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Technical Paper

A Study of the Durability of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

Diesel emission control is being addressed worldwide to help preserve the global environment. In 1994, emission controls in the U.S. called for reduction of diesel particulate matter (PM) to 10 to 20% of 1986's initial limit. In the same year, we developed and marketed small and medium duty trucks which were equipped with PM reduction systems that oxidize soluble organic fraction (SOF) contained in the PM, in order to satisfy these new regulations. Prior to their marketing, a catalyst was selected from among several types of candidate catalysts. Durability tests were performed using a catalytic converter-equipped small duty truck to verify the durability of the chosen catalyst. The durability test course was set up combining urban areas and expressways in the southern part of California, U.S.A.. The cumulative total distance covered on the test course reached 200,000 km. During the durability test, the catalyst was evaluated by measurement of PM emission using a chassis dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Stiffness of Truck Door Panel Effective Arrangement of Stiffeners for Improving Stiffness

Since it is more difficult for truck door panels to realize curvature than passenger car door panels, internal stiffeners are mounted between the outer panel and inner panel through the use of an adhesive for ensuring stiffness. For this reason, a problem occurs as to the proper placement of the stiffeners so as to effectively improve stiffness. By FEM prediction and experimentation, the following have been clarified: (1) Arrangement of stiffeners for effectively improving stiffness (2) Stiffness share of stiffeners and outer panel against stiffness
Technical Paper

Application of Common Rail Fuel Injection System to a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

In the diesel engine industry, the growing trends are toward wider use of electronically controlled high pressure fuel injection equipment to provide better engine performance, while conforming to the stringent exhaust emission standards. Although there have been some recent announcements of a diesel engine that applies an electronically controlled common rail type fuel injection system, there is little literature published about any attempt to reduce both exhaust emissions and noise and to improve engine performance by varying injection pressure and injection timing independently and introducing pilot injection in combination. This paper describes the details of a study made on the parameters associated with injection timing, injection pressure and pilot injection and the procedures for their optimization, with an electronically controlled common rail type fuel injection system installed in an in-line 6-cylinder 6.9 liter turbocharged and intercooled DI diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Four Wheel Steering System for Medium-Duty Trucks

From the standpoint of safety, the demands are growing in recent years for better controllability and stability of automobiles and in particular in trucks. The truck, however, when compared with the passenger car, is subject to larger changes in gross vehicle mass and center of gravity depending on its load placement. In addition, since the cornering power generated by the truck tire per load is smaller than that generated by the passenger car tire, it is difficult to introduce significant improvements in controllability and stability simply by use of passive techniques like suspension characteristic tuning. Therefore, studies were performed on the applicability of the 4WS system, an active vehicle dynamic characteristic control technique, to a Truck as a means for solving these problems.
Technical Paper

A Study of Low-Noise Crankcase Structure for Light Commercial Vehicle

To reduce diesel engine noise that is induced mainly by main bearing impact forces, two types of low noise concepts of basic crankcase structures were studied. One is the “Isolated Skirt Type”, which has the feature to suppress vibrations of engine surface by separating the crankcase skirt from the main bearing caps. The other is the “Bed Plate Type”, which embodies the feature to suppress vibrations by stiffening the lower part of crankcase by adopting a bed plate design. Dynamic characteristics of both prototypes were investigated by means of experimental modal testings such as double pulse laser holography system and impulsive hydraulic excitation test rig which simulates the exciting force of combustion gas pressure in cylinder. As the result of many experimental tests, it was concluded that the “Bed Plate Type” was advantageous over the “Isolated Skirt Type” in terms of engine noise reduction.
Technical Paper

New Mitsubishi L4 5-Liter DI Diesel Engine

The 4M5 series of four-cylinder, in-line, direct-injection diesel engines has been released by Mitsubishi Motors Corporation for light and medium-duty trucks and buses. Featuring an updated structure and reflecting the employment of state-of-the-art technology in the design of every component, the new engine series offers high reliability and compact dimensions. Moreover, the new series well meets contemporary demands for high performance, low noise, and clean combustion.
Technical Paper

A Diesel Oxidation Catalyst for Exhaust Emissions Reduction

The authors used a mass spectrometer to determine an SOF reduction mechanism of a diesel oxidation catalyst. The results indicate that SOF reduction lies in the catalytic conversion of high molecular organic matter to low molecular organic matter. And unregulated emissions are also reduced through this conversion. It is also found that the SOF reduction performance is highly dependent up on the condition of the wash coat. There is some limitation to improving diesel oxidation catalyst performance because of the sulfur content found in diesel fuel. Finally, the authors have determined what we think are the specifications of the presently best catalytic converter.
Technical Paper

Mitsubishi New 12.0-Liter Turbocharged and Intercooled Diesel Engine

To meet the increasingly strong demand for high-speed transportation, better fuel economy, higher reliability and the social requirements for more strict Japanese regulations against exhaust and noise emissions, Mitsubishi Motors Corporation has recently developed the 6D40T1 in-line 6-cylinder, 12.0-liter turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine for heavy-duty trucks. This engine meets the 1989 Japanese exhaust emission regulations and has an output of 258 kW. To achieve both fuel economy and good drivability, Mitsubishi's original, electronically-controlled fuel injection system was adopted. The so-called prestroke-controlled fuel injection pump is capable of flexible and precise control of both fuel injection rate and timing. The basic structure of the 6D40T1 was designed with high rigidity to permit high cylinder pressures. In addition, to reduce friction and heat losses, a 4-valve design, roller cam followers with needle roller bearings, and shortened exhaust ports were adopted.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Structural Attenuation of a Diesel Engine and its Applications for Reduction of Noise and Vibration

Structural attenuation of a running diesel engine measured by a new technique showed a constant value regardless of engine speeds. It was verified by this result that structural attenuation is a physical quantity unique to the structure of each engine and, therefore, a good indicator for evaluation of low noise engine structure. In addition, a hydraulic excitation test rig was devised to measure structural attenuation directly and to make effective use of it for noise reduction. Based on the accurate measurements by the excitation test rig, modal analysis and system simulation were conducted for implementation of countermeasures against noise.
Technical Paper

Technology for Meeting the 1991 U.S.A. Exhaust Emission Regulations on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Protection of the Earth's environment by means of energy saving and cleaning up of air pollution on a global scale is one of the most important subjects in the world today. Because of this, the requirements for better fuel economy and cleaner exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines have been getting stronger, and, in particular, simultaneous reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDEs) without degrading fuel economy has become a major subject. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MM) has been selling diesel-powered heavy-duty trucks in the U.S. market since 1985 and has agressively carried out development work for meeting the 1991 model year exhaust emission standards.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Analysis of Truck Cab

This paper presents the results of acoustic analyses of light duty truck cabs by actual vehicle testing and by numerical analysis utilizing the boundary element method (BEM). In the resonance mode analysis using BEM, by taking into account the vibration characteristics of cab panels, the presence of the modes other than the purely acoustic cavity resonance modes were confirmed. The contribution of the panel vibrations to booming noise that occurs in actual light duty trucks was analyzed. BEM analysis showed that some of the panel vibration had a negative contribution to booming noise. In other words, decreasing vibration in such a section was shown to increase sound pressure. The results of the BEM analysis match well with actual test results. It has thus been demonstrated that BEM is an effective method for analyzing truck interior noise reduction.
Technical Paper

Influence of Powertrain Torsional Rigidity on NVH of 6x4 Trucks

Torsional vibration of a truck's powertrain system is due to the exciting force generated by the angular velocity fluctuation originating from the setting angle of the universal joint of the propeller shaft, which can cause such problems as rattling noise, booming noise, etc.. This paper will clarify the difference between a 6x4 truck and a 6x2 truck in the torsional vibration characteristics from the experimental results. This is accomplished by computation with a simple torsional vibration model of the powertrain system and investigating the contribution of torsional rigidities of the powertrain system's various components by a parameter study. As a result it has been clarified that the torsional rigidity of the through shaft for transmitting power to the two rear axles has a great influence on Noise, Vibration and Harshness of 6x4 trucks.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Torsional Stiffness Share Rate of Truck Frame

In order to design a well-balanced truck frame, optimization of not only the stiffness of the entire body and stress of each member, but also the internal force of each member is necessary, including the effect of a rear body mounted on the frame. This paper proposes a new parameter, “torsional stiffness share rate,” that directly correlates the contribution of member torsional stiffness to frame torsional stiffness with the internal force of the members as to torsion of the truck frame. The merits of the torsional stiffness share rate are shown in comparison with the strain energy share rate and the stiffness contribution rate. The results of experimental and FEM analyses of the torsional stiffness share rate are also presented.
Technical Paper

Technology for Meeting the 1994 USA Exhaust Emission Regulations on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Recent global environmental problems which have come to light must be solved for ensuring the survival of the human race. And it is of the utmost importance that we give to our descendants a world full of nature and beauty. In the past years Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC) has long been positive in research and the development activities so as to satisfy the demands for low emission and good fuel economy vehicles. (1) As one example of our research efforts, the technology that will meet the US '94 HDDE exhaust emission regulations, which is one of the most stringent regulations in the world, is described in this paper. The exhaust emissions were reduced by improvement of combustion, using the pre-stroke control type fuel injection pump and optimizing the combustion chamber shape. Efforts were also made to improve the oil consumption, in order to reduce PM (Particulate Matter) emission.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Tire Deformation on Ride Comfort of a Truck

When truck tires have a deformation such as radial runout, flat spot, and abnormal wear as a result of panic braking, they affect vehicle vibration in the form of displacement input whose spectrum involves higher order terms of tire revolution. While a truck has vibration modes of frame bending as well as pitching and unsprung-mass viberation in the input frequency range, the tire displacement input induces vehicle vibration as a combination of these modes. Results of calculations and experiments of a 4x2 medium-duty truck are analyzed and an example of means for improving ride comfort is described in this paper.
Technical Paper

Development of Compact, Water-Cooled Engine K2AS

Mitsubishi has developed the new, compact, water-cooled vertical type 2-cylinder diesel engine model K2AS and brought it to market in spring of '82. The K2AS is a small-sized engine of 451 cc total displacement and 10HP/3600 rpm maximum output. Its weight of 58 kg is light enough to use this diesel engine for various machines which have formerly been driven by gasoline engines. The well matched combustion chamber and injection system realize low fuel consumption, low noise and easy engine starting. High durability is also assured by various kinds of reliability evaluation. Features of K2AS are outlined below.
Technical Paper

Improvements of Exhaust Gas Emissions and Cold Startability of Heavy Duty Diesel Engines by New Injection-Rate-Control Pump

In order to investigate the effects of high injection pressure on engine performance and exhaust emissions, some experimental high injection pressure in-line pumps were made and tested. Increasing fuel spray momentum by high injection pressure could reduce smoke emission, but excessive increase in injection pressure was found not so effective in further reducing smoke emission. Accordingly, a high injection pressure should be accomplished within the low engine speed range a feature that has been very difficult to achieve for a conventional in-line pump. An electronic controlled injection-rate-control pump with a variable prestroke mechanism can provide higher injection pressure in low engine speed range and advances injection timing in high engine speed range. This pump can improve fuel economy in low engine speed range and emissions (smoke and particulate) over transient FTP for HDE's.
Technical Paper

Variable Swirl Inlet System and Its Effect on Diesel Performance and Emissions

A variable swirl inlet system with swirl control subport was developed with consideration of how to control the angular momentum of inlet flow into the cylinder. The effects of swirl on direct injection diesel engine performance and emissions are investigated with this variable swirl system. Basically, lower swirl level reduces the amount of initial stage burning, which is related to NOx emission, maximum cylinder pressure and rate of cylinder pressure rise, over the entire range of engine speed and load. As a result, in high speed range or partial load range, low swirl level simultaneously gives better BSFC and lower NOx level. An intercooled turbocharged engine with this variable swirl inlet system gave higher low-speed torque, higher brake horse power and better cold startability by selection of optimum swirl level for each engine condition.
Technical Paper

New Quiescent Combustion System for Heavy–Duty Diesel Engines to Overcome Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption Trade–Off

In the next few years, the USA, EU, and Japan plan to introduce very stringent exhaust emissions regulations for heavy–duty diesel engines, in order to enhance the protection air quality. This builds upon the heavy–duty diesel engine exhaust emissions regulations already in effect. At the same time, improvement in fuel consumption of heavy–duty diesel engines will be very important for lowering vehicle operating costs, conserving fossil fuel resources, and reduction of CO2 (greenhouse gas) levels. This paper presents a detailed review of a quiescent combustion system for a heavy–duty diesel engine, which offers breakthrough performance in terms of the exhaust emissions – fuel consumption trade–off, compared with the more conventional swirl supported combustion system. This conclusion is supported by experimental results comparing quiescent and swirl supported versions of various combustion system configurations.