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ThrottleCharger; Fuel Economy Improvement using Throttling Work for Electric Power Generation.

2012-05-10
Gasoline engines continue to suffer from significant pumping losses despite decades of effort focused on reducing throttling. Honeywell Turbo has developed a throttle with an integrated turbine/generator that generates electricity by recovering pumping work. This energy offsets power normally provided by the crank driven alternator, thereby saving fuel. It integrates well with modern electrical systems which employ smart charging and idle stop strategies. The ThrottleCharger provides fuel economy benefits up to 5% over federal test cycles and in real world conditions. Presenter Mike Guidry, Honeywell Int'l (Turbo Technologies)
Technical Paper

Performance of a Supercharged Passenger-Car

1928-01-01
280041
A STUDY of the effect of supercharging on the performance of the engines of passenger-cars showed that the power increase varied from 35 per cent at 1000 r.p.m. to 59 per cent at 3000 r.p.m., with a maximum supercharging pressure of only 6.5 lb. per sq. in. In acceleration tests made at the General Motors Proving Ground of two cars of similar model, one equipped with a supercharged engine and the other with a high-compression engine, the supercharged car accelerated from 5 to 25 m.p.h. in 5 sec.; the unsupercharged car, in 10 sec. From 15 to 50 m.p.h. the supercharged car accelerated in 12.7 sec.; the unsupercharged car, in 21.0 sec. On an 11-per cent grade up which the cars were started at 10 m.p.h., the speed of the supercharged car was 40 m.p.h. at the top; that of the unsupercharged car was 18 m.p.h. These and other results of the tests are portrayed by curves.
Technical Paper

Front-Wheel Drives, Are They Coming or Going?

1928-01-01
280036
AFTER listing the advantages and disadvantages of front-wheel drive the author says that, although most American engineers who have given him their opinions seem to believe that the advantages of front-wheel drive are outweighed by its disadvantages, he has grounds for venturing the opinion that this form of drive is likely to have extensive use in this Country within the next few years. He bases this view more upon commercial than upon strictly engineering considerations; but the latter are not lacking altogether, as is evident from his subsequent analysis. The advantages and the disadvantages are specifically and separately discussed, existing designs of front-wheel drive being divided into three classes. Numerous illustrations of the different types of front-wheel-drive vehicle are presented, and their most important features are enumerated and explained.
Technical Paper

The Application of Superchargers to Automotive Vehicles

1928-01-01
280040
MOST passenger automobiles are overpowered and probably 80 per cent of such vehicles operate at less than 35 m.p.h. for 90 per cent of the time, according to the author. At 30 m.p.h. an average 3000 to 3500-lb. passenger-car requires from 12 to 15 hp., but the engine carried is capable of developing from 50 to 55 hp. The result is that the car is operated for the greater part of the time at one-third to one-quarter throttle opening. Full power is needed only for accelerating and hill-climbing; during the remainder of the time the excess weight of the engine and other parts must be carried at a loss of efficiency. The author maintains that smaller engines can be used advantageously when equipped with superchargers, the supercharger being used only when excess power is required.
Technical Paper

The Packard X 24-Cylinder 1500-Hp. Water-Cooled Aircraft Engine

1928-01-01
280064
AFTER outlining the history of development of the Packard X engine, the author states the legitimate position in aviation deserved by the water-cooled aviation-engine of this type and predicts large increases in the size, speed and carrying capacity of airplanes within the near future. Passing then to a discussion of the important features of the X-type engine, various illustrations of its parts are commented upon. The cylinders are built-up from steel forgings, with all welds arranged so as to be subjected to no excessive alternating stresses. The novel features of this cylinder design lie in the fact that the valve seats are entirely surrounded by water and that water space is provided above the combustion-chamber and below the top plate of the cylinder. The cylinder-head is extremely rigid, resisting deflection and assuring the maximum integrity of valve seats. The valve ports are machined integrally with the cylinder-head and are not welded thereto as in the Liberty engine.
Technical Paper

Cold Carburetion

1930-01-01
300006
EXPERIMENTS made and methods employed to obtain satisfactory engine operation without the addition of heat to the fuel-air mixture are described, as it is known that the power output of an engine is greater as the temperature of the mixture is lower and that higher compression can be used with lower mixture-temperature. The work was initiated with a single-cylinder engine in which kerosene was used as a fuel to ascertain the results that could be obtained without vaporizing the fuel in the manifold, the liquid being added to the air in the valve-chamber as the air entered the combustion-chamber. As satisfactory results followed, the next step was to devise and apply a mechanism based on the same principle to a multi-cylinder engine. The first and succeeding carbureter-manifold combinations used are illustrated and described.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Propeller and Engine Power with Supercharging

1933-01-01
330005
THE primary purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the most pressing problems involved in choosing the propeller that is most suitable for use on a particular airplane. Propeller design is not dealt with, the discussion being limited to the selection of metal propellers of established design. Questions of noise, efficiency and diameter limitation are merely mentioned, and the emphasis is placed upon the choosing of propellers which will transmit the most engine power for the most needed condition of airplane performance; maximum and cruising speeds at altitude, or take-off and climb. Airplane performance enters only inasmuch as it is used to illustrate a case of power absorption. The proper choice of a propeller is becoming increasingly difficult to determine because of the current design trends of both airplanes and engines. Especially important is the fact that many of the supercharged engines now in use cannot be operated at full throttle below their critical altitudes.
Technical Paper

Commercial Application of Diesel Engines in Heavy-Duty Motorcoaches and Trucks

1932-01-01
320070
COMPARATIVE tests were made, both on the block and in the same motorcoach chassis, of a 525-cu.-in. gasoline and a 495-cu.-in. Diesel engine. The block tests are reported fully in charts, including curves for torque and power against piston displacement and engine weight. Corrected curves are given on the basis of equal piston displacement and for the Diesel engine throttled enough so that it would not smoke. Road tests included fuel consumption, acceleration, hill climbing and top speed, which are also recorded in charts. Other sections of the paper deal with costs of manufacture and maintenance and present and prospective conditions as to supply and cost of Diesel fuel. Stress is laid on the facts that automotive Diesel engines require a much higher grade of fuel than do the larger and slower Diesel units and that more gasoline than fuel oil can be obtained from a given amount of crude.
Technical Paper

Aircraft-Engine Installation

1930-01-01
300037
THE PAPER urges united cooperation instead of the present division of responsibility between the engine designer and the airplane designer in the installation of aircraft engines. The tubular rings upon which engines are commonly mounted are usually supported by structural members that are welded to the ring and attached to the fuselage at the four longitudinals. Inaccuracy is common in these structures, and many of them lack sufficient stiffness. Gravity gasoline-feed is recommended for its simplicity, provided the pressure head required by the carbureter can be secured, but the author reports having seen an installation in which the engine would operate so long as the airplane had its tail on the ground, yet the engine would die as soon as the tail was raised during a take-off. The use of gasoline-resisting rubber-hose with metal liners and the avoidance of sharp bends are recommended for the gasoline connections.
Technical Paper

The Operator's Airplane and Engine Requirements

1930-01-01
300032
CAUSES of troubles and expense to air-transport companies in their airplanes are dealt with comprehensively by the operations manager and a division superintendent of the National Air Transport. Commercial operation is asserted to be the proving ground for the products of both airplane and airplane-engine manufacturers, and four reasons given for this are (a) lack of understanding between the manufacturer and the purchaser as to precisely what is required of the airplane purchased, (b) inability of the manufacturer to deliver a product equal to his anticipation, (c) inability of the operator properly to use and care for the equipment furnished, and (d) the varied and opposed uses to which different operators must put their equipment. Detailed and valuable information is given regarding the parts that give trouble and what should be done to avoid it.
Technical Paper

Effect of Humidity and Air Temperature on Octane Numbers of Secondary Detonation-Standards

1931-01-01
310022
AFTER stating briefly the requirements that reference fuels used in determining the detonation values of test fuels should meet, the tests conducted by the Bureau of Standards to ascertain the effect that atmospheric conditions have upon the relations between the primary scale and each of a number of secondary detonation-standards are described. All tests were made with a Cooperative Fuel-Research engine having a 6:1 compression-ratio L-head. Varying the throttle opening gave the desired intensity of detonation, which was estimated by the bouncing-pin apparatus. Air-conditioning apparatus, used in previous tests, controlled the air temperature and humidity.
Technical Paper

Carbureter Design for the C. F. R. Detonation Engine

1931-01-01
310020
ACCURACY of metering and speed in manipulation are the two prime requisites in a carbureter for detonation-measurement work, according to the author, who outlines briefly the development, for use with the Cooperative Fuel-Research Committee test engine, of an instrument based upon the Dobbs carbureter designed by the Anglo-Persian Oil Co. for detonation testing. As now manufactured for routine testing, the device consists of four float-bowls having entirely seperate air and fuel channels, the channels from each bowl being controlled by individual air and fuel valves that operate in unison. The throttle, which is of the barrel type, is operated by a worm and gear and has an indicator arm attached to facilitate duplication of throttle settings. Results of tests indicate that this carbureter is satisfactory over a range from 40 deg. fahr. to the point at which gassing of the fuel becomes objectionable. Special nozzles can be provided for fuel densities outside the normal range.
Technical Paper

Jacket and Cylinder-Head Temperature Effects upon Relative Knock-Ratings

1931-01-01
310023
DATA that were obtained while investigating some of the variables affecting the relative antiknock values of certain fuels are presented to show that if one condition of knock testing is varied, at least one other condition must also be varied. Increasing the jacket temperature necessitates increasing the knock intensity, decreasing the throttle opening or the compression ratio or retarding the spark. Two sets of tests were run. One consisted in adding tetraethyl lead or crude benzene to one of the six test fuels to make it equal in knock intensity to each of the other five. In the other series the quantities of tetraethyl lead that must be added to a straight-run Mid-Continent gasoline to give knock ratings equal to different percentages of chemically pure benzene in the same fuel were determined. The results of both series, which led to somewhat opposing conclusions, are presented in tables and charts, and a possible explanation of this conflict is given.
Technical Paper

Air-Cooled Cylinder-Head Design

1931-01-01
310038
THE TWO MAJOR REQUIREMENTS for good cooling of an air-cooled cylinder-head are (a) adequate conductivity from the zones of maximum heat-flow, that is, the spark-plug bosses and the exhaust-valve seats, elbows and guides, to a sufficient area of finning, and (b) the maintenance of a high-velocity air-flow over the entire length and depth of all fins. Solution of the problem of (b) depends upon many items in the engine installation outside of the cylinder-head. A limit to possible power output of the cylinder is set by detonation, which, with a given fuel, depends upon the cylinder-head temperatures. As these temperatures are the basic index of operating conditions of air-cooled engines, the author states that a head thermocouple instrument should be standard equipment on every airplane, and pilots should be trained to respect head temperatures as much as they now respect oil pressures and temperatures.
Technical Paper

SOME NOTES ON BRAKE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION1

1923-01-01
230040
Brakes have three functions: (a) maintaining a car at rest, (b) reducing the speed of a vehicle or bringing it to a stop and (c) holding a vehicle to a constant speed on a descending grade. The kinetic energy of a moving vehicle is directly proportional to the weight of the vehicle and to the square of its speed. The amount of heat produced in the braking surfaces of a vehicle descending a given grade for a given distance will be the same whether the speed be high or low, but the rate of heat production will vary inversely as the speed. In addition to the retarding effect of the braking system a braking effect is constantly present that depends on the tractive resistance of the vehicle at various speeds and on the engine itself. Wind resistance and the resistance of the engine when the throttle is closed also produce retarding effects that assist in the work of braking.
Technical Paper

ESSENTIALS OF A SUCCESSFUL CONSTANT-COMPRESSION ENGINE1

1924-01-01
240008
The efficiency of internal-combustion engines increases with the pressure of the charge at the time of ignition. Therefore, a compression at full load just below that of premature ignition is ordinarily maintained. But when such an engine is controlled by throttling, the efficiency drops as the compression is reduced, and as automobile engines use less than one-quarter of their available power the greater part of the time, the fuel consumption is necessarily high for the horsepower output. On account, also, of the rarefaction due to throttling, more power must be developed than is necessary to drive the car; automobile engines in which the fuel is introduced during the induction stroke, would be more efficient, therefore, if the maximum compression were constant during all ranges of load.
Technical Paper

MECHANICAL FRICTION AS AFFECTED BY THE LUBRICANT

1924-01-01
240009
Very few data seem to be available on the frictional losses in automobile engines caused by the failure of the oil to perform its function as a lubricant. The researches of the Lubrication Inquiry Committee in England indicate that the friction of a flooded bearing is proportional to the speed of the engine, the area of the bearing and the viscosity of the lubricant and is independent of the pressure and of the materials of which the opposing surfaces are composed. The principal sources of friction in an engine are the crankshaft, the camshaft and the connecting-rod bearings, which rotate; the pistons and the valves, which slide; and the auxiliaries, such as the generator, the pump and the distributor.
Technical Paper

FUNDAMENTAL IMPROVEMENTS IN MANIFOLD DESIGN

1924-01-01
240004
Manifolds that have been designed as if they were intended to handle a fixed gas and that depend upon the application of excessive heat have not produced satisfactory results. Although heat in a limited amount aids vaporization, it is an agent that must be used with caution. As present-day fuels are composed of volatile constituents blended with the heavier ends, only a part at best can be vaporized and manifolds should be designed so that they will distribute wet mixtures of fog, instead of dry gases, uniformly at varying engine speeds and varying throttle positions. The four elements in the mixture furnished to the engine are air, water vapor, gasoline vapor and liquid particles of gasoline or fog. Liquid particles of considerable volume can be held in the airstream without depositing if the velocity is kept relatively high.
Technical Paper

INTAKE-MANIFOLD DISTRIBUTION

1924-01-01
240005
Definite knowledge as to the behavior of gases and liquids in the manifold of an internal-combustion engine being lacking, an attempt is made to answer the questions: (a) How bad is the distribution, (b) how do the different types of manifold compare, (c) why is the liquid distribution in some manifolds poor and (d) how shall we proceed to correct the trouble? The solution of the problem is affected by the facts that, in extremely cold weather, nearly all fuel is delivered to the engine, at the time of starting, as a liquid; that all cars perform poorly under such conditions, some engines, when cold, “hitting” on only one or two cylinders; and that, because of inferior distribution, many multi-cylinder engines are outperformed by single-cylinder engines of similar design.
Technical Paper

ENGINE CHARACTERISTICS UNDER HIGH COMPRESSION

1923-01-01
230007
This Annual Meeting paper is a report of a series of tests conducted during the summer of 1922 by the authors at the Engineering Experiment Station of Purdue University. The work consisted of research into the operation of internal-combustion engines under comparatively high compression on ordinary gasoline without detonation. The compression-ratio of the engine was 6.75 and the compression pressure was 122 lb. per sq. in., gage. The ingoing charge was passed through a hot-spot vaporizer and thence through a cooler between the carbureter and the valves. Jacket-water temperatures between 150 and 170 deg. fahr. were carried at the outlet port of the jacket. The theory held by the authors as to the causes of detonation of the combustible charge is presented briefly. The source of the two phases of detonation encountered in this work is believed to be overheated areas in the combustion-chamber.
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