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Technical Paper

Research Alliances, A Strategy for Progress

1995-09-01
952146
In today's business climate rapid access to, and implementation of, new technology is essential to enhance competitive advantage. In the past, universities have been used for research contracts, but to fully utilize the intellectual resources of education institutions, it is essential to approach these relationships from a new basis: alliance. Alliances permit both parties to become active participants and achieve mutually beneficial goals. This paper will examine the drivers and challenges for industrial -- university alliances from both the industrial and academic perspectives.
Technical Paper

Dual-Fuel Gasoline-Alcohol Engines for Heavy Duty Trucks: Lower Emissions, Flexible-Fuel Alternative to Diesel Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0888
Long-haul and other heavy-duty trucks, presently almost entirely powered by diesel fuel, face challenges meeting worldwide needs for greatly reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. Dual-fuel gasoline-alcohol engines could potentially provide a means to cost-effectively meet this need at large scale in the relatively near term. They could also provide reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These spark ignition (SI) flexible fuel engines can provide operation over a wide fuel range from mainly gasoline use to 100% alcohol use. The alcohol can be ethanol or methanol. Use of stoichiometric operation and a three-way catalytic converter can reduce NOx by around 90% relative to emissions from diesel engines with state of the art exhaust treatment.
Technical Paper

Thermal and Fluid Dynamic Considerations in Aftertreatment System Design for SCR Solid Deposit Mitigation

2012-04-16
2012-01-1287
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) with ammonia gas has established itself as an effective diesel aftertreatment technology to meet stringent emission standards enforced by worldwide regulatory bodies. Typically, in this technology, aqueous urea solution of eutectic composition - known as Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) - is injected into hot exhaust gases leading to a series of thermal, fluid dynamic and reactive processes that eventually produces the ammonia necessary for NOx reduction reactions within monolithic catalytic substrates. Incomplete decomposition of the injected urea can lead to formation of solid deposits that adversely affect system performance by increasing the engine back pressure, reducing de-NOx efficiency, and lowering the overall fuel economy.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Mid-Channel Ash Plug on DPF Pressure Drop

2016-04-05
2016-01-0966
It has been observed that a certain percentage of diesel particulate filters (DPFs) from the field form mid-channel ash plugs both in light duty and heavy duty applications. As revealed in a post mortem study, some field samples have ash plugs of 3-10 cm length in the middle of DPF inlet channels, which can potentially reduce the inlet channel volume by more than 50%. As a result, the mid-channel ash plug reduces the effective filtration area and decreases the effective channel open width in the middle of the channel. This explains why these filters are reported as having large increases in pressure drop. Moreover, the mid-channel ash deposits reduce the DPF service life and render the filter cleaning process ineffective. In the present study, an open source CFD tool is applied to study the 3D flow crossing two representative inlet and outlet DPF channels where the inlet channels have mid-channel ash plugs.
Technical Paper

Emissions of Organic Species from a Nonroad Vanadium-Based SCR Aftertreatment System

2015-09-29
2015-01-2904
U.S. and European nonroad diesel emissions regulations have led to the implementation of various exhaust aftertreatment solutions. One approved configuration, a vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst followed by an ammonia oxidation catalyst (V-SCR + AMOX), does not require the use of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) or diesel particulate filter (DPF). While certification testing has shown the V-SCR + AMOX system to be capable of meeting the nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter requirements, open questions remain regarding the efficacy of this aftertreatment for volatile and nonvolatile organic emissions removal, especially since the removal of this class of compounds is generally attributed to both the DOC and DPF.
Technical Paper

Development, Validation and ECM Embedment of a Physics-Based SCR on Filter Model

2016-09-27
2016-01-8075
SCR on Filter (SCRoF) is an efficient and compact NOX and PM reduction technology already used in series production for light-duty applications. The technology is now finding its way into the medium duty and heavy duty market. One of the key challenges for successful application is the robustness to real world variations. The solution to this challenge can be found by using model-based control algorithms, utilizing state estimation by physics-based catalyst models. This paper focuses on the development, validation and real time implementation of a physics-based control oriented SCRoF model. An overview of the developed model will be presented, together with a brief description of the model parameter identification and validation process using engine test bench measurement data. The model parameters are identified following a streamlined approach, focusing on decoupling the effects of deNOx and soot phenomena.
Technical Paper

Meeting the US 2007 Heavy-Duty Diesel Emission Standards - Designing for the Customer

2007-10-30
2007-01-4170
The paper covers the design and development of Heavy-Duty (HD) Diesel engines that meet the 2007 HD US EPA emission standards. These standards are the most stringent standards in the world for on-highway HD diesel engines, and have driven the application of new technologies, which includes: particulate aftertreatment, crankcase ventilation systems, and second generation cooled EGR. The paper emphasizes the importance of designing the product to meet the tough expectations of the trucking industry - for lowest total cost of ownership, lowest operating costs, high uptime, ease of maintenance, high performance and durability. A key objective was that these new low emission engines should meet or exceed the performance, reliability and fuel economy standards set by the products they replace. Additionally, these engines were designed to be fully compatible and emissions compliant with bio-diesel B20 blends that meet the ASTM and EMA fuel standards.
Technical Paper

Flex Fuel Gasoline-Alcohol Engines For Near Zero Emissions Plug-In Hybrid Long Haul Trucks

2019-04-02
2019-01-0565
Internal combustion engines for plug-in hybrid heavy duty trucks, especially long haul trucks, can play an important role in facilitating use of battery power. Power from a low carbon electricity source could thereby be employed without an unattractive vehicle cost increase or range limitation. The ideal engine should be powered by a widely available affordable liquid fuel, should minimize air pollutant emissions, and should provide lower greenhouse gas emissions. Diesel engines fall short in meeting these objectives, especially because of high NOx emissions. In this paper we describe features of flex fuel alcohol enhanced gasoline engines in series hybrid powertrains where the engines have the same or greater efficiency of diesel engines while also having 90% lower NOx emissions. Ethanol or methanol is employed to increase knock resistance and provide improved combustion.
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