benefits such as reduced noise, vibration and harshness or better acceleration and the satisfaction of increased societal benefit. Sometimes the vehicle utility is compromised by the volume dedicated to energy storage systems. Several hybrid architecture arrangements exist in the market, and offer various levels of hybrid feature. But considering acquisition cost and operating expense, most hybrid vehicles have not offered a direct total cost advantage when compared to non-hybrids. GM's new e-Assist system is highly integrated with the engine and transmission functionality, and takes advantage of the highest value fuel economy enablers available with light electrification.
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Experimental Study into a Hybrid PCCI/CI Concept for Next-Generation Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2012-06-18
This paper presents the first results of an experimental study into a hybrid combustion concept for next-generation heavy-duty diesel engines. In this hybrid concept, at low load operating conditions, the engine is run in Pre-mixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) mode, whereas at high load conventional CI combustion is applied. This study was done with standard diesel fuel on a flexible multi-cylinder heavy-duty test platform. This platform is based on a 12.9 liter, 390 kW heavy-duty diesel engine that is equipped with a combination of a supercharger, a two-stage turbocharging system and low-pressure and high-pressure EGR circuitry. Furthermore, Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) hardware is installed to have sufficient control authority. Dedicated pistons, injector nozzles and VVA cam were selected to enable PCCI combustion for a late DI injection strategy, free of wall-wetting problems.
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2-Stroke CAI Combustion Operation in a GDI Engine with Poppet Valves

2012-06-18
In order to extend the CAI operation range in 4-stroke mode and maximize the benefit of low fuel consumption and emissions in CAI mode, 2-stroke CAI combustion is revived operating in a GDI engine with poppet valves, where the conventional crankcase scavenging is replaced by boosted scavenging. The CAI combustion is achieved through the inherence of the 2-Stroke operation, which is retaining residual gas. A set of flexible hydraulic valve train was installed on the engine to vary the residual gas fraction under the boosting condition. The effects of spark timing, intake pressure and short-circuiting on 2-stroke CAI combustion and its emissions are investigated and discussed in this paper. Results show the engine could be controlled to achieve CAI operation over a wide range of engine speed and load in the 2-stroke mode because of the flexibility of the electro-hydraulic valvetrain system. Presenter Yan Zhang, Brunel University
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Eco+ Solutions in High Performance Plastics from DSM for Automotive.

2012-05-22
DSM will present various application solutions in High Performance Plastics enabling to significant weight or friction reduction and thus to reduced fuel consumption and/or emission levels, and on top of that to lower system costs. Typical Eco+ Solutions Examples to be presented are: - Friction Reduction: Nylon 46 in chain tensioners yielding up to 1 % fuel reduction - Weight Reduction (metal-to-plastic conversion): Nylon 46 with long term temperature resistance upto 230 C in turbo components, Nylon 6 in oil pans/sumps, PET in plastic precision parts, Nylon 46 in gears, many other examples - Electrification: Nylon 46 in start/stop and e-motor components, TPC in HV cables - System Cost optimization: High Flow PA6 in various components, TPC in Brake Tubes - Improved LCA: biobased materials as PA410 and TPC-Eco Typical Application Solutions concern: air induction systems, engine and transmission components, electrical systems, structural&safety parts.
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Comparison of Powertrain Configuration Options for Plug-in HEVs from a Fuel Economy Perspective

2012-05-25
The first commercially available plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the General Motors (GM) Volt, was introduced into the market in mid-December 2010. The Volt uses a series-split powertrain architecture, which provides benefits over the series architecture that typically has been considered for use in electric-range extended vehicles (EREVs). A specialized EREV powertrain, called the Voltec, drives the Volt through its entire range of speed and acceleration with battery power alone and within the limit of battery energy, thereby displacing more fuel with electricity than a PHEV, which characteristically blends electric and engine power together during driving. This paper assesses the benefits and drawbacks of these two different plug-in hybrid electric architectures (series versus series-split) by comparing component sizes, system efficiency, and fuel consumption over urban and highway drive cycles.
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Battery Charge Balance and Correction Issues in Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Individual Phases of Certification Dynamometer Driving Cycles as Used in EPA Fuel Economy Label Calculations

2012-05-23
This study undertakes an investigation of the effect of battery charge balance in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) on EPA fuel economy label values. EPA's updated method was fully implemented in 2011 and uses equations which weight the contributions of fuel consumption results from multiple dynamometer tests to synthesize city and highway estimates that reflect average U.S. driving patterns. For the US06 and UDDS cycles, the test results used in the computation come from individual phases within the overall certification driving cycles. This methodology causes additional complexities for hybrid vehicles, because although they are required to be charge-balanced over the course of a full drive cycle, they may have net charge or discharge within the individual phases. As a result, the fuel consumption value used in the label value calculation can be skewed.
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Analysis of Various Operating Strategies for a Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

2012-05-30
The sustainable use of energy and the reduction of pollutant emissions are main concerns of the automotive industry. In this context, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system and allow advanced strategies to reduce pollutant and noise emissions. The paper presents the results of a simulation study that addresses the minimization of fuel consumption, NOx emissions and combustion noise of a medium size passenger car. Such a vehicle has a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. The simulation reproduces real-driver behavior through a dynamic modeling approach and actuates an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM). Typical characteristics of parallel hybrid technologies, such as Stop&Start, regenerative braking and electric power assistance, are implemented via an operating strategy that is based on the reduction of total losses.
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Impact of Supervisory Control on Criteria Tailpipe Emissions for an Extended-Range Electric Vehicle

2012-06-05
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech participated in the three-year EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition organized by Argonne National Laboratory, and sponsored by General Motors and the U.S. Department of Energy. The team established goals for the design of a plug-in, range-extended hybrid electric vehicle that meets or exceeds the competition requirements for EcoCAR. The challenge involved designing a crossover SUV powertrain to reduce fuel consumption, petroleum energy use, regulated tailpipe emissions, and well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions. To interface with and control the hybrid powertrain, the team added a Hybrid Vehicle Supervisory Controller, which enacts a torque split control strategy. This paper builds on an earlier paper [1] that evaluated the petroleum energy use, criteria tailpipe emissions, and greenhouse gas emissions of the Virginia Tech EcoCAR vehicle and control strategy from the 2nd year of the competition.
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Development, Verification, and Validation of Penn State Extended Range Electric Vehicle

2012-06-05
The Pennsylvania State University is one of 16 North American universities that participated in the EcoCAR advanced vehicle technology competition (http://www.ecocarchallenge.org/). A series-hybrid-electric vehicle based on a General Motors crossover SUV platform has been designed, built and tested for this purpose. The powertrain features a 1.3 L turbodiesel engine running on a B20 fuel system, a 75kW generator directly coupled to the engine and advanced lithium-ion batteries. In this paper, the vehicle architecture and control strategy are detailed and performance predictions (e.g., acceleration, fuel consumption and emissions) are presented. This includes discussion of the development process that led to the selected designs. The predicted performance is compared with data obtained on a chassis dynamometer and during on-road measurements over specified drive cycles. Presenter Shawn Getty
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Cycle-to-Cycle Variations Based Unsteady Effects on Spray Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines by Using LES

2012-06-06
Cycle-to-cycle variations of combustion processes strongly affect the emissions, specific fuel consumption as well as work output. Especially Direct Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) engines are very sensitive to cyclic fluctuations within the combustion chamber. Multi-cycle Large Eddy Simulation (LES) based analysis has been used for investigating unsteady effects of spray combustion processes and misfires. A realistic four-stroke DISI internal combustion engine configuration was taken under consideration. The effects of variable spray boundary conditions on spray combustion are discussed first. A qualitative analysis of the intensity of cycle-to-cycle variations of in-cylinder pressure is presented for various combinations of injection parameters and ignition points. Finally, the effect of ignition probability and analysis of misfires are pointed out. The described above processes were discussed in terms of mean and standard deviation of temperature, velocity and pressure.
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Impact of Technology on Electric Drive Fuel Consumption and Cost

2012-05-25
In support of the U.S Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, numerous vehicle technology combinations have been simulated using Autonomie. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) designed and wrote the Autonomie modeling software to serve as a single tool that could be used to meet the requirements of automotive engineering throughout the development process, from modeling to control, offering the ability to quickly compare the performance and fuel efficiency of numerous powertrain configurations. For this study, a multitude of vehicle technology combinations were simulated for many different vehicles classes and configurations, which included conventional, power split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), power split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), extended-range EV (E-REV)-capability PHEV, series fuel cell, and battery electric vehicle.
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