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Self-Propelled Sweepers and Scrubbers Fuel Consumption of Non-Propulsion Auxiliary Engines

This SAE Standard applies to the fuel consumption of non-propulsion engines used to drive exclusively the sweeping and cleaning functions of multi-engine sweepers and scrubbers as defined in SAE J2130. The purpose of this document is to derive a uniform expression of fuel consumption from a simulated test cycle. The derived expression is based on various work situations encountered during a typical daily eight-hour period of operation. The derived fuel consumption may be used to assess the sizing of fuel tanks.

Diesel Fuels

Automotive and locomotive diesel fuels, in general, are derived from petroleum refinery products which are commonly referred to as middle distillates. Middle distillates represent products which have a higher boiling range than gasoline and are obtained from fractional distillation of the crude oil or from streams from other refining processes. Finished diesel fuels represent blends of middle distillates and may contain other blending components of substantially non-petroleum origin, such as biodiesel fuel blend stock, and/or middle distillates from non-traditional refining processes, such as gas-to-liquid processes. The properties of commercial distillate diesel fuels depend on the refinery practices employed and the nature of the crude oils from which they are derived. Thus, they may differ both with and within the region in which they are manufactured. Such fuels generally boil, at atmospheric pressure, over a range between 130 °C and 400 °C (approximately 270 °F to 750 °F).

Neural Network-based Optimal Control for Advanced Vehicular Thermal Management Systems

Advanced vehicular thermal management system can improve engine performance, minimize fuel consumption, and reduce emissions by harmoniously operating computer-controlled servomotor components. In this paper, a neural network-based optimal control strategy is proposed to regulate the engine temperature through the advanced cooling system. Presenter Asma Al Tamimi, Hashemite University

Siemens ELFA Drive System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Concerned with fuel consumption and emissions, especially public transportation in urban areas, the ELFA electric drive system has been developed for hybrid bus applications. This modular system provides bus manufactures a cost effective solution with a maximum degree of design flexibility. Presenter Joshua Nelke, siemens industry inc.

Challenges and Opportunities in Adoption of Hybrid Technologies in Medium and Heavy Duty Applications

A key strategy to improving the real-world fuel consumption and emissions of medium and heavy duty vehicles is the hybridization of these applications. Unlike the passenger vehicle market, medium and heavy duty applications are typically comprised of a range of components from a variety of manufacturers. Presenter Monika A. Minarcin, Navistar, Inc. Eric Rask, Argonne National Laboratory Matthew R. Smith, Navistar, Inc.

Model-Based Approach to Estimate Fuel Savings from Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle: Model Development and Validation

A simulation framework with a validated system model capable of estimating fuel consumption is a valuable tool in analysis and design of the hybrid vehicles. In particular, the framework can be used for (1) benchmarking the fuel economy achievable from alternate hybrid powertrain technologies, (2) investigating sensitivity of fuel savings with respect to design parameters (for example, component sizing), and (3) evaluating the performance of various supervisory control algorithms for energy management. Presenter Chinmaya Patil, Eaton Corporation
Technical Paper

A Compact Cooling System (CCS™): The Key to Meet Future Demands in Heavy Truck Cooling

To meet future needs for heavy truck cooling, a novel high performance radial compact cooling system (CCS) was developed. Measurements with a prototype system were conducted in a component wind tunnel and with truck-installed systems in a climatic vehicular wind tunnel. The CSS is compared to conventional axial and side-by-side systems. In comparison with a conventional axial system, the performance per unit volume of the CCS is 42% higher, the noise level is about 6 dB lower and the power consumption of the radial fan is 70% of the axial fan leading to significant savings in fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Parking Cooling Systems for Truck Cabins

Engine independent AC-systems, or parking cooling systems for non-idling air conditioning are getting more and more important, because extremely uncomfortable conditions during breaks or a disproportionate amount of fuel consumption for engine idling during breaks are not longer accepted. For cost, weight and package reasons today only thermal storage systems are ready for series production of in series production. The benefits (comfort and fuel savings) and test results of such a system are shown. Future developments of fuel cells or new alternator/battery-systems will probably change this evaluation.
Technical Paper

Influence of Vehicle Test Cycle Characteristics on Fuel Consumption and Emissions of City Buses

While engine test procedures are mainly applied to verify and ensure compliance to the various emission standards, vehicle test procedures were developed to simulate the vehicle in actual service (including engine, drive train and chassis). These drive cycles are usually performed on a chassis dynamometer, but can also be performed on test track. The results are expressed in grams of pollutant per unit of distance (g/km). Examples of vehicle test cycles, which are mainly focussed at city buses, are the time-based Central Business District Cycle (CBDC) and the Dutch Urban Bus Driving Cycle (DUBDC) and the distance-based Belgian City Cycle of the public Transport Company “De Lijn”. In the frame of the IEA-AMF project “Real Impact of New Technologies for Heavy Duty Vehicles”, three state-of-the-art city bus technologies were evaluated for fuel consumption and emissions both in real city traffic and in the mentioned vehicle test cycles.
Technical Paper

The Advanced Iveco Cursor 10 Heavy Duty Truck Diesel Engine

Iveco has started production of new advanced diesel engine Cursor 8 in 1998. In 1999 this was followed with the new Cursor 10 engine which reaches a maximum power of 316 kW with a displacement of 10,3 dm3 and continuous the strategy of developing high BMEP engines which Iveco began more than 10 years ago. This approach shows the benefits of reduced noise, weight and fuel consumption in trucks in comparison to engines having a larger cylinder capacity with the same power. Together with the engine, Iveco introduces an electronic control system with full authority on every operating condition, realising a true drive-by-wire mode of truck operation. The control of fuelling, boosting, braking and cold starting gives the driver full comfort and guarantees that the engine produces optimum performance under every circumstance. An advanced diagnostic system warns about deviations from acceptable operating conditions or fault occurrences.
Technical Paper

The Daewoo K series heavy-duty diesel engine~Design feature

DHI has developed completely new six-cylinder K series engine for heavy-duty commercial vehicle as well as other industrial equipment. And DHI will produce it in the new kunsan engine plant. The main development targets were low emissions, excellent fuel economy, longer durability and minimum maintenance. For fulfilling these targets, high-pressure electronic unit injector system (EUI) with 4 valve and overhead camshaft (OHC), symmetrically structured cylinder block with very stiffened cylinder liner and bed plate, decompression engine brake system were adopted. During the design stage, CAE technology played very important role, through detail analysis and optimization. The K series engine achieved low exhaust gaseous emission level of Euro 3 as well as good fuel consumption, noise level lower than 96 dB(A), and major overhaul period longer than 1.5 million km.
Technical Paper

Stationary NOx Storage and Reduction Experiments on a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Rig Using a Bypass System

This work concerns exhaust gas cleaning for heavy-duty diesel engines by means of NOx storage and reduction technology. A full-scale engine rig has been constructed and stationary NOx reduction tests performed. In the NOx storage and reduction approach, NOx is stored on a BaO surface as Ba(NO3)2 under long lean conditions and desorbed and reduced under short rich conditions. The rich conditions are created by injection of diesel fuel into the exhaust stream. The stationary NOx reduction tests have been performed at nine load points on an engine rig. They have shown that a stationary NOx reduction of between 25-53% is achievable at most load points depending on the temperature. The high oxygen content in the exhaust gas leads to the oxidation of the injected hydrocarbons and thus to a high fuel penalty. To lower the fuel consumption, the mass flow through the catalyst has been reduced under the regeneration periods. This was done using a bypass system with a pneumatic valve control.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Specific Fuel Consumption Data from Nebraska Tractor Tests

Specific fuel consumption data from Nebraska Tractor Tests, conducted over a period of 11 years (from 1983 through 1994), were analyzed. The analysis showed that specific fuel consumption increases as the power level decreases. Specific fuel consumption decreases when the technique “gear up-throttle down” (GUTD) is used. The GUTD technique showed fuel savings ranging from 11.4 to 16%. No clear time trend was seen with respect to the 11-year period for which the data were investigated.
Technical Paper

Development Stages for Reducing Noise Emissions of the New OM 904 LA Commerical Vehicle Diesel Engine

In January 1996 Mercedes-Benz has introduced a new 4-cylinder engine OM 904 LA of the new engine family for light commercial vehicles. The power range of the OM 904 LA comprises ratings from 90 kW up to 125 kW at 2300 rpm. From the beginning of the design of this engine, a noise emission output as low as possible was strived for, aside from the high targets as far as durability, maintenace and fuel consumption are concerned. The basis is the development of noise regulations for commercial vehicles. The noise reduction measures have to be concentrated on the engine since up to now it still is one of the main noise emission sources at the vehicle. Already at the lay-out of the engine the prerequisits for a low-noise engine behaviour have been taken into consideration. The engine is equipped with a fuel injection system featuring particular unit injector pumps for each cylinder which is superior to the conventional in-line injection pump as far as acoustics are concerned.
Technical Paper

Diaphragm Chamber Fuel Flow Transducers for On-Board Computers of Mobile Agricultural Machines

The problem of fuel consumption decrease in agricultural machinery may be addressed in several ways. One is to equip mobile agricultural machines (tractors, harvesters, sprayers, fertilizer spreaders, etc.) with on-board computers (BC) capable to measure the fuel flow rate, in particular, which will allow to decrease fuel consumption by these machines due to timely control of the technical conditions of the engine and optimization of the machine operation modes from the point of view of fuel consumption. The article describes a family of diaphragm chamber fuel flow transducers (FFT) for on-board computers of mobile agricultural machines, gives their technical characteristics and laboratory and field test results, and recommendations on connecting them to engines of various power specifications.
Technical Paper

California's Revised Heavy-Duty Vehicle Smoke and Tampering Inspection Program

Heavy-duty vehicles account for approximately 30 percent of the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and 65 percent of the particulate matter (PM) emissions from the entire California on-road fleet, despite the fact that these vehicles comprise only 2 percent of the same. To meet legislative mandates to reduce excess smoke emissions from in-use heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles, the Air Resources Board (ARB or Board) adopted, in December 1997, amendments to the regulations governing the operation and enforcement of the Heavy-Duty Vehicle Inspection Program (HDVIP or the “roadside” program) and the Periodic Smoke Inspection Program (PSIP or the “fleet” program). The initial roadside program was adopted in November 1990 in response to Senate Bill (SB) 1997 (stat. 1988, ch. 1544, Presley), and enforced from 1991 to 1993. It was suspended in October 1993, when the Board redirected staff to investigate reformulated fuels issues.
Technical Paper

Driving Cycle for Buses in Delhi City

Exhaust emission and fuel consumption of a vehicle is influenced by its usage, operating conditions, traffic conditions as well as the individual behaviour of the driver. A study on the actual operating conditions for city buses has been carried out for Delhi city under a Government sponsored Project by The Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI). A bus operating on the normal city route was selected and equipped with sensors and data acquisition systems to record the vehicle parameters such as vehicle speed, distance, time, gear shifting pattern, engine speed, temperatures and other variables every second. The data collection exercise was carried out on six selected routes covering lean, average and peak periods of traffic and vehicle density. Earlier experience shows that data thus collected can be synthesised to fall into statistical repetitive driving sequences. This averaged data is converted into a most logical driving pattern or cycle for buses operating in Delhi city.
Technical Paper

The Challenges of Developing an Energy, Emissions, and Fuel Economy Test Procedure for Heavy-Duty Hybrid Electric Transit Vehicles

Over twenty prototype hybrid buses and other commercial vehicles are currently being completed and deployed. These vehicles are primarily “series” hybrid vehicles which use electric motors for primary traction while internal combustion engines, or high-speed turbine engines connected to generators, supply some portion of the electric propulsion and battery recharge energy. Hybrid-electric vehicles have an electric energy storage system on board that influences the operation of the heat engine. The storage system design and level affect the vehicle emissions, electricity consumption, and fuel economy. Existing heavy-duty emissions test procedures require that the engine be tested over a transient cycle before it can be used in vehicles (over 26,000 lbs GVW). This paper describes current test procedures for assessing engine and vehicle emissions, and proposes techniques for evaluating engines used with hybrid-electric vehicle propulsion systems.