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Training / Education

Application Development of Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles Balancing Economic Objectives and Technical Requirements

This seminar is offered in China only and presented in Mandarin Chinese. The course materials are bilingual (English and Chinese). More and more stringent emission and fuel consumption regulations are pushing the automotive industry towards electrified powertrain and electrified vehicles. This is particularly evident in China, where there is an increased demand for electric (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Infrastructure is being built across the country for convenient charging.
Training / Education

Fundamentals and Applications of Electric Motors for Automotive Industries

As the electrification of automobiles is on the rise, it is imperative that the capabilities and limits of the associated devices and systems be understood at a higher level than previously considered adequate. For example, the Tesla Model S has 62 electric motors while the Model X has 70! They propel the vehicle and provide comfort too. Their design must reflect the worst case operating scenarios, duty cycles, environment, country of use and its standards, etc.
Training / Education

Safe Handling of High Voltage Battery Systems

2022-04-26
Electric and hybrid vehicles are becoming more visible on today's roadways and the automotive companies are working hard to make these vehicles as transparent as possible to enhance consumer acceptance. The battery system forms a key part of any of these vehicles and is probably the least understood. With practically no moving parts the battery systems show no visible or audible warning of any latent dangers. This seminar will introduce participants to the risks encountered in handling high voltage battery systems and their component parts.
Training / Education

Introduction to Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Battery Systems

2021-11-01
Driven by the need for lower emissions, better fuel economy and higher efficiency, hybrid vehicles are appearing in many different configurations on today's roadways. While the powertrain components such as the drive motor, motor controller and cooling system are somewhat familiar to the automotive industry, the battery systems are a relatively unfamiliar aspect. This seminar will introduce participants to the concepts of hybrid vehicles, their missions and the role of batteries in fulfilling those requirements.
Magazine

SAE Vehicle Electrification: February 11, 2014

2014-02-11
Inside the cell walls The high cost of lithium-ion batteries is a prison that has largely kept electric vehicles off the street; the keys to their release are more effective—but not more expensive—cell chemistries.
Book

Hydrogen, The Post-Oil Fuel?

2012-11-01
Hydrogen, energy vector for the future? Or, on the contrary, limited to its current applications in the field of chemistry and refining for decades to come, possibly even until the end of the century? There is much controversy over this issue and two sides to the argument. Advocates of the hydrogen civilization consider that, following a technological revolution hydrogen will play a universal role alongside electricity as a substitute for fossil fuels, especially (but not only) in transport, leading to radical elimination of CO2 emissions. For the skeptics, and even outspoken opponents, hydrogen will remain restricted to its current applications due to the insoluble problems inherent to its generalized use, especially in transport. This book highlights the increasing and inevitable role of "energy" hydrogen – as opposed to chemical hydrogen – in the key sectors of transport and "clean" electricity production.
Book

Factory Man

2009-02-16
Factory Man is about James Harbour and the epic struggle of the U.S. auto industry to catch up to Japan in quality and productivity. Harbour is a former manufacturing executive who, partly by chance, became the first U.S. expert to study Toyota's operations in Japan. Harbour's consulting firm, Harbour & Associates has gained worldwide recognition for its annual public studies of factory productivity. The Harbour Report is the essential annual scorecard of who is winning the productivity race in the U.S. In 1981, Harbour reported that Toyota could offer a small car for sale in the U.S. at a production cost of $1,500-$1,700 less than the Detroit automakers at that time, a cost advantage of about 30 percent. The impact on Detroit was atomic, and launched the painful, historic effort by the Big Three to catch up, which continues today. James Harbour's story, blunt and accessible, includes a detailed description of how Detroit went astray, beginning right after World War II.
Book

Toyota Kata

2009-08-04
This game-changing book puts you behind the curtain at Toyota, providing new insight into the legendary automaker's management practices and offering practical guidance for leading and developing people in a way that makes the best use of their brainpower. Drawing on six years of research into Toyota's employee-management routines, Toyota Kata examines and elucidates, for the first time, the company's organizational routines—called kata—that power its success with continuous improvement and adaptation. The book also reaches beyond Toyota to explain issues of human behavior in organizations and provide specific answers to questions such as: • How can we make improvement and adaptation part of everyday work throughout the organization? • How can we develop and utilize the capability of everyone in the organization to repeatedly work toward and achieve new levels of performance?
Book

Toyota R&D Technical Review 2011

2011-08-01
Giving unique insight into Toyota's 2011 technical developments, this book includes 18 papers that chronicle the Japanese OEM's R&D activities in a variety of technologies during that year. This volume has a special focus on next-generation electric storage, and 10 of the papers highlight developments in such things as batteries, fuel cells and next-generation energy. Title highlights include: Next Generation Electric Storage and Its Applications • Secondary Battery Development for Hybrid Vehicles at Toyota • Development Trends and Popularization Trends for Fuel Cell Vehicles • Renewable Energy and Its Effective Usage Other Technical Areas • Drivetrain Development for the Lexus LFA • Development of Scratch-Resistant Universal Clear Coat • Development of Environmentally Friendly Machining Process for Aluminum Parts
Standard

Quick Connect Fluid Coupling Specification for Water/Glycol Coolant System Interconnect

2019-07-22
WIP
J3207
This SAE Recommended Practice defines the dimensional characteristics and minimum performance requirements for quick connect couplings between flexible tubing or hose and rigid tubing or tubular fittings used in glycol/water coolant systems. This document applies to automotive and truck applications under the following conditions: a. Gasoline, diesel, hybrid, and electrical propulsion cooling systems. b. Operating pressure up to 206 kPa, 2.06 bar, (30 psig). c. Operating temperatures from -40 °C (-40 °F) to 125 °C (260 °F). Quick connect couplings function by joining the connector to a mating end form typically without the use of tools. The requirements stated in this document apply to new connectors in assembly operations unless otherwise indicated.
Video

SAE Demo Day in Tampa - Highlights

2018-08-14
In May 2018, SAE International in partnership with THEA and leading AV technology companies gave citizens in Tampa a chance to test ride the future. The event included a pre- and post-ride survey, a ride in an automated vehicle, interactive displays and engagement with industry experts. See highlights of the event and feedback from participants.
Technical Paper

Application of Shape Memory Heat Engines to Improving Vehicle Fuel Economy

1996-04-01
91A128
Shape memory materials undergo temperature-induced martensitic phase transformations that involve reversible dimensional changes. In performing these changes in shape, the shape-memory material is able to do work against external constraints, and this is the basis for shape-memory low-temperature heat engines. The transformation temperatures on heating and cooling are often not very different (little hysteresis) and are well defined and reproducible. Furthermore, these temperatures can be adjusted by varying the composition of the shape memory alloy. Internal combustion engines dissipate approximately two-thirds of the fuel energy as heat to the exhaust and coolant systems. A low-temperature heat engine could convert a fraction of this heat energy to useful work. This paper discusses the conceptual basis for the application of shape memory heat engines to internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Metallurgical and thermodynamic factors are discussed, as well as engine efficiency.
Technical Paper

Simulors, An Innovative Tool for Molds Development

1996-04-01
91A117
Mold designers and foundrymen spend a lot of time in developing molds without knowing exactly the phenomena which take place inside. Simulor, which has been used in an industrial environment for two years, offers the solution to make foundrymen understand what happens during the filling of the mold and the solidification of the part. Based on navier-stokes and heat transfer equations, simulor provides speed distribution and metal front evolution in the cavity and thermal map in the mold and the part. Some examples with different metals (cast iron, aluminum alloy) cast with various processes (sand or die casting, low pressure or gravity casting) will be given. This new tool will given foundrymen the opportunity to test the mold before having it machined and will also allow reduction in development delays.
Technical Paper

Input Loading for Squeak & Rattle CAE Analysis

1999-05-17
1999-01-1726
A method to create a CAE load by utilizing the vibration motions at structure attachments has been developed. This method employs the concept of enforced motion as the constraints of boundary conditions to create an equivalent input force/moment matrix for a sub-structure with multi-point attachments. The main assumption is that motions at the attachments of the sub-structure should be the same as the known motions of the main structure under the generated input load. The key concept of the developed methodology is the calculation of the input dynamic compliance matrix for sub-structure attachment locations. This method is developed to create a system level input load to be used for squeak and rattle CAE analysis on a component or sub-system. It can also be used for minor component design change evaluation using only the component CAE model, yet as if it is assembled in the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Developing Robust Vibration Excitation and Control Methods for Evaluating Rattle Noise in Automotive Components

1999-05-17
1999-01-1725
The authors participated in a task force that was required to develop a repeatable, dependable, and reliable test procedure to compare, rate, and evaluate the severity of rattles. The assemblies involved in the study are designed and manufactured by different companies and are tested by different people on test equipment and instrumentation from different suppliers. The challenges therefore, were considerable and involved both the vibration inputs and responses as well as the acoustic responses. At the beginning of this activity, it was observed that different test labs using the same Ford vibration specs were obtaining different sounds from the same test item! Clearly, this was unacceptable and the test methods had to be improved and standardized. This paper focuses on vibration related to rattle testing. The particular assemblies used in this study were seat belt retractors.
Technical Paper

Noise Analysis of Automotive Alternators

1999-05-17
1999-01-1712
An extensive experimental study of noise generating mechanisms of two production models of automotive alternators is presented. It was established that aerodynamic noise (generated by cooling fans) is dominating at high speeds (above 3,000 rpm), while electromagnetic noise is the most intensive at low rpm. Two directions of noise reduction are proposed and validated: reduction of noise levels generated by alternators to be achieved by using axial flow fans for cooling instead of presently used bladed discs, and radical reduction of operating speed of alternators by using variable transmission ratio accessory drives.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Retained Fluid and Humidity on the Evacuation of Critical Vehicle Systems

1999-05-10
1999-01-1630
In automotive assembly facilities worldwide, many critical vehicle systems such as brakes, power steering, radiator, and air conditioning require the appropriate fluid to function. In order to insure that these critical vehicle systems receive the correct amount of properly treated fluid, automotive manufacturers employ a method called Evacuation and Fill. Due to their closed-loop design, many critical vehicle systems must be first exposed to vacuum prior to being flooded with fluid. Only after the evacuation and fill process is complete will the critical vehicle system be able to perform as specified. It has long been thought, but never proven, that humidity and entrenched fluid were major hindrances to the Evacuation and Fill process. Consequently, Ford Motor Company Advanced Manufacturing Technology Development, Sandalwood Enterprises, Kettering University, and Dominion Tool & Die conducted a detailed project on this subject.
Technical Paper

Acoustical Advantages of a New Polypropylene Absorbing Material

1999-05-17
1999-01-1669
Sound absorption is one way to control noise in automotive passenger compartments. Fibrous or porous materials absorb sound in a cavity by dissipating energy associated with a propagating sound wave. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acoustic performance of a cotton fiber absorbing material in comparison to a new polypropylene fibrous material, called ECOSORB ®. The acoustical evaluation was done using measurements of material properties along with sound pressure level from road testing of a fully-assembled vehicle. The new polypropylene fibrous material showed significant advantages over the cotton fiber materials in material properties testing and also in-vehicle measurements. In addition to the performance benefits, the polypropylene absorber provided weight savings over the cotton fiber material.
Technical Paper

A Method to Measure Air Conditioning Refrigerant Contributions to Vehicle Evaporative Emissions (SHED Test)

1999-05-03
1999-01-1539
Although the intent of the SHED test (Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination) is to measure evaporative fuel losses, the SHED sampling methodology in fact measures hydrocarbons from all vehicle and test equipment sources. Leakage of air conditioning (AC) refrigerant is one possible non-fuel source contributing to the SHED hydrocarbon measurement. This report describes a quick and relatively simple method to identify the contribution of AC refrigerant to the SHED analyzer reading. R134A (CH2FCF3), the hydrofluorocarbon refrigerant used in all current automotive AC systems, as well as its predecessor, the chlorofluorocarbon R12, can be detected using the gas chromatography methods currently in place at many emissions labs for the speciation of exhaust and evaporative hydrocarbon emissions.
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