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Technical Paper

Modeling of Engine Exhaust Acoustics

Exhaust acoustics simulation is an important part of the exhaust system process. Especially important is the trend towards a coupled approach to performance and acoustics design. The present paper describes a new simulation tool developed for such coupled simulations. This tool is based on a one-dimensional fluid dynamics solution of the flow in the engine manifolds and exhaust and intake elements. To represent the often complex geometries of mufflers, an easy-to-use graphical pre-processor is provided, with which the user builds a model representation of mufflers using a library of basic elements. A comparison made to two engines equipped with exhaust silencers, shows that the predictions give good results.
Technical Paper

OSEKtime: A Dependable Real-Time Fault-Tolerant Operating System and Communication Layer as an Enabling Technology for By-Wire Applications

The new generation of drive-by-wire systems currently under development has demanding requirements on the electronic architecture. Functions such as brake-by-wire or steer-by-wire require continued operation even in the presence of component failures. The electronic architecture must therefore provide fault-tolerance and real-time response. This in turn requires the operating system and the communication layer to be predictable, dependable and composable. It is well known that this properties are best supported by a time-triggered approach. A consortium consisting of German and French car manufacturers and suppliers, which aims at becoming a working group within the OSEK/VDX initiative, the OSEKtime consortium, is currently defining a specification for a time-triggered operating system and a fault-tolerant communication layer.1 The operating system and the communication layer are based on applicable interfaces of the OSEK/VDX standard.
Technical Paper

FlexRay - The Communication System for Advanced Automotive Control Systems

BMW, DaimlerChrysler, Motorola and Philips present their joint development activity related to the FlexRay communication system that is intended for distributed applications in vehicles. The designated applications for powertrain and chassis control place requirements in terms of availability, reliability and data bandwidth that cannot be met by any product currently available on the market under the testing conditions encountered in an automobile. A short look back on events so far is followed by a description of the protocol and its first implementation as an integrated circuit, as well as its incorporation into a complete tool environment.
Technical Paper

Powder Clear Coat -- A Quantum Leap in Automotive Paint Technology

BMW - the driving force for progress As we approach the new millenium, to ensure the continuation of the progress into the future, BMW uses leading edge approaches in its materials research and processing. Overview production sites all over the world - Plant Dingolfing Quality requirements for automobile painting The complex and wide-ranging demands that the outer skin of an automobile has to meet offered us the chance to advance with a technological leap from liquid clear coat to the potentials of powder clear coat. The new clear coat technology The clear coat creates the ultimate gloss effect - and powder-based clear coat makes the surface of the car even more brilliant. To achieve this effect the body is covered by microscopically small paint particles. A pioneer achievement A lot of challenges in both material development and systems-engineering had to be made. The automotive world was watching, many experts said it could not be successfully used as an OEM clear coat.
Technical Paper

The Development of a BMW Catalyst Concept for LEV/EU3 Legislation for a 8 Cylinder Engine by Using Thin Wall Ceramic Substrates

For the BMW V8 engine, a new LEV/EU3 emission concept has been developed by improvements to the previous engine management and secondary air supply and a complete new exhaust system. Beside the emission limits, also high engine output targets and high operating reliability were targeted. In addition the new exhaust system had to meet low cost targets. Based on these requirements an exhaust concept with separate pre catalyst and main catalyst was chosen. To reduce the heat mass and to optimize the pressure drop, 4.3mil/400cpsi thin wall ceramic substrates were used for the pre and main catalyst.
Technical Paper

ECU Integrated DSP Based Measurement System for Combustion Analysis

For development of new engines a ‘general purpose ECU’ for spark ignition engines with up to 12 cylinders has been developed. As part of this ECU a DSP (Digital Signal Processor)-based measurement unit for high frequency combustion analysis has been integrated. In this paper, details about this signal processing platform are given. The DSP-unit has 24 analog input channels. 12 channels are used for cylinder pressure measurement; the other 12 channels are general purpose ones. For example, they can be used for ionic current analysis. Additional digital inputs allow measurement of crank speed and crank speed variations. This is an important topic for misfire detection as part of the OBD regulations.
Technical Paper

2D Mapping and Quantification of the In-Cylinder Air/Fuel-Ratio in a GDI Engine by Means of LIF and Comparison to Simultaneous Results from 1D Raman Measurements

The optimization of the vaporization and mixture formation process is of great importance for the development of modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, because it influences the subsequent processes of the ignition, combustion and pollutant formation significantly. In consequence, the subject of this work was the development of a measurement technique based on the laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIF), which allows the two dimensional visualization and quantification of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio. A tracer concept consisting of benzene and triethylamine dissolved in a non-fluorescent base fuel has been used. The calibration of the equivalence ratio proportional LIF-signal was performed directly inside the engine, at a well known mixture composition, immediately before the direct injection measurements were started.
Technical Paper

Testing Automotive Systems Modeled by Finite State Machines

The use of micro controllers in automotive systems renders the coordination of about 150 actors (70 electric motors, 15 magnetic valves and 50 relays). The resulting complexity of those systems as well as the requested zero defects demands time consuming testing. This work describes a method of performing test-scenarios, starting from a zero defect running specification, modeled by finite state machines. The test-scenarios are intended to determine whether a given system meets all specification requirements. First, a kind of structured modelling reactive automotive systems is deduced. Next, some important test selection methods, developed for the case the specification is given in the form of a finite state machine, are considered. Finally, a procedure and method for performing minimized complete test-scenarios for automotive systems are presented.
Technical Paper

Research Results on Processes and Catalyst Materials for Lean NOx Conversion

In a joint research project between industrial companies and a number of research institutes, nitrogen oxide conversion in oxygen containing exhaust gas has been investigated according to the following procedure Basic investigations of elementary steps of the chemical reaction Production and prescreening of different catalytic material on laboratory scale Application oriented screening of industrial catalyst material Catalyst testing on a lean bum gasoline engine, passenger car diesel engines (swirl chamber and DI) and on a DI truck engine Although a number of solid body structures show nitrogen oxide reduction by hydrocarbons, only noble metal containing catalysts and transition metal exchanged zeolites gave catalytic efficiencies of industrial relevance. A maximum of 25 % NOx reduction was found in the European driving cycle for passenger cars, about 40 % for truck engines in the respective European test.
Technical Paper

Electrically Heated Catalytic Converter (EHC) in the BMW ALPINA B12 5.7 Switch-Tronic

The production of the BMW ALPINA B12 5.7 with Switch-Tronic transmission provides the markets of Europe and Japan with an exclusive, luxury-orientated, high performance limited series limousine. This is the first vehicle worldwide to be fitted with the progressive exhaust gas aftertreatment technology known as the Electrically Heated Catalyst (EHC), in which the effectiveness of the power utilized is increased significantly by an alternating heating process for both catalytic converters. Only since this achievement has the implementation of the EHC been viable without extensive modification to the battery and alternator. With this exhaust gas aftertreatment concept, the emissions of this high performance vehicle will fall to less than half the maximum permissible for compliance with 1996 emission standards.
Technical Paper

Heated Catalytic Converter Competing Technologies to Meet LEV Emission Standards

Apart from the reduction of engine-out emissions from the powerplant, the development of an efficient and reliable catalytic converter heating system is an important task of automotive engineering in the future to meet standards that will require reduction of cold start emissions. Carrying out a comprehensive study in this field, BMW has tested and evaluated possible solutions to this challenge. In additon to the electrically heated catalytic converter (E-cat) and the afterburner chamber, an incorporated burner system would meet the requirement for fast catalyst light-off in the future, particularly in the case of larger engines.
Technical Paper

A Physical-Based Approach for Modeling the Influence of Different Operating Parameters on the Dependency of External EGR Rate and Indicated Efficiency

External Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) provides an opportunity to increase the efficiency of turbocharged spark-ignition engines. Of the competing technologies and configurations, Low-Pressure EGR (LP-EGR) is the most challenging in terms of its dynamic behavior. Only some of the stationary feasible potential can be used during dynamic engine operation. To guarantee fuel consumption-optimized engine operation with no instabilities, a load point-dependent limitation of the EGR rate or alternatively an adaptation of the operating point to the actual EGR rate is crucial. For this purpose, a precise knowledge of efficiency and combustion variance is necessary. Since the operating state includes the actual EGR rate, it has an additional dimension, which usually results in an immense measuring effort.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Model the Fan in Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations

Vehicle thermal management (VTM) simulations constitute an important step in the early development phase of a vehicle. They help in predicting the temperature profiles of critical components over a drive cycle and identify components which are exceeding temperature design limits. Parts with the highest temperatures in a vehicle with an internal combustion engine are concentrated in the engine bay area. As packaging constraints grow tighter, the components in the engine bay are packed closer together. This makes the thermal protection in the engine bay even more crucial. The fan influences the airflow into the engine bay and plays an important role in deciding flow distribution in this region. This makes modelling of the fan an important aspect of VTM simulations. The challenge associated with modelling the fan is the accurate simulation of the rotation imparted by the fan to the incoming flow. Currently, two modelling approaches are prevalent in the industry.
Technical Paper

Equations and Methods for Testing Hydrogen Fuel Consumption using Exhaust Emissions

Although hydrogen ICE engines have existed in one sort or another for many years, the testing of fuel consumption by way of exhaust emissions is not yet a proven method. The current consumption method for gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles is called the Carbon-Balance method, and it works by testing the vehicle exhaust for all carbon-containing components. Through conservation of mass, the carbon that comes out as exhaust must have gone in as fuel. Just like the Carbon-Balance method for gas and diesel engines, the new Hydrogen-Balance equation works on the principle that what goes into the engine must come out as exhaust components. This allows for fuel consumption measurements without direct contact with the fuel. This means increased accuracy and simplicity. This new method requires some modifications to the testing procedures and CVS (Constant Volume Sampling) system.
Technical Paper

The Development of BMW Catalyst Concepts for LEV / ULEV and EU III / IV Legislations 6 Cylinder Engine with Close Coupled Main Catalyst

To meet LEV and EU Stage III emission requirements, it is necessary for new catalytic converters to be designed which exceed light-off temperature as quickly as possible. The technical solutions are secondary air injection, active heating systems such as the electrically heated catalytic converter, and the close coupled catalytic converter. Engine control functions are extensively used to heat the converter and will to play a significant role in the future. The concept of relocating the converter to a position close to the engine in an existing vehicle involves new conflicts. Examples include the space requirements, the thermal resistance of the catalytic coating and high temperature loads in the engine compartment.
Technical Paper

A New Method for the Investigation of Unburned Oil Emissions in the Raw Exhaust of SI Engines

The study of oil emission is of essential interest for the engine development of modern cars, as well as for the understanding of hydrocarbon emissions especially during cold start conditions. A laser mass spectrometer has been used to measure single aromatic hydrocarbons in unconditioned exhaust gas of a H2-fueled engine at stationary and transient motor operation. These compounds represent unburned oil constituents. The measurements were accompanied by FID and GC-FID measurements of hydrocarbons which represent the burned oil constituents. The total oil consumption has been determined by measuring the oil sampled by freezing and weighing. It has been concluded that only 10 % of the oil consumption via exhaust gas has burned in the cylinders. A correlation of the emission of single oil-based components at ppb level detected with the laser mass spectrometer to the total motor oil emission has been found.
Technical Paper

Studies on Enhanced CVS Technology to Achieve SULEV Certification

For the measurement of exhaust emissions, Constant Volume Sampling (CVS) technology is recommended by legislation and has proven its practical capability in the past. However, the introduction of new low emission standards has raised questions regarding the accuracy and variability of the CVS system when measuring very low emission levels. This paper will show that CVS has the potential to achieve sufficient precision for certification of SULEV concepts. Thus, there is no need for the introduction of new test methods involving high cost. An analysis of the CVS basic equations indicates the importance of the Dilution Factor (DF) for calculating true mass emissions. A test series will demonstrate that, by adjusting the dilution and using state of the art analyzers, the consistency of exhaust results is comparable with those of LEV concepts, measured with conventional CVS systems and former standard analyzers.
Technical Paper

Local Gaussian Process Regression in Order to Model Air Charge of Turbocharged Gasoline SI Engines

A local Gaussian process regression approach is presented, which allows to model nonlinearities of internal combustion engines more accurate than global Gaussian process regression. By building smaller models, the prediction of local system behavior improves significantly. In order to predict a value, the algorithm chooses the nearest training points. The number of chosen training points depends on the intensity of estimated nonlinearity. After determining the training points, a model is built, the prediction performed and the model discarded. The approach is demonstrated with a benchmark system and air charge test bed measurements. The measurements are taken from a turbocharged SI gasoline engine with both variable inlet valve lift and variable inlet and exhaust valve opening angle. The results show how local Gaussian process regression outmatches global Gaussian process regression concerning model quality and nonlinearities in particular.
Technical Paper

A Virtual Residual Gas Sensor to Enable Modeling of the Air Charge

Air charge calibration of turbocharged SI gasoline engines with both variable inlet valve lift and variable inlet and exhaust valve opening angle has to be very accurate and needs a high number of measurements. In particular, the modeling of the transition area from unthrottled, inlet valve controlled resp. throttled mode to turbocharged mode, suffers from small number of measurements (e.g. when applying Design of Experiments (DoE)). This is due to the strong impact of residual gas respectively scavenging dominating locally in this area. In this article, a virtual residual gas sensor in order to enable black-box-modeling of the air charge is presented. The sensor is a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network. Amongst others, the physically calculated air mass is used as training data for the artificial neural network.