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Technical Paper

Research Alliances, A Strategy for Progress

1995-09-01
952146
In today's business climate rapid access to, and implementation of, new technology is essential to enhance competitive advantage. In the past, universities have been used for research contracts, but to fully utilize the intellectual resources of education institutions, it is essential to approach these relationships from a new basis: alliance. Alliances permit both parties to become active participants and achieve mutually beneficial goals. This paper will examine the drivers and challenges for industrial -- university alliances from both the industrial and academic perspectives.
Technical Paper

A Full Scale Class 8 Conventional Tractor-Trailer in the 9×9m Wind Tunnel

1988-10-01
881876
This paper outlines the techniques used to install both a full scale and a half scale tractor-trailer model in the 9×9 meter National Research Council of Canada wind tunnel in Ottawa, Canada. The objectives were to measure the cooling drag of an active cooling system and to investigate the aerodynamic testing limits of long, yawed models inside a solid wall wind tunnel. The tunnel interference problem is discussed as it pertains to the upstream boundary, test section floor, downstream boundary, ceiling and side walls and tractor-trailer surface pressure measurements. A potential solution to the problem, however, is the subject of a follow-up paper.
Technical Paper

Dual-Fuel Gasoline-Alcohol Engines for Heavy Duty Trucks: Lower Emissions, Flexible-Fuel Alternative to Diesel Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0888
Long-haul and other heavy-duty trucks, presently almost entirely powered by diesel fuel, face challenges meeting worldwide needs for greatly reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. Dual-fuel gasoline-alcohol engines could potentially provide a means to cost-effectively meet this need at large scale in the relatively near term. They could also provide reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These spark ignition (SI) flexible fuel engines can provide operation over a wide fuel range from mainly gasoline use to 100% alcohol use. The alcohol can be ethanol or methanol. Use of stoichiometric operation and a three-way catalytic converter can reduce NOx by around 90% relative to emissions from diesel engines with state of the art exhaust treatment.
Technical Paper

A Generalized Solution of Non-Steady State Vehicle Off Tracking in Constant Radius Curves

1985-12-01
852333
A simplified mathematical solution to predict transient off tracking of multiple vehicle combinations is presented. The generalized equations assume a constant radius curve of any angular duration with a tangent lead in and run out. The validated solution yields the off tracking of a vehicle or vehicle combination with respect to a track mounted observer. The equations are of continuous piecewise form and are field solvable.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Mid-Channel Ash Plug on DPF Pressure Drop

2016-04-05
2016-01-0966
It has been observed that a certain percentage of diesel particulate filters (DPFs) from the field form mid-channel ash plugs both in light duty and heavy duty applications. As revealed in a post mortem study, some field samples have ash plugs of 3-10 cm length in the middle of DPF inlet channels, which can potentially reduce the inlet channel volume by more than 50%. As a result, the mid-channel ash plug reduces the effective filtration area and decreases the effective channel open width in the middle of the channel. This explains why these filters are reported as having large increases in pressure drop. Moreover, the mid-channel ash deposits reduce the DPF service life and render the filter cleaning process ineffective. In the present study, an open source CFD tool is applied to study the 3D flow crossing two representative inlet and outlet DPF channels where the inlet channels have mid-channel ash plugs.
Journal Article

Examination of the Maskell III Blockage Correction Technique for Full Scale Testing in the NRC 9-Meter Wind Tunnel

2012-09-24
2012-01-2047
The 9-meter wind tunnel of the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada is commonly employed in full-scale testing of class 8 tractors. In this configuration the model blocks 10 - 15% of the test section cross-sectional area, which is greater than generally advocated blockage limits. The NRC utilizes the Maskell III method to correct data for wall interference but the effectiveness of this technique at such blockage levels remained to be seen. Corrected full-scale data was compared to data acquired with a half-scale model to determine how closely the corrected high-blockage data would agree with the low-blockage baseline. The half-scale model presented an opportunity to test at full-scale Reynolds numbers, with less than 4% blockage, which falls within most recommendations of maximum allowable blockage.
Technical Paper

Flex Fuel Gasoline-Alcohol Engines For Near Zero Emissions Plug-In Hybrid Long Haul Trucks

2019-04-02
2019-01-0565
Internal combustion engines for plug-in hybrid heavy duty trucks, especially long haul trucks, can play an important role in facilitating use of battery power. Power from a low carbon electricity source could thereby be employed without an unattractive vehicle cost increase or range limitation. The ideal engine should be powered by a widely available affordable liquid fuel, should minimize air pollutant emissions, and should provide lower greenhouse gas emissions. Diesel engines fall short in meeting these objectives, especially because of high NOx emissions. In this paper we describe features of flex fuel alcohol enhanced gasoline engines in series hybrid powertrains where the engines have the same or greater efficiency of diesel engines while also having 90% lower NOx emissions. Ethanol or methanol is employed to increase knock resistance and provide improved combustion.
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