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Electrical and Electronic Equipment Cooling in Commercial Transports

1992-09-01
CURRENT
AIR64B
This document considers the cooling of equipment installed in equipment centers, which usually consist of rack-mounted equipment and panel mounted equipment in the flight deck. In instances where these two locations result in different requirements, these are identified. For purposes of this document, the cooled equipment is referred to generally as E/E equipment, denoting that both electrical and electronic equipment is considered, or as an E/E equipment line-replaceable-unit (LRU). The majority of cooled equipment takes the form of LRUs. This document primarily relates to E/E equipment which is designed to use forced air cooling in order to maintain the equipment within acceptable environmental limits, in order to maintain equipment operating performance (within acceptable tolerances), and to maintain reliability. Cooling may be applied internally or externally to the case of the item of E/E equipment.
Standard

Aircraft Humidification

2016-10-21
WIP
AIR1609B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the design parameters for various methods of humidification applicable to aircraft, the physiological aspects of low humidities, the possible benefits of controlling cabin humidity, the penalties associated with humidification, and the problems which must be solved for practical aircraft humidification systems. The design information is applicable to commercial and military aircraft. The physiological aspects cover all aircraft environmental control applications.
Standard

COOLING OF MODERN AIRBORNE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

1976-05-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1277
This document contains information on the cooling of modern airborne electronics, emphasizing the use of a heat exchange surface which separates coolant and component. It supplements the information contained in AIR 64 for the draw through method and in AIR 728 for high Mach Number aircraft. Report contents include basic methods, characteristics of coolants, application inside and outside of the "black box" use of thermostatic controls to improve reliability and system design. Characteristics of typical cooling components are treated sufficiently to permit selection and to estimate size and weight. While emphasis is placed herein on equipment cooling, section 9 dealing with thermal control of the environment, reminds the reader that some equipment will require heating for start up from a cold condition or as a means to control temperature within narrow limits (e.g. in a crystal oven). Property data and constants are also tabulated.
Standard

Aerospace Pressurization System Design

1991-03-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/7
The pressurization system design considerations presented in this AIR deal with human physiological requirements, characteristics of pressurization air sources, methods of controlling cabin pressure, cabin leakage control, leakage calculation methods, and methods of emergency cabin pressure release.
Standard

Aerospace Pressurization System Design

2011-07-25
CURRENT
AIR1168/7A
The pressurization system design considerations presented in this AIR deal with human physiological requirements, characteristics of pressurization air sources, methods of controlling cabin pressure, cabin leakage control, leakage calculation methods, and methods of emergency cabin pressure release.
Standard

Spacecraft Life Support Systems

2012-10-15
CURRENT
AIR1168/14A
A life support system (LSS) is usually defined as a system that provides elements necessary for maintaining human life and health in the state required for performing a prescribed mission. The LSS, depending upon specific design requirements, will provide pressure, temperature, and composition of local atmosphere, food, and water. It may or may not collect, dispose, or reprocess wastes such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, urine, and feces. It can be seen from the preceding definition that LSS requirements may differ widely, depending on the mission specified, such as operation in Earth orbit or lunar mission. In all cases the time of operation is an important design factor. An LSS is sometimes briefly defined as a system providing atmospheric control and water, waste, and thermal management.
Standard

Spacecraft Life Support Systems

1994-01-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/14
A life support system (LSS) is usually defined as a system that provides elements necessary for maintaining human life and health in the state required for performing a prescribed mission. The LSS, depending upon specific design requirements, will provide pressure, temperature, and composition of local atmosphere, food, and water. It may or may not collect, dispose, or reprocess wastes such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, urine, and feces. It can be seen from the preceding definition that LSS requirements may differ widely, depending on the mission specified, such as operation in Earth orbit or lunar mission. In all cases the time of operation is an important design factor. An LSS is sometimes briefly defined as a system providing atmospheric control and water, waste, and thermal management.
Standard

AIRPLANE CABIN PRESSURIZATION

1959-11-15
HISTORICAL
ARP367A
These recommendations cover the general field of airplane cabin pressurization equipment and are subdivided as follows: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PRESSURIZED AIRPLANES CABIN AIR COMPRESSORS CABIN PRESSURE REGULATING EQUIPMENT ENGINE BLEED AIR DUCT SYSTEMS CABIN PRESSURE DUCTING SYSTEM
Standard

Aircraft Cabin Pressurization Control Criteria

2000-04-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1270A
These recommendations cover the basic criteria for the design of aircraft cabin pressurization control systems as follows: (1) To ensure aircraft safety. (2) Physiology and limits which govern maximum permissible pressure time relations as related to aircraft passenger comfort. (3) General pressurization control system performance requirements designed to satisfy (2). (4) Technical considerations relevant to satisfying (3).
Standard

AIRCRAFT CABIN PRESSURIZATION CONTROL CRITERIA

1976-01-15
HISTORICAL
ARP1270
These recommendations cover the basic criteria for the design of aircraft cabin pressurization control systems as follows: (1) To ensure aircraft safety. (2) Physiology and limits which govern maximum permissible pressure time relations as related to aircraft passenger comfort. (3) General pressurization control system performance requirements designed to satisfy (2). (4) Technical considerations relevant to satisfying (3).
Standard

Aircraft Turbine Engine Pneumatic Component Contaminated Air Endurance Test

2017-09-05
CURRENT
ARP4014A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes a method of conducting an endurance test using contaminated air when the applicable specification requires non-recirculation of the contaminants. The objective of the test is to determine the resistance of the engine mounted components to wear or damage caused by the contaminated air. The method described herein calls for non-recirculation of the contaminants and is intended to provide a uniform distribution of the contaminant at the inlet to the Unit Under Test (UUT). The UUT may require the use of a hydraulic fluid for actuation of components within the test unit. Contamination of the test hydraulic fluid is not part of this recommended practice. If contaminated hydraulic fluid is required by the applicable test specification, refer to MAP749.
Standard

Aircraft Turbine Engine Pneumatic Component Contaminated Air Endurance Test

1988-08-31
HISTORICAL
ARP4014
This recommended practice describes a method of conducting an endurance test using contaminated air when the applicable specification requires non-recirculation of the contaminants. The objective of the test is to determine the resistance of the engine mounted components to wear or damage caused by the contaminated air. The method described herein calls for non-recirculation of the contaminants and is intended to provide a uniform distribution of the contaminant at the inlet to the Unit Under Test (UUT). The UUT may require the use of a hydraulic fluid for actuation of components within the test unit. Contamination of this test fluid is not part of this recommended practice, however, if required by applicable test specification, refer to MAP 749A.
Standard

Environmental Control Systems for Helicopters

1998-01-01
CURRENT
ARP292C
This ARP discusses design philosophy, system and equipment requirements, environmental conditions, and design considerations for helicopter environmental control systems (ECS). The helicopter ECS comprises that arrangement of equipment, controls, and indicators which supply and distribute dehumidified conditioned air for ventilation, cooling and heating of the occupied compartments, and cooling of the avionics. The principal features of the system are: a A controlled fresh air supply b A means for cooling (air or vapor cycle units and heat exchangers) c A means for removing excess moisture from the air supply d A means for heating e A temperature control system f A conditioned air distribution system The ARP is applicable to both civil and military helicopters where an ECS is specified; however, certain requirements peculiar to military applications, such as nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection, are not covered.
Standard

AIR CONDITIONING, HELICOPTER, GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR

1970-10-26
HISTORICAL
ARP292B
These recommendations are written to cover the general requirements of helicopter air conditioning and are sub-divided as follows: (1) Air Conditioning System - Dealing with the general design aspects. (2) Air Conditioning Equipment - Design requirements for satisfactory system function and performance. (3) Air Conditioning System Design Requirements -General information for use of those concerned in meeting requirements contained herein.
Standard

AIRPLANE CABIN PRESSURIZATION

1960-03-01
HISTORICAL
ARP367B
These recommendations cover the general field of airplane cabin pressurization equipment and are subdivided as follows: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PRESSURIZED AIRPLANES CABIN AIR COMPRESSORS CABIN PRESSURE REGULATING EQUIPMENT ENGINE BLEED AIR DUCT SYSTEMS CABIN PRESSURE DUCTING SYSTEM
Standard

Engine Bleed Air Systems for Aircraft

1987-02-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1796
This ARP discusses design philosophy, system and equipment requirements, installation environment and design considerations for systems within the ATA 100 specification, Chapter 36, Pneumatic (reference 1). This ATA system/chapter covers equipment used to deliver compressed air from a power source to connecting points for other systems such as air conditioning, pressurization, anti-icing, cross-engine starting, air turbine motors, air driven hydraulic pumps, and other pneumatic demands. The engine bleed air system includes components for preconditioning the compressed air (temperature, pressure or flow regulation), ducting to distribute high or low pressure air to the using systems, and sensors/instruments to indicate temperature and pressure levels within the system. The engine bleed air system interfaces with the following ATA 100 systems: The interface with these systems/chapters is at the inlet of the shutoff/control valve of each associated system.
Standard

Thermodynamics of Incompressible and Compressible Fluid Flow

1989-03-01
CURRENT
AIR1168/1
The fluid flow treated in this section is isothermal, subsonic, and incompressible. The effects of heat addition, work on the fluid, variation in sonic velocity, and changes in elevation are neglected. An incompressible fluid is one in which a change in pressure causes no resulting change in fluid density. The assumption that liquids are incompressible introduces no appreciable error in calculations, but the assumption that a gas is incompressible introduces an error of a magnitude that is dependent on the fluid velocity and on the loss coefficient of the particular duct section or piece of equipment. Fig. 1A-1 shows the error in pressure drop resulting from assuming that air is incompressible. With reasonably small loss coefficients and the accuracy that is usually required in most calculations, compressible fluids may be treated as incompressible for velocities less than Mach 0.2.
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