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Training / Education

Fundamental Concepts of Turbocharging Modern Engines Current Practices and Trends

Turbocharging is rapidly becoming an integral part of many internal combustion engine systems. While it has long been a key to diesel engine performance, it is increasingly seen as an enabler in meeting many of the efficiency and performance requirements of modern automotive gasoline engines. This web seminar will discuss the basic concepts of turbocharging and air flow management of four-stroke engines. The course will explore the fundamentals of turbocharging, system design features, performance measures, and matching and selection criteria.
Training / Education

Diesel Engine Technology

2018-10-03
As diesel engines become more popular, a fundamental knowledge of diesel technology is critical for anyone involved in the diesel engine support industry. This course will explain the fundamental technology of diesel engines starting with a short but thorough introduction of the diesel combustion cycle, and continue with aspects of engine design, emission control design, and more. An overview of developing technologies for the future with a comprehensive section on exhaust aftertreatment is also included. The text, Diesel Emissions and Their Control, authored by Magdi Khair and W. Addy Majewski is included with the seminar.
Training / Education

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) for Diesel Engines

2018-09-11
Meeting the requirements of heavy-duty engine emissions regulations is a challenge for all engine manufacturers. Since the introduction of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) in medium and heavy-duty diesel engines, these systems have become more sophisticated and tightly integrated with emission control systems. This 2-day seminar will explore the advantages and disadvantages of EGR and the most effective implementation of various EGR systems. This seminar will begin by defining EGR and why it is used in diesel engines, along with an explanation of the mechanisms by which EGR is able to reduce NOx.
Training / Education

Common Rail Diesel Fuel Injection

2018-08-15
The improved efficiencies of the modern diesel engine have led to its increased use within the mobility industry. The vast majority of these diesel engines employ a high-pressure common rail fuel injection system to increase the engine's fuel-saving potential, emissions reduction, and overall performance. This one-day seminar will begin with a review of the basic principles of diesel engines and fuel injection systems. Diesel and alternative fuels will be discussed, followed by current and emerging diesel engine applications.
Training / Education

Selective Catalytic Reduction for Diesel Engines

2018-08-14
Stringent requirements of reduced NOx emission limits in the US have presented engineers and technical staff with numerous challenges. Several in-cylinder technical solutions have been developed for diesel engines to meet 2010 emission standards. These technologies have been optimized and have yielded impressive engine-out results in their ability to reduce emissions to extremely low levels. However, current and state-of-the-art in-cylinder solutions have fallen short of achieving the limits imposed on diesel emissions for 2010.
Training / Education

Engine Failure Investigation and Analysis

2018-08-09
Engine failures can occur in a variety of equipment, vehicles, and applications. On occasion, a single vehicle type or equipment family will even experience multiple engine failures leading to the inevitable need to determine what the most likely cause of one or all of those failures was. This comprehensive seminar introduces participants to the methods and techniques used to understand the types of variables and inputs that can affect engine reliability and then determine the most likely cause of an individual engine or group of engine failures in the field.
Training / Education

Diesel Engine Noise Control

2018-06-05
This web seminar provides an in-depth overview of diesel engine noise including combustion and mechanical noise sources. In addition, the instructor will discuss a system approach to automotive integration including combining sub-systems and components to achieve overall vehicle noise and vibration goals.
Training / Education

Diesel Engine Technology Engineering Academy

2018-06-04
This Academy covers the diesel engine engineering principles and the role it can play in the electrification of the transportation system. Several types of diesel engines are addressed with a review of their efficiency including how they might support the drive towards electrification. It is an intensive learning experience comprised of lecture and structured practical sessions, including a team-solved case study problem and/or a review and analysis of current issues facing the diesel industry. Evening sessions are included. Attendees will receive a copy of the textbook, Diesel Emissions and Their Control, by lead instructor Magdi K.
Journal Article

Challenges for Increased Efficiency through Gasoline Engine Downsizing

2009-04-20
2009-01-1053
In order to achieve the required future CO2 reduction targets, significant further development of both gasoline and diesel engines is required. One of the main methods to achieve this with the gasoline engine in the short to medium term is through the application of engine downsizing, which has resulted in numerous downsized engines already being brought to production. It is, however, considered that there is still significant further CO2 reduction potential through continued development of this technology. This paper considers the future development of gasoline engine downsizing in the short to medium term and the various technologies that can be applied to further increase the efficiency of operation. As such this paper covers, among other areas, fundamental engine layout and design, alternative boosting systems, methods of increasing part load efficiency and vehicle modelling, and uses analysis tools and engine test results to show the benefits achievable.
Technical Paper

Characteristics and Effects of Ash Accumulation on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance: Rapidly Aged and Field Aged Results

2009-04-20
2009-01-1086
Ash, mostly from essential lubricant additives, affects diesel particulate filter (DPF) pressure-drop sensitivity and limits filter service life. It raises concern in the lubricant industry to properly specify new oils, and engine and aftertreatment system manufacturers have attempted to find ways to mitigate the problem. To address these issues, results of detailed measurements of ash characteristics in the DPF and their effects on filter performance are presented. In this study, a heavy-duty diesel engine was outfitted with a specially designed rapid lubricant degradation and aftertreatment ash loading system. Unlike previous studies, this system allows for the control of specific exhaust characteristics including ash emission rate, ash-to-particle ratio, ash composition, and exhaust temperature and flow rates independent of the engine operating condition.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Emissions of Chemical Species from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and the Effects of Modern Aftertreatment Technology

2009-04-20
2009-01-1084
A comparative analysis was made on the emissions from a 2004 and a 2007 heavy-duty diesel engine to determine how new engine and emissions technologies have affected the chemical compounds found in the exhaust gases. Representative samples were collected from a source dilution sampling system and analyzed for both criteria and unregulated gaseous and particulate emissions. Results have shown that the 2007 regulations compliant engine and emissions technology not only reduced the specifically regulated exhaust pollutants, but also significantly reduced the majority of unregulated chemical species. It is believed that these reductions were achieved through the use of engine optimization, aftertreatment system integration, and ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Study of diesel Engine Performance Using High Sulfur Fuel

2009-04-20
2009-01-1098
While most of the industrialized world's diesel fuel usage for on-highway applications is shifting toward ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) (≤ 50 ppm) or “sulfur-free” (≤ 15 ppm) content fuel, some markets for high-sulfur diesel (HSD) fuel still persist. Among these are off-roadway engines, marine, military fuel use worldwide, and general diesel fuel use in the Middle East and in some developing markets. A stock-production medium-duty engine underwent a dynamometer durability test with high-sulfur (10,000 ppm) diesel to approximate the worst case for sulfur content among global road fuels, and medium-high sulfur diesel (3,000 ppm) for engine break-in. Testing was completed successfully; however performance degradation with these fuels was observed which might have practical significance in other diesel applications for these markets.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Dieseline Combustion in a Direct Injection Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1101
The differences between modern diesel and gasoline engine configurations are now becoming smaller and smaller, and in fact will be even smaller in the near future. They will all use moderately high compression ratios and complex direct injection strategies. The HCCI combustion mode is likely to lead to the merging of gasoline and diesel engine technologies to handle the challenges they are facing, offering a number of opportunities for the development of the fuels, engine control and after-treatment. The authors' recent experimental research into the HCCI combustion quality of gasoline and diesel blend fuels has referred to the new combustion technology as ‘Dieseline’.
Technical Paper

Verification of Accelerated PM Loading for DPF Qualification Studies

2009-04-20
2009-01-1089
High gas prices combined with demand for improved fuel economy have prompted increased interest in diesel engine applications for both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. The development of aftertreatment systems for these vehicles requires significant investments of capital and time. A reliable and robust qualification testing procedure will allow for more rapid development with lower associated costs. Qualification testing for DPFs has its basis in methods similar to DOCs but also incorporates a PM loading method and regeneration testing of loaded samples. This paper examines the effects of accelerated loading using a PM generator and compares PM generator loaded DPFs to engine dynamometer loaded samples. DPFs were evaluated based on pressure drop and regeneration performance for samples loaded slowly and for samples loaded under accelerated conditions. A regeneration reactor was designed and built to help evaluate the DPFs loaded using the PM generator and an engine dynamometer.
Journal Article

Influence of Injection Timing and Piston Bowl Geometry on PCCI Combustion and Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-1102
Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI), a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategy for diesel engines is of increasing interest due to its potential to simultaneously reduce soot and NOx emissions. However, the influence of mixture preparation on combustion phasing and heat release rate in LTC is not fully understood. In the present study, the influence of injection timing on mixture preparation, combustion and emissions in PCCI mode is investigated by experimental and computational methods. A sequential coupling approach of 3D CFD with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the PCCI engine. The SRM accounts for detailed chemical kinetics, convective heat transfer and turbulent micro-mixing. In this integrated approach, the temperature-equivalence ratio statistics obtained using KIVA 3V are mapped onto the stochastic particle ensemble used in the SRM.
Journal Article

Properties of Partial-Flow and Coarse Pore Deep Bed Filters Proposed to Reduce Particle Emission of Vehicle Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1087
Four of these Particulate Reduction Systems (PMS) were tested on a passenger car and one of them on a HDV. Expectation of the research team was that they would reach at least a PM-reduction of 30% under all realistic operating conditions. The standard German filter test procedure for PMS was performed but moreover, the response to various operating conditions was tested including worst case situations. Besides the legislated CO, NOx and PM exhaust-gas emissions, also the particle count and NO2 were measured. The best filtration efficiency with one PMS was indeed 63%. However, under critical but realistic conditions filtration of 3 of 4 PMS was measured substantially lower than the expected 30 %, depending on operating conditions and prior history, and could even completely fail. Scatter between repeated cycles was very large and results were not reproducible. Even worse, with all 4 PMS deposited soot, stored in these systems during light load operation was intermittently blown-off.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Instantaneous Cyclic Heat Transfer in the Combustion Chamber and Exhaust Manifold of a DI Diesel Engine under Transient Operating Conditions

2009-04-20
2009-01-1122
In this paper, the results are presented from the analysis of the second stage of an experimental investigation with the aim to provide insight to the cyclic, instantaneous heat transfer phenomena occurring in both the cylinder head and exhaust manifold wall surfaces of a direct injection (DI), air-cooled diesel engine. Results from the first stage of the investigation concerning steady-state engine operation have already been presented by the authors in this series. In this second stage, the mechanism of cyclic heat transfer was investigated during engine transient events, viz. after a sudden change in engine speed and/or load, both for the combustion chamber and exhaust manifold surfaces. The modified experimental installation allowed both long- and short-term signal types to be recorded on a common time reference base during the transient event.
Technical Paper

Improved Simulation of Transient Engine Operations at Unsteady Speed Combining 1-D and 3-D Modeling

2009-04-20
2009-01-1109
The new simulation tool consists of an iterative loop of a 3-D code in parallel to a 1-D code that is employed to simulate transient engine cycles. The 1-D code yields the basic pattern of initial and boundary conditions and the 3-D simulations at several typical engine operating points are used to crosscheck the performance as well as aid in the model calibration. A flexible regression model of the fuel burn rate and the associated ROHR has been developed in conjunction with the 3-D simulations using a combination of three added Vibe functions. The emissions at the end of the expansion stroke are also predicted. The parameters of the Vibe functions and emissions are found via nonlinear regression based on state parameters such as engine speed, relative A/F ratio, EGR/rest gas contents, injection timings, etc. Additional 3-D simulations that are made at specific engine operating points complement this compact burn rate parameter library.
Journal Article

Efficacy of EGR and Boost in Single-Injection Enabled Low Temperature Combustion

2009-04-20
2009-01-1126
Exhaust gas recirculation, fuel injection strategy and boost pressure are among the key enablers to attain low NOx and soot emissions simultaneously on modern diesel engines. In this work, the individual influence of these parameters on the emissions are investigated independently for engine loads up to 8 bar IMEP. A single-shot fuel injection strategy has been deployed to push the diesel cycle into low temperature combustion with EGR. The results indicated that NOx was a stronger respondent to injection pressure levels than to boost when the EGR ratio is relatively low. However, when the EGR level was sufficiently high, the NOx was virtually grounded and the effect of boost or injection pressure becomes irrelevant. Further tests indicated that a higher injection pressure lowered soot emissions across the EGR sweeps while the effect of boost on the soot reduction appeared significant only at higher soot levels.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Intake Condition and Group-Hole Nozzle Effects on Fuel Economy and Combustion Noise for Stoichiometric Diesel Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1123
The goal of this research is to investigate the physical parameters of stoichiometric operation of a diesel engine under a light load operating condition (6∼7 bar IMEP). This paper focuses on improving the fuel efficiency of stoichiometric operation, for which a fuel consumption penalty relative to standard diesel combustion was found to be 7% from a previous study. The objective is to keep NOx and soot emissions at reasonable levels such that a 3-way catalyst and DPF can be used in an aftertreatment combination to meet 2010 emissions regulation. The effects of intake conditions and the use of group-hole injector nozzles (GHN) on fuel consumption of stoichiometric diesel operation were investigated. Throttled intake conditions exhibited about a 30% fuel penalty compared to the best fuel economy case of high boost/EGR intake conditions. The higher CO emissions of throttled intake cases lead to the poor fuel economy.
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