Refine Your Search




Search Results

Technical Paper

The Effect of Intake Air Temperature, Compression Ratio and Coolant Temperature on the Start of Heat Release in an HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) Engine

In this paper, effect of intake air temperature, coolant temperature, and compression ratio on start of heat release (SOHR) in HCCI engines is investigated. The operational range with HCCI operation was determined experimentally using a CFR (Cooperative Fuels Research) engine with n-butane as the fuel. In-cylinder pressure was processed to evaluate SOHR. The effect of intake air and coolant temperature on SOHR increases as engine speed increases. In order to gain more insight into the combustion phenomena, SOHR was calculated using the theory of Livengood-Wu and compared with the experimental data. Dependence of SOHR on the equivalence ratio shows good correspondence between experiment and calculation. On the contrary, dependence on the intake air temperature and compression ratio shows poorer correspondence with predictions, especially under low engine speed. We interpret this as an indication of the importance of the active intermediate species that remain in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Soot Formation During DI Diesel Combustion Using a Multi-Step Phenomenological Model

Predictive models of soot formation during Diesel combustion are of great practical interest, particularly in light of newly proposed strict regulations on particulate emissions. A modified version of the phenomenological model of soot formation developed previously has been implemented in KIVA-II CFD code. The model includes major generic processes involved in soot formation during combustion, i.e., formation of soot precursors, formation of surface growth species, soot particle nucleation, coagulation, surface growth and oxidation. The formulation of the model within the KIVA-II is fully coupled with the mass and energy balances in the system. The model performance has been tested by comparison with the results of optical in-cylinder soot measurements in a single cylinder Cummins NH Diesel engine. The predicted soot volume fraction, number density and particle size agree reasonably well with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Optical Measurements of Soot Particle Size, Number Density, and Temperature in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine as a Function of Speed and Load

In-cylinder measurements of soot particle size, number density, and temperature have been made using optical measurements in a direct injection diesel engine. The measurements were made at one location approximately 5 mm long and 1.5 mm wide above the bowl near the head. Two optical techniques were used simultaneously involving light scattering, extinction and radiation. An optical probe was designed and mounted in a modified exhaust valve which introduced a beam of light into the cylinder and collected the scattered and radiating light from the soot. The resulting measurements were semi-quantitative, giving an absolute uncertainty on the order of ± 50% which was attributed mainly to the uncertainty of the optical properties of the soot and the heterogeneous nature of the soot cloud. Measurements at three speeds and three overall equivalence ratios were made.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Aromatic Structure and Content on Direct Injection Diesel Engine Particulates

A single cylinder, Cummins NH, direct-injection, diesel engine has been operated in order to evaluate the effects of aromatic content and aromatic structure on diesel engine particulates. Results from three fuels are shown. The first fuel, a low sulfur Chevron diesel fuel was used as a base fuel for comparison. The other fuels consisted of the base fuel and 10% by volume of 1-2-3-4 tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) a single-ring aromatic and naphthalene, a double-ring aromatic. The fuels were chosen to vary aromatic content and structure while minimizing differences in boiling points and cetane number. Measurements included exhaust particulates using a mini-dilution tunnel, exhaust emissions including THC, CO2, NO/NOx, O2, injection timing, two-color radiation, soluble organic fraction, and cylinder pressure. Particulate measurements were found to be sensitive to temperature and flow conditions in the mini-dilution tunnel and exhaust system.
Technical Paper

Data from a Variable Rate Shape High Pressure Injection System Operating in an Engine Fed Constant Volume Combustion Chamber

In current systems, for a given nozzle and injection pressure (pump speed), the shape of the injection rate is fixed and the injection timing is the only variable the engine designer can vary. For this non-interactive injection system, changing the injector nozzle (number and diameter of holes) will proportionately change the injection shape. New injection systems in which the rate of injection is a controlled variable are being developed. Results from one such injector, called the UCORS (Universal Combustion Optimization and Rate Shaping), are reported in this paper. The system can dynamically control its injection rate shape by controlling the position and size of a pilot injection relative to the main injection. Data and analysis from an out-of-engine and combustion chamber study of the UCORS injection system are presented.
Technical Paper

Computations of a Two-Stroke Engine Cylinder and Port Scavenging Flows

A modification of the computational fluid dynamics code KIVA-II is presented that allows computations to be made in complex engine geometries. An example application is given in which three versions of KIVA-II are run simultaneously. Each version considers a separate block of the computational domain, and the blocks exchange boundary condition information with each other at their common interfaces. The use of separate blocks permits the connectedness of the overall computational domain to change with time. The scavenging flow in the cylinder, transfer pipes (ports), and exhaust pipe of a ported two-stroke engine with a moving piston was modeled in this way. Results are presented for three engine designs that differ only in the angle of their boost ports. The calculated flow fields and the resulting fuel distributions are shown to be markedly different with the different geometries.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Split Injection on Soot and NOx Production in an Engine-Fed Combustion Chamber

This research focused on the effects of split injection on combustion in a diesel environment. It was done in a specially designed engine-fed combustion chamber (swirl ratio of 5) with full field optical access through a quartz window. The simulated engine combustion chamber used a special backwards spraying injector (105°). The electronically controlled injector could control the size and position of it's, two injections. Both injections were through the same nozzle and it produced very rapid injections (1.5 ms) with a maximum injection pressure of 130 MPa. Experimental data included: rate of injection, injector pressure, combustion chamber dumping (NO & NOx concentrations), flame temperature, KL factor (soot concentration) combustion pressure, and rate of pressure rise. Injection rates indicate that the UCORS injection system creates very rapid injections with the ability to produce controllable split injections.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Split Injection on Fuel Distribution in an Engine-Fed Combustion Chamber

This research focused on the effects of split injection on fuel spray behavior in a diesel environment. It was done in a special designed engine-fed combustion chamber (swirl ratio of 5) with full field optical access through a quartz window. The simulated engine combustion chamber used a special backwards spraying injector (105°). The electronically controlled injector could control the size and position of it's two injections. Both injections were through the same nozzle and it produced very rapid injections (1.5 ms) with a maximum injection pressure of 130 MPa. Experimental data included: rate of injection, injector pressure, spray plume images, tip penetration, liquid and vapor fuel distributions, combustion pressure, and rate of pressure rise. From 105° forward scatter images, tip penetration was observed to be very rapid and reached a plateau at 25 mm.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Soot Deposition Rates Due to Thermophoresis in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

An investigation of the mechanism causing in-cylinder soot deposition in a direct injection diesel engine was carried out. First, an analytical study was undertaken to determine which of following possible deposition mechanisms, thermophoresis, Brownian diffusion, turbulent diffusion, inertial impingement, or electrophoresis were responsible for the deposition of the soot on the combustion chamber walls. Based on a series of numerical models comparing each mechanism under conditions typical of diesel engine combustion, thermophoresis was singled out as the most likely cause of in-cylinder soot deposition. Second, an experiment was performed to test the hypothesis that the soot deposition was caused by thermophoresis. An optical probe was designed to fit an access port in the cylinder head of a Cummins NH250 single cylinder test engine.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Ignition Delay, Heat Transfer and Combustion During Dynamic Load Changes in a Diesel Engine

In this paper we report the results of experiments done during the transient operation of a single cylinder Cummins NH engine. The data taken include cycle resolved pressure, combustion chamber surface temperatures and ignition delay. The data was taken during a special type of engine operation in which the engine was repeatedly hopped from one load to another. In this way cycle to cycle variations could be averaged out by ensemble averaging individual cycles after the step load change. For analysis of the heat transfer a unique finite difference temperature probe was developed to delineate the 3-D heat transfer effects in place of the standard 1-D assumptions and a new analysis technique was developed to calculate the instantaneous heat flux during the transient. Analysis of the data indicates that the combustion reaches an equivalent steady state condition within 2000 engine cycles after the load change.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Mixing Intensity and Degree of Premix on Soot Formation in a Backmixed Combustor

To date there is no universal agreement as to the interaction between fuel type, fuel-air mixture preparation and combustion chamber flow characteristics and their effect on soot formation. A propane fueled modified conical back-mixed steady flow reactor was built in which the fuel and air could be mixed together in varying degrees and reacted in at different mixing intensities. The onset of soot and soot loading were determined qualitatively by a photomultiplier focused on the volume inside the reactor. Increasing the degree of premix from a diffusion flame to a distribution of Φmax/Φavg = 5.0 resulted in increases of 3 to 17 percent of the soot-onset equivalence ratio and decreases in soot loading down to zero. Changes in the mixing intensity from 32.5 sec−1 to 75.7 sec−1 resulted in a change in the soot-onset equivalence ratio from 1.26 to 1.52. Soot loading was found to depend on both the mixing intensity, β, and the average number of mixes per mean residence time, β/α.
Technical Paper

Aldehyde and Unburned Fuel Emission Measurements from a Methanol-Fueled Texaco Stratified Charge Engine

A Texaco L-163S TCCS (Texaco Controlled Combustion System) engine was operated with pure methanol to investigate the origin and mechanism of unburned fuel (UBF) and formaldehyde emissions. The effects of engine load, speed and coolant temperature on the exhaust emissions were studied using both continuous and time-resolved sampling methods. Within the range studied, increasing the engine load resulted in a decrease of the exhaust UBF emissions and an increase in the formaldehyde emissions. Engine speed had little effect on both UBF and formaldehyde emissions. Decreasing the engine coolant temperature from 85°C to 45°C caused the exhaust UBF emissions to approximately double and the formaldehyde emission to increase approximately 20 percent. It is hypothesized that both fuel impingement and spray tailing are responsible for the high UBF emissions. In-cylinder formation of formaldehyde was found to be the major source of the exhaust aldehyde emissions in this experiment.
Technical Paper

Ethanol Fumigation of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine

Ethanol has been injected through an atomizing nozzle into the intake manifold of a four cylinder turbocharged diesel engine. It was found that to avoid liquid droplet impingement on the compressor blades the injector needed to be located downstream of the compressor, in the high pressure section of the inlet manifold. 160 proof and 200 proof alcohols were investigated with a series of percentage substitutions at different speeds and loads. The fumigation of ethanol resulted in a slight improvement in thermal efficiency at high loads and a small reduction at light loads. The ignition delay and rate of pressure rise also increased significantly when ethanol was added to the engine. A change in the proof of ethanol from 160 to 200 did not produce any noticeable change in engine performance. Emission measurements were also made and are discussed. The problem of obtaining uniform cylinder to cylinder distribution of alcohol has been encountered.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Benefits of Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engines

A detailed thermodynamic analysis was performed to demonstrate the fundamental efficiency advantage of an opposed-piston two-stroke engine over a standard four-stroke engine. Three engine configurations were considered: a baseline six-cylinder four-stroke engine, a hypothetical three-cylinder opposed-piston four-stroke engine, and a three-cylinder opposed-piston two-stroke engine. The bore and stroke per piston were held constant for all engine configurations to minimize any potential differences in friction. The closed-cycle performance of the engine configurations were compared using a custom analysis tool that allowed the sources of thermal efficiency differences to be identified and quantified.
Technical Paper

Particulate Characteristics for Varying Engine Operation in a Gasoline Spark Ignited, Direct Injection Engine

The objective of this research is a detailed investigation of particulate sizing and number count from a spark-ignited, direct-injection (SIDI) engine at different operating conditions. The engine is a 549 [cc] single-cylinder, four-valve engine with a flat-top piston, fueled by Tier II EEE. A baseline engine operating condition, with a low number of particulates, was established and repeatability at this condition was ascertained. This baseline condition is specified as 2000 rpm, 320 kPa IMEP, 280 [°bTDC] end of injection (EOI), and 25 [°bTDC] ignition timing. The particle size distributions were recorded for particle sizes between 7 and 289 [nm]. The baseline particle size distribution was relatively flat, around 1E6 [dN/dlogDp], for particle diameters between 7 and 100 [nm], before dropping off to decreasing numbers at larger diameters. Distributions resulting from a matrix of different engine conditions were recorded.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Mixing and Temperature Effects on HC/CO Emissions for Highly Dilute Low Temperature Combustion in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

There is a significant global effort to study low temperature combustion (LTC) as a tool to achieve stringent emission standards with future light duty diesel engines. LTC utilizes high levels of dilution (i.e., EGR > 60% with <10%O2 in the intake charge) to reduce overall combustion temperatures and to lengthen ignition delay, This increased ignition delay provides time for fuel evaporation and reduces in-homogeneities in the reactant mixture, thus reducing NOx formation from local temperature spikes and soot formation from locally rich mixtures. However, as dilution is increased to the limits, HC and CO can significantly increase. Recent research suggests that CO emissions during LTC result from the incomplete combustion of under-mixed fuel and charge gas occurring after the premixed burn period [1, 2]1. The objective of the present work was to increase understanding of the HC/CO emission mechanisms in LTC at part-load.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Assessment of Inlet Swirl Effects on a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Light-Duty Diesel Engine

The light-medium load operating regime (4-8 bar net IMEP) presents many challenges for advanced low temperature combustion strategies (e.g. HCCI, PPC) in light-duty, high speed engines. In this operating regime, lean global equivalence ratios (Φ<0.4) present challenges with respect to autoignition of gasoline-like fuels. Considering this intake temperature sensitivity, the objective of this work was to investigate, both experimentally and computationally, gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion operating sensitivity to inlet swirl ratio (Rs) variations when using a single fuel (87-octane gasoline) in a 0.475-liter single-cylinder engine based on a production GM 1.9-liter high speed diesel engine. For the first part of this investigation, an experimental matrix was developed to determine how changing inlet swirl affected GCI operation at various fixed load and engine speed operating conditions (4 and 8 bar net IMEP; 1300 and 2000 RPM).
Technical Paper

Optimization of Heat Release Shape and the Connecting Rod Crank Radius Ratio for Low Engine Noise and High Thermal Efficiency of Premixed Diesel Engine Combustion

Premixed diesel combustion offers the potential of high thermal efficiency and low emissions, however, because the rapid rate of pressure rise and short combustion durations are often associated with low temperature combustion processes, noise is also an issue. The reduction of combustion noise is a technical matter that needs separate attention. Engine noise research has been conducted experimentally with a premixed diesel engine and techniques for engine noise simulation have been developed. The engine employed in the research here is a supercharged, single cylinder DI diesel research engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. In the experiments, the engine was operated at 1600 rpm and 2000 rpm, the engine noise was sampled by two microphones, and the sampled engine noise was averaged and analyzed by an FFT sound analyzer.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation into the Effects of Direct Fuel Injection During the Negative Valve Overlap Period in an Gasoline Fueled HCCI Engine

A single cylinder Yamaha research engine was operated with gasoline HCCI combustion using negative valve overlap (NVO). The injection strategy for this study involved using fuel injected directly into the cylinder during the NVO period (pre-DI) along with a secondary injection either in the intake port (PI) or directly into the cylinder (DI). The effects of timing of the pre-DI injection along with the percent of fuel injected during the pre-DI injection were studied in two sets of experiments using secondary PI and DI injections in separate experiments. Results have shown that by varying the pre-DI timing and pre-DI percent the main HCCI combustion timing can be influenced as a result of varied heat release during the negative valve overlap period along with hypothesized varied degrees of reformation of the pre-DI injected fuel. In addition to varying the main combustion timing the ISFC, emissions and combustion stability are all influenced by changes in pre-DI timing and percent.
Technical Paper

A Computational Analysis of Direct Fuel Injection During the Negative Valve Overlap Period in an Iso-Octane Fueled HCCI Engine

This computational study compares predictions and experimental results for the use of direct injected iso-octane fuel during the negative valve overlap (NVO) period to achieve HCCI combustion. The total fuel injection was altered in two ways. First the pre-DI percent, (the ratio of direct injected fuel during the NVO period “pre-DI” to the secondary fuel supplied at the intake manifold “PI”), was varied at a fixed pre-DI injection timing, Secondly the timing of the pre-DI injection was varied while all of the fuel was supplied during the NVO period. A multi-zone, two-dimensional CFD simulation with chemistry was performed using KIVA-3V release 2 implemented with the CHEMKIN solver. The simulations were performed during the NVO period only.