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Book

The Rocket Age Takes Off

2011-02-01
This beautifully illustrated educational book, part of the innovative A World In Motion program, teaches engineering principles to primary-age children through an imaginative and exciting story. In The Rocket Age Takes Off, readers explore the whimsical world of Robert Goddard and learn about the father of modern rocketry. This book follows Dr. Goddard’s exciting journey to build the world’s first liquid-fueled rocket and describes how his inventions advanced space exploration. While learning about Dr. Goddard’s early trials and tribulations, readers will begin to uncover the work necessary to optimize a design to make an object go farther and higher. Illustrated by Michele Shortly. Buy the Set of Four Children's Books The Three Little Pigs' Sledding Adventure Malarkey and the Big Trap Once Upon a Time in the Woods The Rocket Age Takes Off Proceeds of the sale of this book will benefit the pre-college programs of the SAE Foundation.
Book

The Rocket Age Takes Off - Family Fun Edition

2011-02-01
The A World in Motion Family Fun Edition Books provide parents and grandparents with guided activities designed to introduce young children to Science, Technology, Engineering and Math concepts through materials that can be found around the home. These guided activities are part of our beautifully illustrated student readers. In The Rocket Age Takes Off, readers explore the whimsical world of Robert Goddard and learn about the father of modern rocketry. This book follows Dr. Goddard’s exciting journey to build the world’s first liquid-fueled rocket and describes how his inventions advanced space exploration. While learning about Dr. Goddard’s early trials and tribulations, readers will begin to uncover the work necessary to optimize a design to make an object go farther and higher. This beautifully illustrated educational book, part of the innovative A World In Motion program, teaches engineering principles to primary-age children through an imaginative and exciting story.
SAE MOBILUS Subscription

Wiley Aerospace Collection

2018-03-23
Purchasable as an annual subscription and containing 30 eBook titles, the Wiley Aerospace Collection covers valuable engineering subject matter, such as aircraft fuel systems, aerodynamics, and propulsion. The series also goes beyond engineering, including eBooks on planning, logistical issues, and how human behavior can be managed and controlled while operating aircraft.
SAE MOBILUS Subscription

Wiley SAE MOBILUS® eBook Package

2018-03-23
Committed to being the primary source for aerospace and ground vehicle engineering resources, SAE International has added the full compilation of our Wiley eBook collections to the SAE MOBILUS® technical resource platform. Purchasable as an annual subscription and containing the titles from the Wiley Aerospace Collection, the Wiley Automotive Collection, the Wiley Computer Systems Collection, and the Wiley Cyber Security Collection.
Technical Paper

Space Life Support from the Cellular Perspective

2001-07-09
2001-01-2229
Determining the fundamental role of gravity in vital biological systems in space is one of six science and research areas that provides the philosophical underpinning for why NASA exists. The study of cells, tissues, and microorganisms in a spaceflight environment holds the promise of answering multiple intriguing questions about how gravity affects living systems. To enable these studies, specimens must be maintained in an environment similar to that used in a laboratory. Cell culture studies under normal laboratory conditions involve maintaining a highly specialized environment with the necessary temperature, humidity control, nutrient, and gas exchange conditions. These same cell life support conditions must be provided by the International Space Station (ISS) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) in the unique environment of space. The CCU is a perfusion-based system that must function in microgravity, at unit gravity (1g) on earth, and from 0.1g up to 2g aboard the ISS centrifuge rotor.
Technical Paper

Bioprocessing to Recover Crop Nutrients from Advanced Life Support (ALS) Solid Wastes: Improving Rapid Biological Processing of ALS Inedible Crop Residues

2001-07-09
2001-01-2208
The overall objective of a NASA Research Announcement funded project at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is to determine the optimal Advanced Life Support (ALS) solid waste bioprocessing system with the limited goal of nutrient recycling as part of a potential hybrid biological-physical chemical (PC) system. Bioprocess research towards this objective has focused on comparing two bioreactor technologies: (1) continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR)-suspension culture and (2) continuous flow fixed-film bioreactor (FFB)-which utilizes biofilms to remove organic constituents from crop residue leachate solutions. For optimizing the CSTR we studied the effects of solids loading rate (160, 240, and 320 grams dry weight [gdw] day−1) and stirrer speed (45, 90, 180, and 360 rpm) on the vertical distribution (5 depths) of dissolved oxygen (> 90% oxygen in aeration gas) and total suspended solids in a CSTR operated at an hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.25 days.
Technical Paper

Transgenic Plant Biomonitors: Stress Gene Biocompatibility Evaluation of the Plant Growth Facility for PGIM-01

2001-07-09
2001-01-2181
The initial task in the preparation for Flight Experiment PGIM-01 (Plant Growth in Microgravity - 01) was the optimization of the plant nutrient system within the environment of the Plant Growth Facility (PGF – a Space Shuttle middeck locker plant growth unit). PGIM-01 entailed using the Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) to monitor effects of spaceflight-associated stress on gene expression. TAGES plants are genetically engineered arabidopsis plants designed with a sensitive reporter gene system that responds to a variety of environmental stresses. However, transgene expression can also be influenced by background environmental conditions. Thus, minimizing sources of background stress on the plants was crucial to ensure optimal growth and a high scientific return.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Model of Human Thermoregulation During Space Suit Operation with Ventilation and Liquid Cooling

1996-07-01
961481
The human thermoregulation study during space operation has such practical result as scientific justification of automatic thermal control system (ATCS). A primary goal is a maintenance of the thermal comfort during all possible types of human activity. It is an optimal control aim to ATCS. The main purpose of ATCS development is an identification of physiologically valuable requirements and validation of optimal laws to control human thermal status in the space suit conditions. An identification is possible only if we have a good knowledge of the control aim and current thermal status. It needs to have a criterion or assessment of interface between thermal status, actions and disturbances. The model of human thermoregulation and metabolism in space suit with ventilation loop and water cooling loop is a theoretical basis for experimental tests of ATCS. Our model has two interdependent parts: 1) anatomical/physiological compartment and 2) technical compartment.
Technical Paper

Development of a Regenerable Metal Oxide CO2 Absorber for EMU Applications

1996-07-01
961483
A regenerable metal oxide CO2 absorber is being developed for future Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) applications. It was designed to fit the existing shuttle EMU without modification of the interfaces. Absorption and regeneration tests were performed with subscale and full-size laboratory absorbers. Data is presented for open and closed loop absorber tests that evaluate the effects of residence time, mass velocity, and internal temperature on performance, with emphasis is on the full-size test unit. Regeneration testing quantified the effects of temperature and air flow rate on desorption rate, and of various absorber cooling modes. Its objective was to optimize conditions for minimum peak power and minimum total energy consumption.
Technical Paper

Vapour Compression Heat Pump for a Lunar Lander/Rover Thermal Control

1996-07-01
961537
The thermal control of lunar landers/rovers necessitates the use of a system to allow heat rejection to the high temperature lunar environment. In this context a vapour compression heat pump which is a proven technology in terrestrial and aeronautical applications has been studied; its suitability in providing 2 kW cooling capability with adequate temperature lift for final heat rejection by space radiators is assessed. The stringent requirements of space-based hardware in terms of temperature lift, compactness, mass, performance and reliability necessitates optimization studies. Mass optimization of the heat pump components has been carried out, as well as selection of refrigerants and thermodynamic cycles most suited for the application.
Technical Paper

Thermal Control of the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator

1996-07-01
961543
The ARD capsule is a European Space Agency project, designed and developed in very limited budget and schedule. These constraints had induced a particular strategy for Thermal Architecture activities: to decouple Thermal Protections Subsystem activities and Internal Thermal Control activities. The necessary relationships between the two fields have been achieved through interfaces data exchanges. These exchanges have been managed to guarantee the Vehicle Thermal Architecture coherence and to avoid risky conditions at system level. The consequence is important margins on the thermal design of the capsule. This is possible on this type of prototype where optimization is not required. Extension of such a process has to be considered cautiously.
Technical Paper

Problems of Developing Systems for Water Reclamation from Urine for Perspective Space Stations

1996-07-01
961409
The paper deals with possible performance enhancement of the system for water reclamation from urine based on a principle of atmospheric distillation. It is shown by way of example using the system operating on Mir that the introduction of heat energy recuperation, an increase in heat-and-mass transfer efficiency on evaporation and the optimization of the air flowrate in the distillation cycle allow a rise in the capacity of the distillation assembly and a reduction in specific energy. The system outfitted with a rotary evaporator/separator and a thermoelectric heat pump is reviewed. The design and experimental data verify the feasibility and benefits of the system updating.
Technical Paper

MPLM - Environmental Control System Design Evolution

1997-07-01
972313
The Mini Pressurised Logistics Module (MPLM) has the important job of servicing the Space Station via the National Space Transportation System (NSTS). During the previous and the on-going Alenia design activities, a continous effort is spent to optimize the MPLM performance characteristics with a possible mass reduction. The aim is to reach the best compromise between different needs: the payload requirements, the functional ground and flight operational constraints (three units qualified for 25 flight missions each), the total mass available for the payload. This paper has the objective to document the recent configuration changes and activities of the last couple of years. The two subsystems involved in this evolution are the Thermal Control (TCS) and the Environmental Control (ECLSS). Most of the MPLM equipment has already passed the Critical Design Review (CDR) step and the update situation for each piece of equipment is listed in this paper.
Technical Paper

NEVADA - A Comprehensive and Proven Radiation Heat Transfer Computer Software Package

1997-07-01
972440
The NEVADA 97 Software Package uses a new fast ray trace technique called ‘variable decomposition’. The software operating with this technique is up to 100 times faster than NEVADA 95. The Variable Decomposition Method (VDM) is a proprietary method of “de-composing” space (voxels) into sub-space (sub-voxels), ad infinitum. Currently, the user may choose between four (4) ray trace algorithms: Oct-Cell, Oct Tree, Cubic Decomposition Method (CDM), or User Defined. With CDM the program automatically assigns the number of voxels until each voxel or sub-voxel contains approximately N1/3 nodes, where N is the number of nodes in the model or parent voxel. CDM allows the use of higher order surface types, such as Bezier, NURBS, 3rd Order Quadrics, Bi-Cubic Patches, etc., without having to pay too much of an execution time penalty. Operation under VDM allows the user to optimize the ray trace algorithm for the type and size of the model to be executed.
Technical Paper

Detection and Diagnosis of Air Contaminants in Spacecraft

1997-07-01
972390
In this paper we report on the development of the air quality monitoring and early detection system for an enclosed environment with specific emphasis on manned spacecraft. The proposed monitoring approach is based on the distributed parameter model of contaminant dispersion and real-time contaminant concentration measurements. The Implicit Kalman Filtering (IKF) algorithm is used to generate on-line estimations of the spatial contamination profile, which are used for the air quality monitoring and early detection of an air contamination event. We also solve the problem of the pointwise source identification of the convection-diffusion transport processes. This is done by converting the identification problem into an optimization problem of finding a spatial location and the capacity of a point source which results in the best match of the model-predicted measurements to the observed measurements.
Technical Paper

Surface Acoustic Wave Microhygrometer

1997-07-01
972393
A microhygrometer has been developed at JPL's Microdevices Laboratory based on the principle of dewpoint/frostpoint detection. The surface acoustic wave device used in this instrument is approximately two orders of magnitude more sensitive to condensation than the optical sensor used in chilled-mirror hygrometers. In tests in the laboratory and on the NASA DC8, the SAW hygrometer has demonstrated more than an order of magnitude faster response than commercial chilled-mirror hygrometers, while showing comparable accuracy under steady-state conditions. Current development efforts are directed toward miniaturization and optimization of the microhygrometer electronics for flight validation experiments on a small radiosonde balloon.
Technical Paper

Venting Membrane for EVA CO2 and H2O Removal

1997-07-01
972504
The device described in this paper is a flat sheet membrane module that removes humidity from the space suit breathing loop by venting it to the vacuum of space. The module consists of alternating vacuum layer assemblies and vent layer assemblies separated by solid polymer membrane sheets. The module is designed to optimize volume and pressure drop at a given vent flow rate and water removal rate. Both Hamilton Standard and the NASA Johnson Space Center tested the module under varying EMU flow and humidity conditions; the results of the testing are presented in the paper. The module met or exceeded all of the design goals set forth in the program statement of work, including volume, pressure drop and water removal rate.
Technical Paper

Trefftz-Plane Drag Minimization at Transonic Speeds

1997-05-01
971478
Traditionally, transonic wing design focuses on tailoring of pressure distributions, with little attention paid to spanwise lift distribution. While off-design considerations may constrain the span loading, it is useful nonetheless to know the optimal span loading. Further, induced drag minimization is useful for integration of other components with the wing, such as winglets and engine nacelles. An optimization scheme has been developed allowing Trefftz-plane drag minimization on complete aircraft configurations using high-order panel methods and full-potential CFD codes. Two applications of Trefftz-plane drag minimization for component integration are demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Piezoelectric Actuator Configuration Optimization for Active Structural Acoustic Control in Aircraft

1997-05-01
971461
This paper has presented a technique for the determination of an optimal configuration of fuselage mounted piezoelectric actuators for active structural acoustic control of interior noise in aircraft. The technique has demonstrated much potential in preliminary experiments where actuators were configured to couple into the first principal component of the acoustically coupled fuselage vibration. In this test, average reductions of 6 dB at the error microphones and 4 dB at five auxiliary microphones were observed for a pure tone disturbance at the left forward engine pylon of a business jet. This disturbance was used to simulate an oscillating force due to engine unbalance.
Technical Paper

Cycle Life and Failure in the Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery

1997-06-18
971227
Nickel-metal hydride cells use AB5, AB2, AB, and A2B compounds for the negative electrode. These intermetallic compounds differ in the ease with which they are activated and their kinetics in forming the hydride phase. Various techniques are used to optimize the storage capacities of these different classes of materials. Long cycle lives are difficult to attain primarily due to surface oxidation and the large expansion of the intermetallic lattice caused by the formation of the hydride phase. This article reviews the different failure modes active in intermetallic hydrides and the recent ways researchers have tried to increase the cycle life.
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