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Introduction to Radar for Automotive Applications

This introduction to radar focuses on understanding how radars work and the trade offs that must be made to achieve its specified performance, focusing on applications to automotive safety and autonomy. The class includes demonstrations of radar signal outputs and describes the chain of hardware and software processing found in most radar systems. Participants will be exposed to all aspects of radar design at a level detailed enough to understand system engineering estimates for the major functions by examining the basic functions of radars, from the waveform generation in the transmitter, all the way to target detection in the receiver.

Sensor Video Integration and Processing in the Modular Avionics Architecture

Use of airborne high resolution digital sensor imagery is ever increasing. Color HDTV, infrared cameras and radar are examples of such sensors. And they are becoming increasingly used for mission purposes by the military, police, customs and coast guard onboard helicopters and fixed wing aircraft. These users have requirements for onboard presentation, analysis and storage. Use of weather radars and other similar types of sensors are flight oriented applications in major types of aircraft. Another application is the integration of cockpit and cabin surveillance systems onboard commercial airlines. Cabin surveillance systems, growing from cockpit door cameras to complete cabin surveillance, will use several cameras. The purpose is to acquire and store imagery from un-normal events including unruly passengers and eventual terrorists. The primary intentions are security awareness in the cockpit as well as collecting evidence for a potential prosecution.

Spotlight on Design Insight: Automated Vehicles: Converging Sensor Data

“Spotlight on Design: Insight” features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Automated driving is made possible through the data acquisition and processing of many different kinds of sensors working in unison. Sensors, cameras, radar, and lidar must work cohesively together to safely provide automated features. In the episode “Automated Vehicles: Converging Sensor Data” (8:01), engineers from IAV Automotive Engineering discuss the challenges associated with the sensor data fusion, and one of Continental North America’s technical teams demonstrate how sensors, radars, and safety systems converge to enable higher levels of automated driving.

On-Board Diagnostics for Light and Medium Duty Vehicles Standards Manual - 2010 Edition

The SAE Vehicle E/E Systems Diagnostic Committee (Diagnostics committee) was formed in June, 1987 to address concerns of the automotive manufacturers and the automotive repair industry relating to repair of the increasingly complex electronic systems on new vehicles. This Handbook Supplement is a compilation of Standards dealing with on-board diagnostics.

Automotive Microcontrollers, Volume 2

This book contains 49 papers covering the past eight years (2000-2007) of research on automotive microcontrollers, providing a look at innovative design trends and the latest applications. Topics covered include: Microcontroller Design Concepts; Microcontroller Networking; System Testing/Diagnosis; Implementation Examples The book also includes editor Ronald K. Jurgen's introduction ("New Microcontroller Architectures Spark Innovative Applications") and a concluding section on future developments in automotive microcontrollers.
Technical Paper

Recent Developments in Aircraft Ignition-Systems

THE fundamental electrical and mechanical requirements of ignition equipment for aircraft engines are outlined and the special requirements peculiar to this service and that apply, in general, equally to military and commercial aircraft, are described. Brief descriptions are given of various new types of both magneto and battery ignition and the developments in each are pointed out. Characteristics of an ideal ignition system are enumerated as a basis for further development. Among the general requirements reliability is given place of first importance, followed by light weight, compactness, low cost and adaptability of a single model to engines of different types. The chief design-requirements are speed, ruggedness, simple mounting, light rotating-parts, resistance to vibration, ample lubrication, protection against moisture, and fire-proof ventilation. Each of these subjects is dealt with specifically.
Technical Paper

Aerial Navigation-Methods and Equipment

HEREIN the author describes methods and shows instruments, tables, scales and curves used for air navigation. The ground-speed-and-drift meter devised by him and used with such remarkable success in the round-the-world flight with Wiley Post in less than nine days, on which the author was navigator, is illustrated and described. Much has been accomplished in the last few years in providing methods and equipment for quickly and accurately determining the position and laying the correct course of aircraft, but considerable improvement remains to be made in instruments, particularly sextants. No one method of navigation can be used under all conditions; a combination of four is necessary to achieve the best results.
Technical Paper

Suppressing Ignition-Interference on Radio-Equipped Aircraft

THE AUTHORS say in part that although it has been recognized for many years that electrical ignition systems on airplane powerplants are a prolific source of disturbances tending to prevent the successful reception of radio signals, the serious and intensive development of methods of suppressing such interference is a comparatively recent undertaking. This arises from the fact that only in recent years has special significance been attached to radio operations with limited collecting structures or antennas, over such distances that the signaling waves intercepted by these antennas are relatively weak. They then outline the systems in which interference is present and discuss how it can be suppressed.
Technical Paper


The personnel and the ground facilities that have produced such excellent results in the Air Mail Service are discussed apart from the flying equipment and its operation in the air. An airway is on the ground and the performance and safety of the pilots are dependent upon the ground facilities provided and the efficiency of the ground personnel. Pilots perform a highly important part in the operation of airlines and no matter how good the flying equipment may be, the desired results cannot be obtained without thoroughly trained and capable pilots. When selecting new pilots, the Air Mail Service looks for men who handle an airplane in a businesslike way and who are able, without taking unnecessary risks, to fly the ship without letting the ship fly them.
Technical Paper


The complementary-color headlighting system is based upon the use of differentiated light, that is, light having different wave-lengths. Each head-lamp is oval and contains two paraboloid reflectors, one emitting light through an orange glass filter, the other through one of blue glass. While driving at night, the driver looks through a viewing-filter of transparent glass of the same color as that of the headlight which is in use. The viewing-filters are arranged so that whenever one is used, the headlight of the same color is automatically turned on. When the headlights are not in use, the filters are held in the filter-box and are out of sight. It is the intention that cars traveling in a general direction, say north and east, shall use the blue light; that those traveling south and west shall use the orange light. Each viewing-filter is transparent to the light that is thrown on the road by the headlights of the same car but is opaque to the lights of approaching cars.
Technical Paper


To provide maximum comfort for passengers, it is claimed that cabin pressures must be maintained within very-narrow limits. The various steps by which a system was developed to accomplish such control is discussed and illustrated by photographs and diagrams. The author believes that the final result of the research and development program is a system which will not only provide the necessary control, but will do so with a degree of reliability unknown in earlier systems, with a minimum of maintenance and extremely simple in operation. Two production systems are described in detail with a final explanation of how a transistorized pre-amplifier and magnetic amplifier is used.
Technical Paper

Research and Development in the United States Air Force

IN this paper Maj. -Gen. Putt presents the four major limitations today facing the United States Air Force. As mechanical limitations decrease, nature imposes ever new challenges; these natural barriers are paralleled by increased enemy interference, need for the development of new material, more efficient utilization of all resources, and the demand for automatic reliability which will compensate for the inadequacies of the human mind and body in combat flight operations. This factor of human frailty is cited as being responsible for explorations in the new and vast field of space medicine; also for the miniaturization of electronic equipment, leading to weight reduction and the resultant acceleration of development of pilotless aircraft. The writer stresses the dangers inherent in traditionalism, or the turning to the past at the expense of the dynamic future.
Technical Paper

A Method for Identifying Preignition

A NEW, simple method, applicable in the laboratory or on the road, for detecting even mild preignition, is described in this paper. The method requires a small amount of inexpensive equipment, easily installed without mechanical modifications to the engine. The procedure is likewise simple, accurate, and will yield reproducible results. Mild preignition can be detected, regardless of the location of the source, and the results also clearly indicate the difference between preignition and detonation. An oscilloscope is used to identify preignition; detonation is determined by its audible knock. With increase in compression ratios and power output necessitating study of these phenomena, it is expected that proper instrumentation for differentiating between the two will be extremely useful.
Technical Paper


THE information given in this paper was obtained principally from trip icing logs and test flights conducted on a major transport system. A copy of a trip icing log is included to show the type of information obtained from normally scheduled flights. The different types of ice formed are explained and the general effect upon the performance on the airplane for each type of ice is stated. Airplane ice accumulations are divided into two major classes: (1) Those producing a loss of flight performance and (2) those which serve as an annoyance to the crew. The main portion of the paper deals with these two classes, explaining when, how, and why they are of importance. Numerous pictures are shown depicting the various conditions which were found to exist in scheduled airline operations and the shortcomings of the present anti-icing equipment is explained. Consideration is given to ice accumulations on the wings, empennage, propeller, pitot mast, radio loops, windshield, and so on.
Technical Paper

SUPERCHARGED Aircraft Ignition Harnesses

SUPERCHARGED aircraft ignition harnesses have recently been introduced into commercial aviation as a means of preventing the entrance, formation, and accumulation of impurities within the shielded distribution systems universally employed on airplanes using high-sensitivity radio receivers. This paper presents a discussion and description of the operation and performance of the supercharged harness. Introductory to this material, and in the interest of a better understanding thereof, there is presented a general review of the fundamental character of the troubles experienced with ignition distribution. Included in this is a description of the chemical nature of the problem and a mathematical analysis of certain electrical stresses within the system which are related to the formation of corona.