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SAE Off-Highway Engineering 2000-09-01

Simulating air-conditioning performance A computer program developed by Modine Climate Systems and Modelogics helps determine and optimize air-conditioning system performance. Reduced mass haul-truck design concepts Liebherr Mining trucks adopted a reduced structural mass approach to convert unladen weight directly into payload, while simultaneously incorporating state-of-the-art driveline technology. Optimizing a tractor frame for improved cabin NVH To address an aging agricultural workforce and modern ergonomic guidelines, researchers at Doshisha University and Kubota modeled medium- and large-sized agricultural tractors to reduce vibration and noise and increase comfort. Applying 3d-CAD to turbocharger development Ishkawajima-Harima Heavy Industries has developed a 3d-CAD system for turbochargers. satisfying requirements for digital mockup development.

SAE Off-Highway Engineering 2000-12-01

Lightpipe design According to Breault Research Organization, any off-highway instrument or control that needs illumination is a candidate for a lightpipe to take light from where it is generated to where it is needed. The biodiesel choice Experts from the Natural Biodiesel Board believe it is time to consider alternatives to the current fuel structure. One solution to rising fuel prices is the pursuit of biodiesel fuels. Understanding machining difficulties in gray iron Bosch Braking Systems' engineers look more closely than usual at iron brake rotor samples to give new insights into critical characteristics of the material. Caterpillar mining for customers With commodity prices low, Caterpillar wants to make mining as productive an enterprise as possible for customers.

SAE Off-Highway Engineering 2005-03-01

Engine electronics come of age Changes in global standards, combined with engineering know-how, have resulted in a new generation of clean, quiet, and efficient engines. Operators are rolling in the chips Microprocessors and sensors are being combined to monitor the way that equipment is being used, then help operators to perform better in that environment. Gaining weight Perkins' influence in the off-highway industry grows as it evolves its global engine lines and expands its presence in the U.S. What's new at CONEXPO-CON/AGG, Part 2 of 2 A preview of some of the products and technologies that will be displayed at this year's event, scheduled March 15-19 in Las Vegas, NV. Engineering a career Off-highway companies are challenged not only by the ever-changing technology landscape, but also by finding the engineering talent to help them succeed in it.

Lubricants, Industrial Oils, and Related Products - Classification

This index provides an overview of lubricants and symbols for the purpose of assisting the user in the identification of the appropriate product and relevant SAE specification. The aim is to better determine the best lubricant to be used for a particular application. If containers used for shipping lubricants are also to be marked, the same identification and symbols should be used. See also ISO 5169 Machine tools - Presentation of lubrication instructions.
Technical Paper

Development of Application Technique of Aluminum Sandwich Sheets for Automotive Hood

Objective of this study was to develop basic techniques in order to apply aluminum sandwich sheets for an automotive hood part. The aluminum sandwich sheet is the material fabricated by adhering two aluminum skins to one polypropylene core. When it has the same bending stiffness as a steel sheet, it is 65% lighter than the steel sheet and 30% lighter than an aluminum alloy sheet. Therefore, it is notified exclusively as good substitutive materials for a steel body to improve the fuel efficiency. Through aluminum sandwich sheet, however, it has relatively lower formability than that of the steel sheet for automotive application. In this study, we fabricated a prototype of the automotive hood panel to develop application techniques of the aluminum sandwich sheet.
Technical Paper

High Force Electric Linear Motors

SatCon is developing electric machines to produce more torque or force within a given volume Some are novel multi-air gap configurations which employ the same operating principles as conventional machines Others employ smart materials As linear motors or actuators, these machines offer an alternative to hydraulics Direct drive electric linear motors fail to match the force capability of hydraulics As a result, rotary motors have been combined with gear reducers and ball or lead screws to create a high force linear actuator This approach, although effective in many situations, is often too sluggish to employ for applications requiring rapid response and maneuvering Simply speaking the inertias of the motor and gear reducer consume an unacceptably large fraction of the force capability of these actuators In response to these limitations, SatCon has conceived of a permanent magnet-based linear electric actuator which employs multiple air gaps The most basic configuration resembles a “sandwich”, where permanent magnet (PM) shuttle plates are placed between multiple wound stator plates Only the end stator plates require return iron This approach is effective in achieving high torque within a given envelope, because additional force-producing air gaps are provided without the penalty of added return iron and housings A second approach employs a magnetostrictive material in an “inch-worm” configuration The “inch-worm” approach has been implemented with piezoelectrics for low force, high precision positioning For higher force applications, there has been limited development of magnetostrictive inch-worm devices Unlike the PM actuator, it holds its position when power is removed SatCon has developed a novel configuration of this approach which could serve as an alternative to hydraulic actuators
Technical Paper

Development of a Roll-Off Container Handling and Dumping System (Ground Level or into a Railroad Car) for Off-Highway Articulated Trucks

This paper describes the development and manufacture of roll-off container handling systems for off-highway articulated trucks. This presentation reviews systems incorporating four unique products covering various roll-off container handling alternatives. The various components described and, depending on the style of the system, incorporated into a system are: 1. An off-highway truck “J”-Hook arrangement for picking roll-off containers up off of the ground and pulling them onto a haulage vehicle. 2. An automatic tailgate locking and opening system for roll-off containers vs. a manual vehicle driver dependent door/tailgate system. 3. A scissors lift for lifting roll-off containers to be dumped into various other vessels (railroad gondola cars, etc.). 4. A unique “J”-Hook interface for standard 20-ft. intermodal roll-off shipping containers so they can be hooked onto and handled with a “J”-Hook.
Technical Paper

Material and Heat Treatment Effect on the Bearing Inner Ring Fracture under Hoop Stress

A new test method has been developed that enables the resistance to through cracking of different bearing materials operating under the influence of hoop stress to be assessed. Using this method the resistance to through cracking of a new case hardened medium carbon bearing steel together with standard through hardened SAE 52100 and case hardened SAE 5120 bearing steels has been assessed. The results showed that the new case hardened medium carbon and SAE 5120 steels had a higher resistance to through ring cracking than the through hardened SAE 52100 steel at a given hoop stress. The results also showed that the resistance to through cracking of the new case hardened medium carbon steel was similar to that of SAE 5120 steel.
Technical Paper

Process Control Standards for Technology Development

Engineering new technology and products challenges managers to balance design innovation and program risk. To do this, managers need methods to judge future results to avoid program and product disasters. Besides the traditional prediction tools of schedule, simulations and “iron tests”, process control standards (with measurements) can also be applied to the development programs to mitigate risks. This paper briefly discusses the theory and case history behind some new process control methods and standards currently in place at Caterpillar's Electrical & Electronics department. Process standards reviewed in this paper include process mapping, ISO9001, process controls, and process improvement models (e.g. SEI's CMMs.)
Technical Paper

Improving Fillet Weld Fatigue Performance by Improving Weld Shape

The fatigue performance of fillet-welded transverse attachments was compared for several procedure variants for both FCAW and SAW on ½ in. steel plates. Measurements of weld toe shape on adjacent pieces of weld indicated that smoother weld toes, as evidenced by larger weld toe radius, were correlated to improved fatigue performance for both processes. Fatigue tests conducted on 59 and 109 ksi yield strength plates did not show an effect of plate strength. Weld procedures designed to provide smooth toes, such as reduced parameter FCAW beads at horizontal weld toes and flat position FCAW at higher heat inputs, were shown to provide fatigue performances near post-weld improved fillets.
Technical Paper

Weld Process Modeling and It's Importance in a Manufacturing Environment

An important emerging technical area is computer-based modeling of the various manufacturing processes that are used in many diverse industries. These models are used to optimize manufacturing techniques to reduce fabrication costs and improve the service performance. One manufacturing process important in steel fabrication is welding. It can be a useful tool to aid in reducing fabrication costs and service durability by optimizing the weld process and is the subject of this paper.
Technical Paper

Hem Flanging Hylite Sandwich Sheet for Mass Production

The weight reduction potential of Hylite sandwich sheet in applications where bending stiffness is the design criterion is approx. 65% over steel sheet and 30% over aluminum sheet. The sandwich sheet (0,2/0,8/0,2mm aluminum/polypropylene/aluminum) has proven its functionality in numerous prototype car body parts which have been tested thoroughly by car manufacturers. In order to demonstrate its suitability in today's car manufacturing environment Hoogovens Hylite in close collaboration with Volkswagen AG and Grau Werkzeug- und Formenbau GmbH has set up a prevalidation line for the production of car hoods. The emphasis in the project has been on deep drawing and an innovative hemflanging technology involving a preparatory ‘ribbing’ operation. The aim was to prove that the deep drawing and subsequent hem flanging operation can be carried out in an acceptable cycle time at high quality standards and at a low rejection rate.
Technical Paper

Critical Speed Failure Mode of a Steel Driveshaft

This paper discusses the failure mode of a steel driveshaft as it goes into an unstable state as the shaft approaches its critical speed. Two axial buckling theories, Johnson and Euler, will be used to verify the cause of failure for a driveshaft exhibiting the phenomenon of catastrophic failure at its natural bending frequency.
Technical Paper

On the Correlation of Road Retardation and Dynamometer Measurements for Lorries and Trailer Combinations

Heavy lorries and trailer combinations cause many serious traffic accidents. There in Finland alone have been approximately100 killed per year by heavy duty vehicles in 1990's. Improvements in inspection methods of brake systems increase traffic safety. In Finland dynamometer measurements have been used since 1960´s, and its advantages are stable measuring conditions, high repetability and short inspection time. The Finnish Traffic Office and the Finnish Motor Vehicle Registration Centre have been interested in correlations of road retardation and dynamometer measurements and therefore established Dynamet-brake research project in 1993. This paper contains a research which aims to find out correlations of retardation prediction for lorries and trailer combinations by comparing road braking tests and dynamometer measurements, and secondly to improve the dynamometer measurement system at inspection stations.
Technical Paper

The Use of the Atomic Force Microscope in the Study of Wear

The very fine details of wear scars have been investigated using the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The AFM, developed some ten years ago, was designed to image molecules. However, as it has been refined, it has been used in a growing variety of applications. The instrument is essentially a very high resolution profilometer. It uses a stylus with an extremely fine point dragged over a surface. The stylus records minute changes in force as it encounters high points in the surface. It has nanometer level resolution (10-9 meter or 0.04 millionths of an inch). The stylus is rastered over the surface and generates a three dimensional topographic map. A number of different materials, including ceramics, steel and graphite initially subjected to wear, were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The images were compared. The study showed that each technique reveals unique features.
Technical Paper

Medium-Heat-Resistant Bearing Steel

Operating temperatures in many bearing applications exceed 100 °C. Conventional bearing steel (SAE52100,SAE5120,Etc.) will begin to experience a reduction in life due to dimensional instability, and reduced surface hardness, at these temperatures. High speed tool steel (such as AISI-M50) can operate in temperatures up to 300°C but is very costly. SAE52100 can be heat stabilized up to 300°C to improve the dimensional stability, but this process can severely decrease the surface hardness and fatigue life. There are many applications where the high operating temperature is greater than 100°C but less than 200°C. A new material has been developed, based on SAE52100, with improved dimensional stability, and surface hardness, for this medium operating temperature range.
Technical Paper

Development of the 6.8L V10 Heat Resisting Cast-Steel Exhaust Manifold

This paper presents the experience of Ford Motor Company and Hitachi Metals Ltd., in the development and design of the exhaust manifolds for the new 1997 Ford 6.8L, Vl0 gasoline truck engine. Due to the high-exhaust temperature 1000 °C (1832 °F), heat-resisting nodular graphite irons, such as high-silicon molybdenum iron and austenitic iron with nickel cannot meet the durability requirements, mainly thermal fatigue evaluation. The joint effort by both companies include initial manifold design, prototype development, engine simulation bench testing, failure analysis, material selections (ferritic or austenitic cast steel), production processes (casting, machining) and final inspection. This experience can well be applied to the design and development of new cast stainless-steel exhaust manifolds in the future. This is valid due to the fact that US EPA is requiring all car manufacturers to meet the new Bag 6-Emission Standards which will result in increased exhaust gas temperature.