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Training / Education

Application Development of Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles Balancing Economic Objectives and Technical Requirements

This seminar is offered in China only and presented in Mandarin Chinese. The course materials are bilingual (English and Chinese). More and more stringent emission and fuel consumption regulations are pushing the automotive industry towards electrified powertrain and electrified vehicles. This is particularly evident in China, where there is an increased demand for electric (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Infrastructure is being built across the country for convenient charging.
Training / Education

Introduction to Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Battery Systems

2022-04-27
Driven by the need for lower emissions, better fuel economy and higher efficiency, hybrid vehicles are appearing in many different configurations on today's roadways. While the powertrain components such as the drive motor, motor controller and cooling system are somewhat familiar to the automotive industry, the battery systems are a relatively unfamiliar aspect. This seminar will introduce participants to the concepts of hybrid vehicles, their missions and the role of batteries in fulfilling those requirements.
Training / Education

Safe Handling of High Voltage Battery Systems

2022-04-26
Electric and hybrid vehicles are becoming more visible on today's roadways and the automotive companies are working hard to make these vehicles as transparent as possible to enhance consumer acceptance. The battery system forms a key part of any of these vehicles and is probably the least understood. With practically no moving parts the battery systems show no visible or audible warning of any latent dangers. This seminar will introduce participants to the risks encountered in handling high voltage battery systems and their component parts.
Magazine

SAE Vehicle Electrification: February 11, 2014

2014-02-11
Inside the cell walls The high cost of lithium-ion batteries is a prison that has largely kept electric vehicles off the street; the keys to their release are more effective—but not more expensive—cell chemistries.
Book

Toyota R&D Technical Review 2011

2011-08-01
Giving unique insight into Toyota's 2011 technical developments, this book includes 18 papers that chronicle the Japanese OEM's R&D activities in a variety of technologies during that year. This volume has a special focus on next-generation electric storage, and 10 of the papers highlight developments in such things as batteries, fuel cells and next-generation energy. Title highlights include: Next Generation Electric Storage and Its Applications • Secondary Battery Development for Hybrid Vehicles at Toyota • Development Trends and Popularization Trends for Fuel Cell Vehicles • Renewable Energy and Its Effective Usage Other Technical Areas • Drivetrain Development for the Lexus LFA • Development of Scratch-Resistant Universal Clear Coat • Development of Environmentally Friendly Machining Process for Aluminum Parts
Technical Paper

Artificial Neural Network Based Energy Storage System Modeling for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1564
The modeling of the energy storage system (ESS) of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) poses a considerable challenge. The problem is not amenable to physical modeling without simplifying assumptions that compromise the accuracy of such models. An alternative is to build conventional empirical models. Such models, however, are time-consuming to build and are data-intensive. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of an artificial neural network (ANN) to modeling the ESS. The model maps the system's state-of-charge (SOC) and the vehicle's power requirement to the bus voltage and current. We show that ANN models can accurately capture the complex, non-linear correlations accurately. Further, we propose and deploy our new technique, Smart Select, for designing ANN training data.
Technical Paper

Excitation of the Automobile Alternator with the Claw Pole Rotor by Means of Stator Winding

2000-04-02
2000-01-1572
It is known, that the alternator self-excitation is possible at capacitor loading [1]. From this follows, that the alternator excitation by means of capacitors connected to one or several stator windings, as from simple excitation winding is located on a rotor, is possible. In the report the excitation of the automobile alternator with claw pole rotor by means of capacitors connected to stator windings at rotor open excitation circuit is considered. Thus, for comparison the alternator idle characteristics are received both at excitation by means capacitors, and by means of a simple excitation winding. Besides the other electrical parameters of the alternator with claw pole rotor by experimental way are determined. On the basis of the received data the alternator digital model was developed, it takes into account the magnetic circuit saturation, by using of the received experimental idle characteristics.
Technical Paper

Advanced Lithium Solid State Battery Developments

2000-04-02
2000-01-1588
This paper presents a summary of a recent conference entitled Advanced Lithium Solid State Batteries Workshop that was held on July 13–15, 1999. The conference was sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies, and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences' (BES) Division of Chemical Sciences. This paper presents a summary of the results and recommendations from the conference, including: A review of current research on solid state electrolytes and their interfaces with an emphasis on both applied and basic studies. The research includes theoretical studies of solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs), lithium ion transport in SPEs, and simulations of the electrolyte–cathode interface. Experimental results are presented on ion transport phenomena in SPEs (NMR and X–ray) and mechanical stresses on electrodes, among other topics.
Technical Paper

A Review of Battery Exchange Technology for Refueling of Electric Vehicles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1586
The limited energy storage and long recharge time of electric vehicle batteries have motivated several alternatives to in-vehicle slow charging. Solutions generally fall into three categories: (1) fast charging, in which batteries are charged in-vehicle at an accelerated rate, (2) battery material reloading or refueling, in which the energy-carrying elements of the battery are physically replaced or replenished, and (3) battery interchange, involving the complete exchange of the battery pack, usually with the aid of some semi-automated mechanism. Among these options, the last, battery interchange, has tended to receive the least industry attention, but has been an expansive topic of invention and novel deployment.
Technical Paper

Speed-Sensorless Control of Induction Motors for Electric Vehicles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1603
An electric bus system has been operating in the downtown area of Chattanooga, Tennessee for more than four years. The buses use traditional hard-switched IGBT inverters driving special induction motors with a speed sensor (tachometer) and two embedded flux-sensing windings to provide rotor speed and flux information to the motor controller for implementation of high performance field oriented control (vector control). The induction motor is oil-cooled and equipped with an internal planar gear reduction. The current system has experienced failures in both speed sensors and flux sensors because they are unreliable, susceptible to EMI and must operate in a hostile environment created by oil leaks. A speed- and flux-sensorless induction motor drive system with a new 100 kW soft-switching inverter has been implemented to replace the existing system.
Technical Paper

Advanced Automotive Technologies Energy Storage R&D Programs at the U.S. Department of Energy-Recent Achievements and Current Status

2000-04-02
2000-01-1604
The United States supports an active research and development (R&D) program to develop electric and hybrid vehicle technologies and accelerate their commercialization. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT), supports the development of advanced energy storage and power electronics technologies, fuel cells, advanced direct-injection engines, vehicle systems, lightweight materials, and fuels. Much of this R&D directly supports the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), a landmark partnership between the U.S. Federal Government and automakers with the goal of developing a six-passenger family sedan with up to 80 miles per gallon (mpg) fuel economy by 2004. In these efforts, the DOE is working closely with its national laboratories, the auto industry and its suppliers, other government agencies, universities, and innovative small businesses. The Department continues to collaborate closely with the U.S.
Technical Paper

Ovonic Power and Energy Storage Technologies For the Next Generation of Vehicles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1590
The next generation of vehicles will see many new concepts involving propulsion technologies currently being developed by many of the worlds automakers and suppliers. These concepts will include pure electric vehicles (EV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) with advanced internal combustion engines and fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEV). These new vehicle concepts all need a high-efficiency electrical energy storage system (EESS). This paper describes the basic requirements for the next-generation vehicle technologies and emphasizes the performance of Ovonic technologies as it relates to vehicle requirements. Ovonic Battery Company (OBC) is developing and commercializing enabling technologies for the energy storage for advanced vehicles. Ovonic technologies enable the performance of advanced vehicles to exceed that of today's conventional vehicles while providing additional benefits of clean-air transportation and greatly reduced fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Government-Industry Partnerships and Environmental and Safety Solutions

2000-04-02
2000-01-1593
The Advanced Battery Readiness Ad Hoc Working Group, a government- industry forum sponsored by the United States Department of Energy, is charged with assessing environmental and safety issues associated with advanced batteries for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles require sophisticated advanced battery storage systems. Frequently, toxic, reactive, and flammable substances are used in the energy storage systems. Often, the substances have safety, recycling, and shipping implications with respect to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Transportation regulations. To facilitate commercialization, reg-ulations must either be modified or newly developed. Government-industry coordination has expedited needed regulatory changes, and promoted other partnerships to achieve environmental and safety solutions.
Technical Paper

Electrical Characterization of a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Device

1999-10-25
1999-01-3635
A planar dielectric barrier discharge device has been tested for exhaust emission reduction in simulated engine exhaust. This device's electrical characteristics have been measured and are presented in this paper. The device consists of two dielectric barriers which act like series capacitors, with the gas gap between them. At low gap voltages, the gas gap also acts like a capacitance, with a much smaller capacitance than the barriers. At higher voltages, the gas gap breaks down and a blue–purple glow visually fills the gap. The partially ionized gas conducts charge across the gap, building electrical charge on the dielectric barrier inner surface. When the AC excitation voltage peaks and starts to go toward an opposite polarity, the discharge momentarily extinguishes, trapping charge in the dielectric barrier capacitance.
Technical Paper

Alternative Vehicle Power Sources: Towards a Life Cycle Inventory

2000-04-26
2000-01-1478
Three alternatives to internal combustion vehicles currently being researched, developed, and commercialized are electric, hybrid electric, and fuel-cell vehicles. A total life-cycle inventory for an alternative vehicle must include factors such as the impacts of car body materials, tires, and paints. However, these issues are shared with gasoline-powered vehicles; the most significant difference between these vehicles is the power source. This paper focuses on the most distinct and challenging aspect of alternative-fuel vehicles, the power sources. The life-cycle impacts of battery systems for electric and hybrid vehicles are assessed. Less data is publicly available on the fuel cell; however, we offer a preliminary discussion of the environmental issues unique to fuel cells. For each of these alternative vehicles, a primary environmental hurdle is the consumption of materials specific to the power sources.
Technical Paper

Assessing Fuel Cell Power Sustainability

2000-04-26
2000-01-1490
In recent years alternative automobile power technologies have received increased attention from OEM's, special interest groups, and the public. Plausible power technologies now include internal combustion engines, batteries, fuel cells, and a variety of hybrid technologies. The merits of each of these technologies as a means to move personal and fleet transportation into the next century have been highly debated. One technology that has emerged as a viable alternative to the internal combustion engine is the fuel cell. Considering arguments on all sides of the debate, the authors describe the results of a systematic, focused examination of the sustainability of fuel cells for transportation and discuss strategies for sustainable technology design. Sustainable technologies are those that contribute to preserving or improving societal quality, the environment, and the economy for future generations.
Technical Paper

NanoMet: On-Line Characterization of Nanoparticle Size and Composition

2000-06-19
2000-01-1998
NanoMet is a new technique for on-line characterization of nanoparticle size and composition and their diffusion behavior. NanoMet consists of a pocket size diluter with tunable dilution ratio, a sampling interface for high concentration measurements and two on-line sensors. Simultaneous operation of the two sensors yields both the active surface (corona discharge diffusion charging sensor, DC) and the active surface times material coefficient (photoelectric aerosol sensor, PAS). Division of the readings provides the material coefficient which turns out to be characteristic of the particle source. Thus, information on source and toxicity of the aerosol is obtained. Thanks to the diluter and the sensitivity of the sensors the measurable concentration range stretches from (vehicle) raw emissions to ambient air / occupational exposure measurements. A particle sizing unit with a diffusion battery and a centrifuge is under development. NanoMet measures particles in-situ, i.e. as aerosol.
Technical Paper

Energy Management Strategy and Parametric Design for Hybrid Electric Family Sedan

2001-08-20
2001-01-2506
In this paper, the practical configuration of a power train for a parallel hybrid electric family sedan (HEFS) is introduced. Based on the analysis of the operation modes, an energy management strategy has been developed which can operate the engine within its high-efficiency range as much as possible and keep the battery state of charge (SOC) at a reasonable level. The components of the power unit (including engine, electric motor, battery, transmission and torque coupler) are calculated and discussed in detail according to the vehicle requirements for maximum cruising speed, acceleration time, gradeability, emission, and fuel efficiency. The simulation results show that the sedan would have performance comparable to that of a corresponding conventional sedan, about twice the fuel economy, and a range not limited by the battery storage energy.
Technical Paper

Performance of Stirling Engine Hybrid Electric Vehicles: A Simulation Approach

2001-08-20
2001-01-2513
Hybrid Vehicles have gained momentum in the automotive industry. The joint action of power sources and energy storage systems for energizing the vehicle improves the vehicle's fuel economy while reducing its pollutant emissions and noise levels, challenging automotive designers to optimize vehicle's cost, weight and control. The marketing success of hybrid vehicles significantly depends on the selection, integration and cost of the energy systems. The internal combustion engine, dominant of the vehicle market, has been the “option of choice” for auxiliary power unit of the hybrid vehicle, although other power sources as fuel cells, Stirling engines and gas turbines have been employed as well [1]. This document is focused in the application of Stirling engines as the power source for automobile propulsion.
Technical Paper

Development of the Jeep Commander 2 Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2001-08-20
2001-01-2508
On-board fuel reforming for fuel cells is an important strategic option in the development of mass production fuel cell vehicles. Based on a reforming concept similar to DaimlerChrysler's NECAR 3, the concept prototype Jeep Commander 2 implements a methanol reforming fuel cell engine with a 90 kW NiMH battery pack. Driving and dynamometer testing results show good driving performance, fuel economy and emissions. However, significant improvements are needed on fuel reforming systems to achieve competitive levels of power density, cost and reliability, compared to internal combustion engines.
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