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Introduction to Commercial and Off-Road Vehicle Cooling Airflow Systems

Vehicle functional requirements, emission regulations, and thermal limits all have a direct impact on the design of a powertrain cooling airflow system. Given the expected increase in emission-related heat rejection, suppliers and vehicle manufacturers must work together as partners in the design, selection, and packaging of cooling system components. An understanding and appreciation of airflow integration issues and vehicle-level trade-offs that effect system performance are important to the team effort. The severe duty cycles, minimal ram air, and sometimes unconventional package layouts present unique challenges.

Neural Network-based Optimal Control for Advanced Vehicular Thermal Management Systems

Advanced vehicular thermal management system can improve engine performance, minimize fuel consumption, and reduce emissions by harmoniously operating computer-controlled servomotor components. In this paper, a neural network-based optimal control strategy is proposed to regulate the engine temperature through the advanced cooling system. Presenter Asma Al Tamimi, Hashemite University

Cooling Airflow System Modeling in CFD Using Assumption of Stationary Flow

Today CFD is an important tool for engineers in the automotive industry who model and simulate fluid flow. For the complex field of Underhood Thermal Management, CFD has become a very important tool to engineer the cooling airflow process in the engine bay of vehicles. Presenter Peter Gullberg, Chalmers University of Technology
Training / Education

Introduction to Cooling Airflow Systems Web Seminar RePlay

Vehicle functional requirements, diesel emission regulations, and subsystem thermal limits all have a direct impact on the design of a powertrain cooling airflow system. Severe duty cycles, minimal ram air, fouling, and sometimes unconventional package layouts present unique challenges to the designer. This course introduces many airflow integration issues and vehicle-level trade-offs that effect system performance and drive the design. The goal of this course is to introduce engineers and managers to the basic principles of diesel cooling airflow systems for commercial and off-road vehicles.

Principles of Engine Cooling Systems, Components and Maintenance

Completely revised as a result of the significant progress made in cooling system design and maintenance practices and procedures, HS-40 provides current, comprehensive information on the description, function, and maintenance of engine liquid-cooling systems used in light and heavy-duty vehicles. Information-packed chapters discuss the interrelation between the cooling system and other engine systems, cooling system components, general preventive maintenance, and troubleshooting.
Technical Paper


The author describes a number of detailed developments that took place during the working out of a line of worm-driven trucks. The details of front axle and steering parts are dealt with at length, the reasons for the final constructions being clearly explained and the constructions themselves well illustrated. Details concerning difficulty with the Hotchkiss type of drive on heavy trucks, troubles with drive-shafts and lubrication of the worm wheel are all covered thoroughly; spring-shackle construction and lubrication, radiator and hood mounting come in for detailed attention and the question of governors is interestingly covered. Brief reference is made to the influence of unsprung weight, the differences between truck and pleasure car practice in this respect being pointed out.
Technical Paper


The title of this paper fully indicates its scope. The author presents an intimate picture of conditions prevailing at the war front which affect the operation and maintenance of war trucks, and these two factors in turn indicate the trend that design should take. The training of the mechanical transport personnel of the Army is also gone into at some length. The English and American trucks used earlier in the war consisted of about nineteen different makes and forty-two totally different models, resulting in a very serious problem of providing spare parts and maintenance in general. In the British Army transportation comes under an Army Service Corps officer called the Director of Transport and Supplies. At the outbreak of the war these officers had had little mechanical experience, horses being employed principally. In the French Army motor vehicles were used to a greater extent before the war, under the artillery command.
Technical Paper


NEARLY 300 fleet operators were questioned by Mr. Laurie to gather data for this paper on what features the users of trucks would like to have the manufacturers incorporate in post-war trucks. The cooling system is one important item that came in for its share of criticism. For example, maintaining the proper coolant level is most important, and yet many of today's systems require filling into the filler neck before the liquid level can be seen. Petcocks or sight gages properly installed could solve this problem, according to Mr. Laurie. Accessibility for maintenance should also be improved in the post-war truck. Some of today's trucks have batteries that are not located for ease of servicing and spark plugs that it is almost impossible to remove and replace. Improvements should also be possible in cold starting of the engine, based on the experience of the Army in cold climates.

Latest Advances for Commercial Vehicle Drivetrains, Powertrains, and Transmissions 2010

This technical paper collection contains 53 technical papers. Topics covered include engine exhaust aftertreatment and integration; hybrid vehicle integration and optimization; powertrain and drivetrain NVH; advanced transmission and driveline component design; diesel engine system design; fuel economy; alternative fuels; and advanced engine component design.
Technical Paper

Military Hydraulic System Requirements

To meet the military hydraulic system requirements for construction equipment, the Engineer Research and Development Laboratories has initiated a hydraulic program to develop minimum standards of system and component acceptance through the media of performance specifications. The program will also establish a standardization of system types and of component mounting and port configuration. Such standardization, including hoses, tubing, and couplings, is intended to simplify maintenance and logistical support of hydraulic systems.
Technical Paper

Backhoe Hydraulic System Design Calculations

During the development of the new industrial tractor-loader backhoe packages, many hydraulic problems were encountered. A review of these problems is presented, particularly with respect to backhoe circuits. The various components described in detail include the swing valve, the main control valve, pumps, hoses, and packings.
Technical Paper

Engine Tunnel Air Flow Analysis for Commercial Vehicles

It is presented in this study a methodology based on numerical simulation by means of the computational fluid dynamics for the analysis of air flow inside the engine tunnel for commercial vehicles, aiming primarily at the performance of the cooling system. The simulations have been carried out with the software Ansys CFX v12.1. Starting from the geometries of the water and engine charge air radiators, a 3D finite volume model is automatically generated for this system by means of a macro written with Excel, taking into account the dimensions, forms and quantity of tubes, as well as the fluid inside them, in order to represent the heat exchanges which occur on the water and air radiators.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Thermal Performance of Radiator Using 1-D Method

The Technical paper present the mathematical model that predicts the radiator thermal performance curves for different airflow and coolant flow. This model was modeled using the signal library of AMEsim software. The model accepts the inputs of radiator parameters such as Air flow, Ambient temperature, Core size, Tube pitch, FPDM, No of rows, Louver pitch, Fin thickness, Louver angle Tube section data, Tube thickness, Coolant lpm, Max allowable coolant temp. The output of this model is the Radiator Performance Curve. This model is quick tool to work out approximate size of radiator to start system level packaging, Hence the Product Development time can be saved in Radiator Sizing.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation of Airflow through Fan and Cooler System of an Off Road Vehicle

Cooling airflow is driven by a cooling fan situated in the engine compartment of an off road vehicle. To achieve acceptable cooling, fan should supply required cooling airflow at all operating points. Therefore study of airflow through the fan is a must. In this paper fan performance curve is plotted using CFD code to investigate steady state airflow through fan and cooler system over operating range of fan. Radiator is defined as a porous medium and porous coefficients are varied to vary the system restriction of the cooler system. Steady state investigation of airflow through fan and cooler system with increasing system restriction is done. Effect of increasing system restriction on simulated fan curve, fan efficiency and fan power consumption is also studied. Efforts are also made for comparative study between the effect of standard k-ε model and realizable k-ε model on the prediction of fan performance curve.
Technical Paper

Robust Engineering Methodology for Pulsation Noise Reduction in Gasoline Vehicles

Nowadays much greater emphasis is given on improving the NVH Performance of an automobile due to global move of customer satisfaction. Noise is an irritant to a valued customer - customer expects value for money in all perspective. There are many sources for noise generation in a vehicle. Noise due to pulsating fuel flow is one of the major causes. The pressure pulsation from the fuel supply system (generated by the sudden opening & closing of the injectors result in pulses inside rail, Low Pressure or High Pressure pump pulses, sudden cross section changes in flow path, etc) can cause an undesirable noise which may propagate as fluid or structure borne noise in to the cabin room, therefore in a conventional engine, a pulsation damper is usually mounted on the fuel rail to diminish the undesirable noise. However, the pulsation dampers are quite expensive. Therefore, several studies have focused on reducing fuel pressure pulsation by various methodologies.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Rankine Cycle Generating System for Heavy Duty HV Trucks

In heavy duty (HD) trucks cruising on expressway, about 60% of input fuel energy is wasted as losses. So it is important to recover them to improve fuel economy of them. As a waste heat recovery system, a Rankine cycle generating system was selected. And this paper mainly reports it. In this study, engine coolant was determined as main heat source, which collected energies of an engine cooling, an EGR gas and an exhaust gas, for collecting stable energy as much as possible. And the exergy of heat source was raised by increase coolant temperature to 105 deg C. As for improving the system efficiency, saturation temperature difference was expanded by improving performance of heat exchanger and by using high pressure turbine. And a recuperator which exchanges heat in working fluid between expander outlet and evaporator inlet was installed to recover the heat of working fluid at turbine generator. Then a working fluid pump was improved to reduce power consumption of the system.
Technical Paper

Cooling Performance Investigation of a Rear Mounted Cooling Package for Heavy Vehicles

The aim of the study was to investigate the cooling performance of two cooling package positions for distribution vehicles by using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The first cooling package was positioned in the front of the vehicle, behind the grill and the second position was at the rear of the vehicle. Each case was evaluated by its cooling performance for a critical driving situation and its aerodynamic drag at 90 km/h, where the largest challenge of an alternative position is the cooling air availability. The geometry used was a semi-generic commercial vehicle, based on a medium size distribution truck with a heat rejection value set to a fixed typical level at maximum power for a 13 litre Euro 6 diesel engine. The heat exchangers included in the study were the air conditioning condenser, the charge air cooler and the radiator. It was found that the main problem with the rear mounted cooling installation was the combination of the fan and the geometry after the fan.
Technical Paper

Cooling Airflow System Modeling in CFD Using Assumption of Stationary Flow

Today CFD is an important tool for engineers in the automotive industry who model and simulate fluid flow. For the complex field of Underhood Thermal Management, CFD has become a very important tool to engineer the cooling airflow process in the engine bay of vehicles. To model the cooling airflow process accurately in CFD, it is of utmost importance to model all components in the cooling airflow path accurately. These components are the heat exchangers, fan and engine bay blockage effect. This paper presents CFD simulations together with correlating measurements of a cooling airflow system placed in a test rig. The system contains a heavy duty truck louvered fin radiator core, fan shroud, fan ring and fan. Behind the cooling module and fan, a 1D engine silhouette is placed to mimic the blockage done by a truck engine. Furthermore, a simple hood is mounted over the module to mimic the guiding of air done by the hood shape in an engine bay.