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Technical Paper

The Effect of Pt-Pd Ratio on Oxidation Catalysts Under Simulated Diesel Exhaust

2011-04-12
2011-01-1134
With a tighter regulatory environment, reduction of hydrocarbon emissions has emerged as a major concern for advanced low-temperature combustion engines. Currently precious metal-based diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) containing platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) are most commonly used for diesel exhaust hydrocarbon oxidation. The efficiency of hydrocarbon oxidation is greatly enhanced by employing both Pt and Pd together compared to the case with Pt or Pd alone. However, there have been few systematic studies to investigate the effects of the ratio of platinum to palladium on catalytic oxidation over the DOC. The present study illustrates the relationship between the Pt-Pd ratio and catalyst activity and stability by evaluating a series of catalysts with various Pt to Pd ratios (1:0, 7:1, 2:1, 1:2, 1:5, 0:1). These catalysts were tested for their CO and hydrocarbon light-off temperatures under simulated conditions where both unburned and partially burned hydrocarbons were present.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Battery Sizing and Vehicle Lightweighting for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-1078
In designing vehicles with significant electric driving range, optimizing vehicle energy efficiency is a key requirement to maximize the limited energy capacity of the onboard electrochemical energy storage system. A critical factor in vehicle energy efficiency is the vehicle mass. Optimizing mass allows for the possibility of either increasing electric driving range with a constant level of electrochemical energy storage or holding the range constant while reducing the level of energy storage, thus reducing storage cost. In this paper, a methodology is outlined to study the tradeoff between the battery cost savings achieved by vehicle mass reduction for a constant electric driving range and the cost associated with lightweighting a vehicle. This methodology enables informed business decisions about the available engineering options for lightweighting early in the vehicle development process. The methodology was applied to a compact extended-range electric vehicle (EREV) concept.
Technical Paper

Robust Design of a Light Weight Flush Mount Roof Rack

2011-04-12
2011-01-1274
Roof racks are designed for carrying luggage during customers' travels. These rails need to be strong enough to be able to carry the luggage weight as well as be able to withstand aerodynamic loads that are generated when the vehicle is travelling at high speeds on highways. Traditionally, roof rail gage thickness is increased to account for these load cases (since these are manufactured by extrusion), but doing so leads to increased mass which adversely affects fuel efficiency. The current study focuses on providing the guidelines for strategically placing lightening holes and optimizing gage thickness so that the final design is robust to noise parameters and saves the most mass without adversely impacting wind noise performance while minimizing stress. The project applied Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) techniques to optimize roof rail parameters in order to improve the load carrying capacity while minimizing mass.
Technical Paper

Robust Engineering with Symptomatic Responses

2011-04-12
2011-01-1272
Great work has been done already in developing robust engineering techniques to improve ideal functions for systems and sub systems. Characterizing an ideal function as a dynamic response type is most preferred way to build quality into a product over a range of input signal values. However, when it is difficult to measure ideal functions, symptomatic outputs such as oil leaks, vibrations, and squeaks, are selected and treated as “Smaller-the-Better” response in non-dynamic response manner. A better approach is to reduce the symptomatic responses over the entire usage range. In order to accomplish this goal, engineers often switch output response and signal axes and apply dynamic response formulation for making the design robust. In this paper, a new and better formulation is proposed and compared with the other formulation. These two formulations were applied on a real automotive case study of decklid bobble and inaccuracies associated with the other formulation were discussed.
Technical Paper

Application of Mizenboushi (GD3) Method of Problem Prevention to Vehicle, Component and Subsystem Validation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1275
The GD₃ or GD Cubed method of problem prevention has been applied to product changes and to test results at the component, subsystem and vehicle level. GD₃ stands for Good Design - Good Discussion - Good Dissection. Good Discussion of changes (Design Review Based on Failure Mode) identifies BUDS of PROBLEMS that may arise from interfaces and areas of change. Good Dissection (Design Review Based on Test Results) is applied to physical test samples during and after tests to identify Buds of Problems that may not be obvious from inspection of the parts or test results. The paper first describes implementation of the GD₃ principles and methods supporting Good Discussion (DRBFM) and Good Dissection, and then discusses how they are applied and embedded in the Vehicle Development Process at General Motors Co.
Technical Paper

DFMEA and FTA Applied to Complex Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-0512
One of the keys to a good reliable design is evaluating potential and past issues, ascertaining and then mitigating the risk that past and future issues will potentially occur. This is even more important with the automobile designs of today and for those in the future, specifically the hybrid and fuel cell vehicle. DFMEA and FTA are tools that aid in the understanding of complex design risks, from the system level down to the component level. This session will look at different case studies (from simple to complex) and the strategies used to understand systemic failure modes using both DFMEA and FTA.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Approach to Evaluate the Aerodynamic Performance of Vehicle Exterior Surfaces

2011-04-12
2011-01-0180
This paper outlines a process to assess the aerodynamic performance of different vehicle exterior surfaces. The initial section of the paper summarizes the details of white-light scanning process that maps entire vehicle to points in Cartesian co-ordinate system which is followed by the conversion of scanned points to theme surface. The concept of point-cloud modeling is employed to generate a smooth theme surface from scanned points. Theme surfaces thus developed are stitched to under-body/under-hood (UB/UH) parts of the base vehicle and the numerical simulations were carried out to understand the aerodynamic efficiency of the surfaces generated. Specifics of surface/volume mesh generated, boundary conditions imposed and numerical scheme employed are discussed in detail. Flow field over vehicle exterior is thoroughly analyzed. A comparison study highlighting the effect of front grilles in unblocked condition along with air-dam on flow field has been provided.
Technical Paper

Quantifying Enclosed Space and Cargo Volume

2011-04-12
2011-01-0781
Industry standards and practices define a number of mathematical and physical methods to estimate the cargo carrying volume capacity of a vehicle. While some have roots dating back decades, others try to assess the utility of the space for cargo by subjective measurements. Each these methods have their own inherent merits and deficiencies. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the differences in calculated cargo volume amongst the following practices: Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE) J1100[1] International Organization for Standardization (ISO 3832)[2], Global Car manufacturer's Information Exchange group (GCIE)[3], Consumer Reports[4]. This paper provides a method and associated rationale for constructing a new cargo volume calculation practice that attempts to harmonize these procedures into a more contiguous practice. This homologation will benefit publishing industry, vehicle manufacturers and customers alike.
Technical Paper

Windshield Wiper System Design Integration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0239
This paper presents development work on the design and analysis of the windshield wiper system. Three design categories are presented: geometrical design, wiper module and motor kinetics, and snow block structural analysis method. A comprehensive structural analysis method is outlined to determine the wiper system capability for continuous operation under a snow blocked condition. By using this design and analysis method, a robust windshield wiper system will be achieved.
Technical Paper

Dimensional Quality Control of Repeated Molded Polymer Battery Cell Housings in Automotive Energy Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-0244
Current manufacture of alternative energy sources for automobiles, such as fuel cells and lithium-ion batteries, uses repeating energy modules to achieve targeted balances of power and weight for varying types of vehicles. Specifically for lithium-ion batteries, tens to hundreds of identical plastic parts are assembled in a repeating fashion; this assembly of parts requires complex dimensional planning and high degrees of quality control. This paper will address the aspects of dimensional quality for repeated, injection molded thermoplastic battery components and will include the following: First, dimensional variation associated with thermoplastic components is considered. Sources of variation include the injection molding process, tooling or mold, lot-to-lot material differences, and varying types of environmental exposure. Second, mold tuning and cavity matching between molds for multi-cavity production will be analyzed.
Technical Paper

Development of Robust CAE Modeling Technique for Decklid Slam Analysis

2011-04-12
2011-01-0242
Engineering has continuously strived to improve the vehicle development process to achieve high quality designs and quick to launch products. The design process has to have the tools and capabilities to help ensure both quick to the market product and a flawless launch. To achieve high fidelity and robust design, mistakes and other quality issues must be addressed early in the engineering process. One way to detect problems early is to use the math based modeling and simulation techniques of the analysis group. The correlation of the actual vehicle performance to the predictive model is crucial to obtain. Without high correlation, the change management process begins to get complicated and costs start to increase exponentially. It is critical to reduce and eliminate the risk in a design up front before tooling begins to kick off. The push to help achieve a high rate of correlation has been initiated by engineering management, seeing this as an asset to the business.
Technical Paper

Adjoint Method for Aerodynamic Shape Improvement

2012-04-16
2012-01-0167
The main objective of this work is to demonstrate the merits of the Adjoint method to provide comprehensive information for shape sensitivities and design directions to achieve low drag vehicle shapes. The adjoint method is applied to a simple 2D airfoil and a 3D vehicle shape. The discrete Adjoint equations in the flow solvers are used to investigate further potential shape improvements of the low drag vehicle shapes. The low drag vehicle used in this study was designed earlier using the conventional approach (i.e., extensive use of wind tunnel testing). The goal is to use the already low drag vehicle shape and reduce its drag even further using the adjoint methodology without using the time-consuming and the high cost of wind tunnel testing. In addition, the present study is intended to compare the results with the other computational techniques such as surface pressure gradients method.
Technical Paper

Feature Based Architecture Design and Functional Partitioning to Subsystems

2012-04-16
2012-01-0011
Vehicle development typically occurs by independently documenting requirements for individual subsystems, then packaging these subsystems into the vehicle and testing the feature operation at a higher level, across multiple subsystems. Many times, this independent development process results in integration problems at the vehicle level, such as incomplete feature execution, unexpected operation and information disconnects. The development team is left to debug and create inefficient patches at the vehicle level due to time constraints and / or planned release dates. Without architecting solutions at the feature level, miscommunication of expected feature operation leads to wasted time, re-work and customer dissatisfaction. While the development of vehicle level technical specifications provide feature expectations at the vehicle level, they do not solve the problem of how this operation is to be applied across multiple systems.
Journal Article

Health Ready Components-Unlocking the Potential of IVHM

2016-04-05
2016-01-0075
Health Ready Components are essential to unlocking the potential of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) as it relates to real-time diagnosis and prognosis in order to achieve lower maintenance costs, greater asset availability, reliability and safety. IVHM results in reduced maintenance costs by providing more accurate fault isolation and repair guidance. IVHM results in greater asset availability, reliability and safety by recommending preventative maintenance and by identifying anomalous behavior indicative of degraded functionality prior to detection of the fault by other detection mechanisms. The cost, complexity and effectiveness of the IVHM system design, deployment and support depend, to a great extent, on the degree to which components and subsystems provide the run-time data needed by IVHM and the design time semantic data to allow IVHM to interpret those messages.
Journal Article

Methods and Tools for Calculating the Flexibility of Automotive HW/SW Architectures

2012-04-16
2012-01-0005
To cope with the increasing number of advanced features (e.g., smart-phone integration and side-blind zone alert.) being deployed in vehicles, automotive manufacturers are designing flexible hardware architectures which can accommodate increasing feature content with as fewer as possible hardware changes so as to keep future costs down. In this paper, we propose a formal and quantitative definition of flexibility, a related methodology and a tool flow aimed at maximizing the flexibility of an automotive hardware architecture with respect to the features that are of greater importance to the designer. We define flexibility as the ability of an architecture to accommodate future changes in features with no changes in hardware (no addition/replacement of processors, buses, or memories). We utilize an optimization framework based on mixed integer linear programming (MILP) which computes the flexibility of the architecture while guaranteeing performance and safety requirements.
Journal Article

Adjoint Method for Aerodynamic Shape Improvement in Comparison with Surface Pressure Gradient Method

2011-04-12
2011-01-0151
Understanding the flow characteristics and, especially, how the aerodynamic forces are influenced by the changes in the vehicle body shape, are very important in order to improve vehicle aerodynamics. One specific goal of aerodynamic shape optimization is to predict the local shape sensitivities for aerodynamic forces. The availability of a reliable and efficient sensitivity analysis method will help to reduce the number of design iterations and the aerodynamic development costs. Among various shape optimization methods, the Adjoint Method has received much attention as an efficient sensitivity analysis method for aerodynamic shape optimization because it allows the computation of sensitivity information for a large number of shape parameters simultaneously.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Development of the 2011 Chevrolet Volt

2011-04-12
2011-01-0168
This paper presents some of the challenges and successful outcomes in developing the aerodynamic characteristics of the Chevrolet Volt, an electric vehicle with an extended-range capability. While the Volt's propulsion system doesn't directly affect its shape efficiency, it does make aerodynamics much more important than in traditional vehicles. Aerodynamic performance is the second largest contributor to electric range, behind vehicle mass. Therefore, it was critical to reduce aerodynamic drag as much as possible while maintaining the key styling cues from the original concept car. This presented a number of challenges during the development, such as evaluating drag due to underbody features, balancing aerodynamics with wind noise and cooling flow, and interfacing with other engineering requirements. These issues were resolved by spending hundreds of hours in the wind tunnel and running numerous Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses.
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