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Training / Education

Fundamentals of Truck and Off-Highway Transmission Systems

This course will develop a basic understanding of the fundamentals of operation and explain the current state-of-the-art design of the modern transmission designs. Transmission systems in current production will be used as a practical example throughout the seminar. Two basic product areas of truck and off-highway transmission systems will be reviewed: Planetary Automatic Transmissions, and Power-Shifted Transmissions. The functional requirements of the "current" market and the operational needs of its drivers will drive the course. Course material will be presented in the chronological order in which it was introduced into the marketplace.
Training / Education

Introduction to Commercial and Off-Road Vehicle Cooling Airflow Systems

Vehicle functional requirements, emission regulations, and thermal limits all have a direct impact on the design of a powertrain cooling airflow system. Given the expected increase in emission-related heat rejection, suppliers and vehicle manufacturers must work together as partners in the design, selection, and packaging of cooling system components. An understanding and appreciation of airflow integration issues and vehicle-level trade-offs that effect system performance are important to the team effort. The severe duty cycles, minimal ram air, and sometimes unconventional package layouts present unique challenges.
Training / Education

Advanced Applications of Heavy Vehicle EDR Data

2022-05-23
This class will provide the student with the skills, knowledge, and abilities to interpret, analyze and apply Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorder (HVEDR) data in real world applications. This course has been designed to build on the concepts presented in the SAE course Accessing and Interpreting Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders (ID# C1022).
Magazine

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: December 2018

2018-12-01
Electrification takes (some of) the load There’s no better way to relieve worry over meeting emissions regulations than by not producing any emissions from the start. But electric drive is not a silver bullet. Weight watcher Meritor optimizes product design and examines “exotic” materials like carbon fiber to slash mass from drivelines. Electrifying demo Diesel pioneer Deutz equipped telehandlers with hybrid and fully electric powertrains and put their capabilities on display. Automated and electric at IAA Far-out concepts and nearer-to-production prototypes dotted the show floor and outdoor demo track at the biennial commercial-vehicle event in Hanover, Germany. Delphi injects life into diesel Fuel-injection advances enable cleaner, quieter operation, while gains in power electronics and controls help grow electrification business.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of the Noise Emitting Parts of a Rotating Tire in the European Research Project TINO

1999-05-17
1999-01-1732
One of the objectives in the European Research project TINO is to identify, in detail, the surfaces of a rotating tire which actually generate the radiated noise. The approach is completely experimental and is based upon the ASQ (Airborne Sound Quantification) technique. The quantification of the contribution of the different tire surfaces to the sound pressure measured under defined conditions is carried out through a process of near-field measurements during rotation of the tire and static acoustic transfer function measurements. The ASQ method is further developed and tested when focussing at the applications. In first instance, the procedure has been validated and fine-tuned under well-controlled boundary conditions at a tire chassis dynamometer. The results of this first investigation served also as a “reference” set of data which has been used for verification and validation of numerical tire models.
Technical Paper

Tire/Pavement Interaction Noise Source Identification Using Multi-Planar Nearfield Acoustical Holography

1999-05-17
1999-01-1733
In this study, multi-planar Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) is used to investigate noise radiated from the front, side and rear areas of single tires on a two-wheel trailer. Contributions to the radiated noise from the leading edge, trailing edge, and sidewall of the tire are identified. Two tires - an experimental monopitch tire and a production passenger car tire - are evaluated on a smooth asphalt pavement at 58 km/hr. From the measured complex pressure, acoustic intensity is reconstructed on three planes surrounding the tire using modified NAH procedures. Additionally, sound power levels are presented in tabulated and spectra forms. Tire noise generating mechanisms are inferred based on the results.
Technical Paper

Transmission Oil Degradation Warning Systems and Computing in Agricultural Tractors

2000-06-19
2000-01-1873
This communication examines three strategies of predictive lubricant monitoring and replacement, used for farm tractors or similar vehicles. These strategies optimise the draining periodicity. They are the off-line follow-up, the sensors follow-up and the analytical model follow-up. The implementation of the suggested analytical model will be discussed, on the basis of field collected data (on a series of tractors, either customer's or on loan). Regular oil samples, and significant ones carried out at the end of the study, were taken and analysed in order to predict the evolution of the lubricant characteristics. Extensions to the experimental study were carried out at the end of this work. They are discussed in the paper (FZG gear scuffing, 4 ball wear and EP…).
Technical Paper

Verification of Heavy Truck EBS and ABS Using MatrixX Hardware in the Loop Tools

1999-11-15
1999-01-3713
The development of advanced ABS, EBS, and vehicle dynamics control systems requires significant resources and testing. Even in the most controlled environment, on-track vehicle tests are not repeatable. A heavy vehicle model combined with pneumatic brake hardware connected to actual brake system controllers creates a powerful engineering tool. This tool is useful for control system development, electro-mechanical actuator development, and brake system development. An existing heavy vehicle model is modified to interact with the realtime simulation hardware and the pneumatic brake system hardware. Data from several hardware in the loop simulations are presented.
Technical Paper

Improved Heavy Vehicle Wheel Dynamics Model Using MATLAB/SIMULINK

1999-11-15
1999-01-3707
The accuracy of existing rotational wheel dynamics models has been found to be insufficient for heavy vehicle Antilock Braking System (ABS) and Electropneumatic Braking System (EBS) simulation, specifically when wheelspeeds are at or near zero but the vehicle speed is not. Control strategies specific to ABS and EBS, the low frequency response of pneumatic actuation, and the practice of using fewer modulators than braked wheels require that a vehicle model be able to handle lockedwheel scenarios accurately. Commercially available models have been found unsatisfactory in this regard, and technical literature has not been found to address this issue.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Analysis of Commercial Vehicle Air Dryer Efficiency

1999-11-15
1999-01-3774
The measurement of pressure dew point is a well-known method of describing air quality, however this value seldom assists commercial vehicle OEM’s and operators in establishing specific air drying requirements for their vehicles. This paper describes the method and examines the results of using the dryer capacity method specified in SAE document J2384, section 5.2, for determining air dryer performance, and compares the results of various air-drying techniques and the impact on vehicle system design to give the most efficient solution. The paper further goes on to discuss how the drying capacity can also be influenced by the design of the air dryer to meet a wide range of vehicle applications both in Europe and North America. Since J2384 excludes continuous flow air dryers from the scope of the document, they will likewise be excluded from discussion here.
Technical Paper

Intelligent DC Power Management System

1999-11-15
1999-01-3749
Most heavy-duty vehicles including trucks, tractors, buses, ambulances, refrigerated trailers, passenger vehicles, electric vehicles and boats have high amp Direct Current systems. Unlike the majority of components and systems in such vehicles, DC electrical systems have undergone very few major improvements in recent years. The Intelligent Power Management System discussed in this paper can offer significant improvements in the DC power management of such vehicles. The primary benefits of this system include: improved reliability of all electrical components, early warning of impending failures, extended service life, optimized generation, storage and use of power, and reduced maintenance cost and vehicle downtime. This paper will describe the Intelligent Power Management System, its design, applications and benefits.
Technical Paper

How Diagnostics Contribute to Vehicle Productivity and Driver Retention

1999-11-15
1999-01-3751
This paper begins with an outline of the cost structure of operating a commercial vehicle. The focus is on maintenance costs and how diagnostics and prognostics can lower costs. The paper then describes a link between vehicle productivity, driver productivity and driver satisfaction. Examples of onboard and offboard diagnostic systems will be used to illustrate how users create a vehicle that is “the best place to work” for drivers.
Technical Paper

Optimal Mass and Geometric Parameters in Multi-Wheel Drive Trucks for Improved Transport and Fuel Efficiency

1999-11-15
1999-01-3733
To develop better performing vehicles, for ground transportation, it is necessary to improve the theory in vehicle dynamics for choosing suitable mass and geometric parameters for highway as well as for off road trucks. A new approach is required for choosing such optimal mass and geometric parameters. The present paper is devoted to this problem. A new method for synthesis of mass and geometric parameters is introduced here. The method allows us to synthesize the parameters in such way as to provide a vehicle with the best transport efficiency under various road surface conditions. Constraints such as limitations on these parameters, vehicle running modes, mass and geometric parameters are included in the model. Furthermore other constraints for vehicle running abilities which are dependent on mass and geometric parameters, as well as an algorithm for synthesizing mass and geometric parameters are also included in the paper for pre-optimization process.
Technical Paper

A Needs Assessment and Technology Evaluation for Roadside Identification of Commercial Vehicles

1999-11-15
1999-01-3726
This study was undertaken to identify methods of unique identification of commercial vehicles at the roadside for slow and high-speed electronic screening purposes. It is a comprehensive look at available and emerging technologies, focusing on the needs of the Federal Highway Administration’s Office of Motor Carrier and Highway Safety (OMCHS) and the States. The study included both a needs assessment and a technology evaluation. A preliminary list of 22 technologies was developed that appeared to have some applicability to the task of roadside identification of commercial vehicles. As the technology evaluation progressed, five of these technologies (optical character recognition, radio frequency identification, barcode, image capture, and voice recognition) emerged as demonstrating the greatest potential for roadside identification of commercial vehicles. These five technologies were evaluated in some detail, and recommendations were developed.
Technical Paper

Emissions Characteristics of Diesel Vehicles Equipped With Particulate Filters and Using Fuel Additive For Regeneration

2000-06-19
2000-01-1925
Four vehicles were chosen to cover a range of engine technologies. These vehicles were fitted with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) of differing technology. Three of the vehicles have been driven on the road using an additised fuel to demonstrate totally passive operation of the DPF. As part of this programme all three vehicles underwent regulated emissions testing to demonstrate that there was no deterioration in emissions during the programme. Additionally a light commercial vehicle was tested to demonstrate the effect on emissions of the combination of additised fuel and the DPF. The performance of the DPFs during on-road use has already been reported; this paper therefore concentrates on discussion of the results of the emissions testing.
Technical Paper

Characterization of New Fuel Qualities

2000-06-19
2000-01-2009
Many standardized tests for evaluating fuel properties have originally been designed for screening straight-run hydrocarbon products. In the case of fuels blended with new components or treated with additives, the traditional test methods may give misleading results. The objective of the work was to evaluate the correlation between the results of standardized testing and of the real-life serviceability of new diesel fuel qualities. Combustion properties, properties affecting exhaust emissions, low-temperature performance and diesel fuel lubricity were studied. The test fuel matrix comprised of typical conventional hydrocarbon diesel fuels, low-emission hydrocarbon fuels, rapeseed and tall oil esters and ethanol-blended diesel fuels. The base fuels were blended with a cetane improver additive and some fuels also with a cold flow improver additive. Combustion and emission tests were carried out with a heavy-duty bus engine and a diesel passenger car.
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