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Wiley SAE MOBILUS® eBook Package

Committed to being the primary source for aerospace and ground vehicle engineering resources, SAE International has added the full compilation of our Wiley eBook collections to the SAE MOBILUS® technical resource platform. Purchasable as an annual subscription and containing the titles from the Wiley Aerospace Collection, the Wiley Automotive Collection, the Wiley Computer Systems Collection, and the Wiley Cyber Security Collection.
Technical Paper

H∞ Control Design of Experimental State-Space Modeling for Vehicle Vibration Suppression

State-space solutions of H∞ controller have been well developed. Hence to a real structure control design, the first step is to get a state space model of the structure. There are analytical and experimental dynamic modeling methods. As we know, it is hard to obtain an accurate model for a flexible and complex structure by FEM(Finite Element Method). Then the experimental modeling methods are used. In this paper, we use frequency domain modal analysis technique based on system FRF(Frequency Response Function) data and ERA(Eigensystem Realization Algorithm) time domain method based on system impulse response data to establish state-space model in order to design H∞ control law for the purpose of vibration suppression. The robust control implementation is exerted on a testbed (truck cab model device) with three degrees of freedom. The validity of experimental state-space modeling is testified and the obvious vibration control performances are achieved.
Technical Paper

Development of a Liquid Cooled V-8 Reciprocating Engine for Aviation Applications

There are approximately 250,000 aircraft registered in the United States. Today, the majority are powered by one of two types of powerplants; either a reciprocating engine or a turbine engine. Each has its own distinct advantages and disadvantages. There is, however, a distinct gap between the two types of engines that has had a negative impact on aircraft development. Currently, there are no reciprocating engines in production that produce more than 400 horsepower. Consequently, an aircraft design requiring more than 400 horsepower must use a turbine engine, which at 3-4 times the price of a reciprocating engine, can make the project economically prohibitive. To supply this higher horsepower without the additional cost, Hawker Siddeley Canada, Orenda Division is developing a 500-750 horsepower V-8 reciprocating engine designed for aviation. That engine is presently being certified by Transport Canada and the FAA and will be offered as a retrofit as well as for new aircraft.
Technical Paper

The Case for Transport Sail Craft

The next oil crisis will create a new round of interest in alternative energy, renewable sources. The economics of military and commercial sailing will again be hotly debated by naval architects and marine engineers. The difference this time will be the abundance of data from the large world fleet of unmanned air vehicles (UAV), which just might be the key to wind assisted freighters. Our pioneering efforts with recreational kite sailing and buggies have provided part of the database needed to apply UAV technology to the task of wind assist for global transport. This paper will tie the UAV and kitesailing technology to military and commercial needs. For example, the Boeing Condor (Fig 1), with her jumbo jet span and 40,000 lb lift capability, could generate 10,000 lbs of thrust from the trade winds, tethered to a ship at sea.


This AIR examines only those incidents which were caused by ground support equipment used for aircraft handling and servicing and for line maintenance. It does not include damage that occurred during heavy maintenance or overhaul activity, taxi incidents or accidents where an aircraft under tow collided with a piece of GSE.

Aircraft Damage Caused by Ground Support Equipment

Only those incidents where a piece of ground support equipment directly associated with the "turnaround" servicing of an aircraft was involved are reviewed. Specifically excluded are those incidents that occurred during heavy maintenance, overhaul activity, or aircraft taxiing.

Aircraft Damage Caused by Ground Support Equipment

Only those incidents where a piece of ground support equipment directly associated with the "turnaround" servicing of an aircraft was involved are reviewed. Specifically excluded are those incidents that occurred during heavy maintenance, overhaul activity, or aircraft taxiing.

Aerospace Engineering 2005-07-01

Designing high-bypass nacelle inlets Simulation significantly reduces the time required of engineers at Goodrich to evaluate inlet performance and preliminary designs. Virtually eliminating prototypes IBM PLM Solutions developed by Dassault Systemes have enabled Dassault Aviation to meet the challenges of the executive business jet market with a new virtual platform. DOD looking for faster fixes The U.S. military is in the midst of a mighty push at its bases and depots to shorten the time it takes to get aircraft, trucks, tanks, and other weapon systems out the gate after they arrive for repair. A vision of military and civilian aviation tomorrow SAE 100 Future look: At Dessault Aviation, we believe the quest to fly "higher, faster, and further" that moved moved aviation's pioneers will continue to blaze new trails in the 21st century.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Performance of a Drag Reduction Device on a Full-Scale Tractor/Trailer

The effectiveness of an aerodynamic boattail on a tractor/trailer road vehicle was measured in the NASA Ames Research Center 80- by 120- Foot Wind Tunnel. Results are examined for the tractor/trailer with and without the drag reduction device. Pressure measurements and flow visualization show that the aerodynamic boattail traps a vortex or eddy in the corner formed between the device and the rear corner of the trailer. This recirculating flow turns the flow inward as it separates from the edges of the base of the trailer. This modified flow behavior increases the pressure acting over the base area of the truck, thereby reducing the net aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. Drag measurements and pressure distributions in the region of the boattail device are presented for selected configurations. The optimum configuration reduces the overall drag of the tractor/trailer combination by about 10 % at a zero yaw angle.
Technical Paper

Thermal design, Analysis, and Testing of the CETA Space Shuttle Flight Experiment

The Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Space Shuttle flight experiment hardware is designed to demonstrate techniques and equipment for propelling and restraining crew during Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). The CETA transportation system will carry an astronaut from one end of the Shuttle payload bay to the other. The CETA experiment consists of a track mounted in the Shuttle payload bay, a truck which rolls along the track, and handrails running parallel and adjacent to the track. The CETA experiment is currently manifested for an April, 1991 launch on the Space Shuttle Atlantis. Detailed TRASYS and SINDA thermal math models of the CETA experiment have been developed and results obtained for a wide range of mission scenarios. Typical track and truck temperatures for the nominal tail-to-earth gravity gradient attitude are presented.
Technical Paper

The OmniTRACS® Mobile Satellite Communications and Positioning System

The OmniTRACS® two-way mobile satellite communications and position reporting system is described. This system provides message communications between moving vehicles and their operations centers. The mobile unit directly communicates with a central hub facility which provides system control, message processing and archival, and point-to-point communications with the operations centers. QASPR™, a dual satellite positioning system giving accuracies in the United States to about 1/4 mile, is described. Experiences and benefits to the trucking industry are also highlighted.
Technical Paper

Octane Number Requirements of Vehicles at High Altitude

Past tests of vehicles show that their octane number requirements decrease with altitude. As a result, gasoline marketers sell lower-octane-number (ON) gasoline in the mountain states and other high-altitude areas. The current ASTM specifications, which allow reduction of gasoline octane of 1.0 to 1.5 ON per thousand feet, are based on CRC test programs run on 1967 to 1972 model vehicles. However, many new vehicles are now equipped with sophisticated electronic engine systems for control of emissions and improvement of performance and fuel economy at all altitudes. Because these new systems could minimize the altitude effect on octane requirement, Amoco Oil tested twelve 1984-1986 model cars and light trucks. We found their ON requirements were reduced on average about 0.2 ON per thousand feet on an (R+M)/2 basis (RMON/1,000 feet).
Technical Paper

Thermal Climate in Confined Spaces- Measurement and Assessment using a Thermal Manikin

Thermal climate in automobiles, buses, trucks arid indoors has been evaluated using a newly developed thermal manikin. Heatman. Test results indicate a noticeable difference among cars. In a cold environment, the general problem is distribution between wind screen and lower part and asymmetry for right and left sides of individuals. In a warm climate, air is often distributed unevenly, thus resulting in discomfort. The results are shown as heat flow (W/m2) from 36 areas of the body or as equivalent (sensed) temperatures. The PMV-PPD comfort index is also derived from these measurements. Measurement and assessment of thermal climate using a thermal manikin will make it possible to evaluate the best solution for thermal control. It can also be used to measure clothing and chair insulation.
Technical Paper

Overview of the Small Package Air Carrier Industry - A Study of the Operations in Federal Express

The growth in air freight traffic can be attributed to the increasive number of service and light industries of the United States' economy. Fast and reliable deliveries of small and time sensitive documents are much in demand. The inflation spiral and the thin density of operations, however, have resulted in the discontinuation of air passenger services into small communities. Air freight forwarding, which is an adjunct to passenger service, has been sharply curtailed as a result. A solution to the problem appears to be an all air cargo airline that can operate its own vehicles in a streamlined fashion and can achieve the economy of scale by consolidating traffic. While there are attempts to do this, Federal Express Corporation is an example of innovation. Door-to-door service is provided through its fleet of Falcon jets and pickup/delivery trucks. Traffic is bundled up from thin density markets via a concentrated operation in Memphis.
Technical Paper

Power Management and Distribution for Electric Heavy Armored Vehicles and Tanks

Over the last fifty years the Army’s Heavy Armored Vehicles/Tanks have become more complex. The need to survive on the battlefield against an enemy who may outnumber you has forced the Armored Systems to be smarter and faster to deliver the first lethal blow. Our tank systems today are able to seek out the enemy and destroy him before he finds you. This has been accomplished by the addition of many electrical/electronic target seeking/tracking, turret/gun control, countermeasure/detectors/sensors, and Combat Vehicle Command and Control (CVC2) equipment to our vehicles. This equipment and its associated wiring has added increased power distribution demands and added weight to the vehicles. In order to cope with this situation, the U.S. Army Tank- Automotive Command (TACOM) has taken on the initiative of formulating a Standard Army VETRONICS Architecture (SAVA) for combat vehicles.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Octane Number Requirement versus Altitude - Another Look

Historically, vehicle octane requirements decrease with increasing altitude due to the effect of changing barometric pressure on in­duction and ignition management system func­tion. Recent advances in engine technology designed to reduce emissions and improve fuel economy of vehicles at high altitudes could result in minimal octane requirement change with changing altitude. In order to confirm the effect of these technology changes, Petro-Canada determined the octane requirements of twenty 1987-88 model cars and light trucks at high and low altitude locations. Seventeen of these were equipped with altitude compensation sensors. Contrary to previously published data, we found that the octane requirements of the 17 compensated vehicles were reduced, on average, by 0.5 (R+M)/2 per 1000 ft, increase in altitude.
Technical Paper

An Application of Wing Aerodynamic Principles to the Reduction of Road Vehicle Air Drag Loads

A wind tunnel program examined front end modifications for Cab-Over-Engine tractors. A Design based on a wing airfoil was used to produce a wind weighted drag reduction of ten percent. The truck was considered to be a small aspect ratio “Wing” with a plane of symmetry on the road surface. The shape was able to achieve smooth flow at the vehicle side when the incoming flow was yawed from the truck's longitudinal axis. Drag measurements were made and tufts on the body and smoke off the body were observed. The wind tunnel results were supported by data obtained from a road test. Comments by operators currently driving equipped trucks tend to support the work and point to handling qualities advantages related to the design.
Technical Paper

Possibilities of AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES in Ground Vehicles

ALTHOUGH the possibilities of aircraft types of structures for commercial ground vehicles are latent, they do exist, Mr. Short concludes from his research work and study of the subject. The successful application depends as much on the urge and ingenuity of the engineer, he adds, as it does upon having available ideal forms and materials. Airframe construction as an art is probably more a form of inspiration to the truck and bus engineer than a tool to be used directly in his design. The appreciation of light-weight structures, however, must be developed cautiously, Mr. Short warns, notwithstanding the fact that a pound of structural overweight is a pound of payload lost for the life of the vehicle.