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Training / Education

Corrosion Engineering and Prevention

The transportation industry, including motor vehicles, aircraft, rail, marine, commercial, off-road and defense vehicles, as well as infrastructures, energy sectors, raw materials, manufacturing, health and food industries all experience significant issues with corrosion which results in billions of dollars of loss each year. Corrosion education and prevention is essential to improve and increase the service life of parts and components which may have a significant impact on the economy of various industries and nations.
Training / Education

Materials Degradation in Mechanical Design Wear, Corrosion, Fatigue and their Interactions

2019-04-09
Materials degradation from environmental conditions is a common factor that will often occur in mechanical equipment used in every type of environment. These processes can frequently materialize in unpredicted and harmful ways, especially when they interact and lead to early component damage or failure. This five-session course will summarize the mechanisms that cause materials and mechanical components to degrade in service through exposure to deleterious mechanical and environmental conditions.
Standard

Laboratory Corrosion/Fatigue Testing of Vehicle Suspension Coil Springs

2016-04-01
CURRENT
J2800_201604
This lab test procedure should be used when evaluating the combined corrosion and fatigue performance for a particular coating system, substrate, process and design. The test is intended to provide an A to B comparison of a proposed coil spring design versus an existing field validated coil spring when subjected to the combined effects of corrosion and fatigue. The corrosion mechanisms covered by this test include general, cosmetic and pitting corrosion. Fatigue testing covers the maximum design stress and/or stress range of the coil spring design (typically defined as excursion from jounce to rebound positions in a vehicle). The effects of gravel and heat are simulated by pre-conditioning the springs prior to fatigue testing. Time dependant corrosion mechanisms such as stress corrosion cracking are not addressed with this test.
Standard

SHIP SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT—FASTENERS—SELECTION AND IDENTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS

1996-04-01
CURRENT
J2280_199604
This SAE Standard provides a comprehensive list of requirements for the selection, identification, and control of metric and inch sized fasteners for use in shipboard applications for both shipbuilder installed joints and for use in shipboard components. The fastener selection requirements include the following: a Materials b Thread selection c Plating, coatings, and surface treatments d Locking devices and elements e Screw thread fastener inserts f Fastener part or identifying numbers g Identification markings
Technical Paper

Contamination Control for Biodegradable Fluids in Mobile Equipment

1998-09-14
981996
“Bio Fluids” have the remarkable property of rapidly degrading in natural environments. Unfortunately, the same fluid chemistry leading to biodegradation also leads to fluid instability in machine environments. This dilemma can be resolved through vigilant contamination control. Maintaining biodegradable fluids at extremely low levels of particulate contamination and extremely low levels of moisture discourages fluid deterioration, especially the breakdown mechanisms of oxidation and hydrolysis. Maintaining fluids clean and dry also achieves the additional benefits of limiting the wear and corrosion of mechanical components. The challenge is to control these contaminants in the fluid systems of heavy machinery operating in wet and dusty environments.
Technical Paper

The Development of Zinc-Free Anti-Wear Hydraulic Oil: Doubling Useful Service Life

1998-09-14
982000
The excellent anti-wear (AW) and oxidation inhibition properties of Zinc Dialkyl Dithio Phosphates (ZDDPs) have resulted in their extensive use in modern AW hydraulic oils. However, increasingly compact hydraulic systems utilizing high service-pressure pumps (>300kg/cm2), has lead to operating temperatures (>250°C) that have been shown to thermally degrade ZDDP into insoluble sludge [1]. This paper chronicles the development of a non-ZDDP AW hydraulic oil, and evaluates its performance relative to a ZDDP oil in the areas of sludge generation, oxidation, and AW properties. The formulation reduces sludge by 85 to 99.5%; retains more viscosity; reduces metal wear by 04-06%; and extends useful service life to at least twice that of the ZDDP-based hydraulic oil.
Technical Paper

Development And Applications Of Environmentally Acceptable Hydraulic Fluids

1998-04-08
981493
Environmentally acceptable hydraulic fluids are increasingly specified for use in hydraulic equipment working in environmentally sensitive areas. This paper describes the research methodology that was used to develop a high performance synthetic, environmentally acceptable hydraulic fluid. Product development consisted of: (1) setting the standards for environmental acceptability, (2) screening base fluids and additives for technical performance and minimal impact on the environment, (3) designing a formulation to meet these targets and (4) field experience. Test results demonstrating the high performance and low environmental impact of the new fluid are discussed. A key challenge when formulating an environmentally acceptable hydraulic fluid is to achieve satisfactory oxidation stability. The absence of a suitable oxidation stability test, which can differentiate between environmentally acceptable fluids and correlate with field performance, has been an issue for several years.
Technical Paper

The Development of Hydraulic Fluids for Earthmoving Machines Complying with Ecolabel Requirements

1998-04-08
981490
The use of environmental friendly lubricants is driven by the emergence of regulations appearing in many countries. The absence of water toxicity is of prime importance. To meet the stringent toxicity requirements, it is important to minimize the amount of additives which are potentially toxic. Base stocks of stable fatty chemicals were selected because the inherent properties closely matched the fluid properties required. This would necessitate the use of a minimum amount of additives. Particular attention has been devoted to the following : low temperature stability, proper viscosity, elastomers swelling, resistance to oxidation and parking brake friction. Complex neopolyol esters based on blends of linear saturated fatty acids are good candidates since they closely match the requirements of hydraulic fluids meeting the ecolabel specification. Comparisons with unsaturated derivatives and synthetic petrochemical esters base oils show their advantages.
Technical Paper

Environmentally Acceptable Hydraulic Fluids Based on Natural Synthetic Esters

1998-04-08
981489
Natural synthetic esters are nowadays often applied as lubricants for their advantageous characteristics such as good biodegradability, low toxicity and the fact that they enable safe operation under very low and high temperatures. There is a wide range of applications in which the natural synthetic esters are used for their good biodegradability characteristics. Currently, a number of investigations are done towards oxidation stability of the natural synthetic esters. The methods of assessing the oxidation stability, benchmarking results and the outcome of a study on the effect of anti-oxidants in natural synthetic esters are decribed.
Technical Paper

The Influence of an Oxidation Catalytic Converter on the Chemical and Biological Characteristics of Diesel Exhaust Emissions

1994-03-01
940241
The reduction of diesel engine exhaust emissions was investigated using a conventional low-sulphate catalyst, manufactured by Svenska Emissionsteknik AB, Sweden. Measurements were made of regulated pollutants (HC, CO, NOx and particulates) and also some unregulated pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)). The mutagenic potential of the emissions were investigated by Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium) using tester strains TA98, TA98NR and TA100 both with and without metabolic activation. In general, it appeared that the use of an oxidation catalytic converter decreased pollutants emission.
Technical Paper

Kinetic Analysis on the Igniting Characteristics of Diesel Particulates

1994-09-01
941772
The catalytic conversions of diesel exhausting particulates (DEP) are studied in this paper. The oxidation catalysts, carried by Y-Al,O, pellets, are prepared with the method of impregnation. By use of thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) technique, the catalytic abilities of these catalysts are studied and the igniting characteristics of DEP are determined. A mathematical method is introduced to process TGA experimental data furtherly. Some equations have been derived to evaluate the kinetic parameters of the oxidation reaction of DEP. By comparing the activation energy (Ea) of the reaction and the igniting temperature (Ti) of DEP, the catalytic activities of the oxidation catalysts are evaluated.
Technical Paper

Physical Factors Affecting Hydrocarbon Oxidation in a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

1994-09-01
941771
A study of factors affecting hydrocarbon oxidation in a diesel oxidation catalyst was undertaken. The objective was to determine whether interactions between particulate-adsorbed hydrocarbons and the catalyst significantly influenced hydrocarbon oxidation. Theoretical modeling supported by experimental data obtained at the U.S. Bureau of Mines' Diesel Emissions Research Laboratory indicated that the mass of particles interacting with the ceramic support was negligible. Additionally, a model of hydrocarbon adsorption onto diesel particulate predicted that over 98% by mass of exhaust hydrocarbons would be gas-phase, rather than particulate-adsorbed, at converter operating temperatures. A second physical process, the diffusion of gas phase hydrocarbons to the catalytic surface, was subsequently investigated. Theoretical and experimental results for the unburnt fuel hydrocarbons indicated that hydrocarbon oxidation was diffusion limited under high temperature operating conditions.
Technical Paper

The Evaluation of Oxidation Catalysts for Diesel Trucks

1995-02-01
950157
The Thermogravimetry SOF measurement method is developed as simple and time-saving method. It is experimentally revealed that this method is useful for SOF measurement and the method has potential to distinguish SOF component. The oxidation catalysts can effectively reduce particulate matter under actual driving conditions. Sulfate formation suppressing oxidation catalyst reduces high molecular number paraffins. However, it is important for further development of oxidation catalyst to improve the oxidation ability of polar hydrocarbons included in SOF. The oxidation catalysts can effectively reduce CO, HC emissions under actual driving conditions. This is caused by the temperature rise of oxidation catalysts during accelerations.
Technical Paper

Performance of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts for European Bus Applications

1995-02-01
950155
Base metal oxide diesel oxidation catalyst technology having low sulfate making tendencies was evaluated using the ECE R-49 Test procedure on medium and heavy duty diesel engines and found to achieve substantial reduction of particulate, gas phase HC and CO emissions. Although the engines met the current European standards, further reduction in these emissions for vehicles operated in congested urban areas, such as buses, would have a positive impact on general air quality. A study of varying fuel sulfur levels (110-770 ppm S) showed that the catalyst was effective for control of sulfate-make such that overall particulate removal in the test was not compromised. However, it was found that lower fuel sulfur levels (< 550 ppm S) gave the best results for the ECE R-49 test which places emphasis on test modes yielding the highest exhaust temperatures.
Technical Paper

Effect of Low Molecular Weight Carboxylic Acids on Hydraulic Pump Wear

1994-09-01
941751
All types of hydraulic fluids may encounter thermal excursions at some point during their lifetime in use. When this occurs, there is the potential for the formation of degradation by-products. For most hydraulic fluids, including water-glycols, these degradation by-products include various low molecular weight carboxylic acids, e.g. formic acid and acetic acid. This paper describes the potential formation of these acids and the impact of their presence on wear and corrosion of hydraulic systems.
Technical Paper

The Durability of and Evaluation Methods for Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

1998-11-16
982802
An oxidation catalyst for diesel engines has been tested in the North American market with proven satisfactory initial performance and durability tests of vehicles but has yet to be evaluated by its bench durability tests due to shorter test duration. Therefore, the oxidation catalyst, durability tested by vehicle and bench, was subjected and the test data were analyzed to clarify its degradation mechanism and set up outlooks for evaluation of its durability by bench tests.
Technical Paper

A Diesel Oxidation Catalyst for Exhaust Emissions Reduction

1993-11-01
932958
The authors used a mass spectrometer to determine an SOF reduction mechanism of a diesel oxidation catalyst. The results indicate that SOF reduction lies in the catalytic conversion of high molecular organic matter to low molecular organic matter. And unregulated emissions are also reduced through this conversion. It is also found that the SOF reduction performance is highly dependent up on the condition of the wash coat. There is some limitation to improving diesel oxidation catalyst performance because of the sulfur content found in diesel fuel. Finally, the authors have determined what we think are the specifications of the presently best catalytic converter.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions Achievements with an Uncooled Heavy-Duty, Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine

1989-02-01
890144
In this study, the performance and emissions characteristics of an uncooled, thermally insulated diesel that utilized an optimized injector-tip configuration are examined. When the uncooled engine was compared to a conventional water-cooled engine at the same brake power and airflow, the uncooled engine had equal or superior fuel consumption, significantly higher nitric oxide emissions, and significantly lower smoke and particulate emissions. The dramatic reduction in smoke emitted by the uncooled engine was not observed in studies reported earlier. This smoke reduction is attributed to the high gas temperatures and increased rates of air-fuel mixing that augmented the rate of oxidation of the soot particles when the injector tip was optimized for the uncooled engine and airflow was adjusted to match that of the cooled engine. Heat-release analyses showed that the uncooled engine had less premixed combustion and significantly shorter combustion duration than the water-cooled engine.
Technical Paper

Copper Fuel Additives as a Part of a Particulate Emmission Control Strategy

1990-09-01
901619
The use of a copper diesel fuel additive in an emission control system improves particulate oxidation. This expands the operability of available systems by reducing the particulate mass loading and related external energy consumption required during regeneration. Easier, more frequent regenerations improve overall engine/system efficiency and reduce thermal stress on filtration media. Procedures for optimizing additive use are presented. In addition, the results from a health study are reviewed.
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