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Technical Paper

The Effect of Intake Air Temperature, Compression Ratio and Coolant Temperature on the Start of Heat Release in an HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) Engine

In this paper, effect of intake air temperature, coolant temperature, and compression ratio on start of heat release (SOHR) in HCCI engines is investigated. The operational range with HCCI operation was determined experimentally using a CFR (Cooperative Fuels Research) engine with n-butane as the fuel. In-cylinder pressure was processed to evaluate SOHR. The effect of intake air and coolant temperature on SOHR increases as engine speed increases. In order to gain more insight into the combustion phenomena, SOHR was calculated using the theory of Livengood-Wu and compared with the experimental data. Dependence of SOHR on the equivalence ratio shows good correspondence between experiment and calculation. On the contrary, dependence on the intake air temperature and compression ratio shows poorer correspondence with predictions, especially under low engine speed. We interpret this as an indication of the importance of the active intermediate species that remain in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Aldehyde and Unburned Fuel Emission Measurements from a Methanol-Fueled Texaco Stratified Charge Engine

A Texaco L-163S TCCS (Texaco Controlled Combustion System) engine was operated with pure methanol to investigate the origin and mechanism of unburned fuel (UBF) and formaldehyde emissions. The effects of engine load, speed and coolant temperature on the exhaust emissions were studied using both continuous and time-resolved sampling methods. Within the range studied, increasing the engine load resulted in a decrease of the exhaust UBF emissions and an increase in the formaldehyde emissions. Engine speed had little effect on both UBF and formaldehyde emissions. Decreasing the engine coolant temperature from 85°C to 45°C caused the exhaust UBF emissions to approximately double and the formaldehyde emission to increase approximately 20 percent. It is hypothesized that both fuel impingement and spray tailing are responsible for the high UBF emissions. In-cylinder formation of formaldehyde was found to be the major source of the exhaust aldehyde emissions in this experiment.
Technical Paper

Particulate Characteristics for Varying Engine Operation in a Gasoline Spark Ignited, Direct Injection Engine

The objective of this research is a detailed investigation of particulate sizing and number count from a spark-ignited, direct-injection (SIDI) engine at different operating conditions. The engine is a 549 [cc] single-cylinder, four-valve engine with a flat-top piston, fueled by Tier II EEE. A baseline engine operating condition, with a low number of particulates, was established and repeatability at this condition was ascertained. This baseline condition is specified as 2000 rpm, 320 kPa IMEP, 280 [°bTDC] end of injection (EOI), and 25 [°bTDC] ignition timing. The particle size distributions were recorded for particle sizes between 7 and 289 [nm]. The baseline particle size distribution was relatively flat, around 1E6 [dN/dlogDp], for particle diameters between 7 and 100 [nm], before dropping off to decreasing numbers at larger diameters. Distributions resulting from a matrix of different engine conditions were recorded.