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Technical Paper

The Effect of Intake Air Temperature, Compression Ratio and Coolant Temperature on the Start of Heat Release in an HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) Engine

2001-12-01
2001-01-1880
In this paper, effect of intake air temperature, coolant temperature, and compression ratio on start of heat release (SOHR) in HCCI engines is investigated. The operational range with HCCI operation was determined experimentally using a CFR (Cooperative Fuels Research) engine with n-butane as the fuel. In-cylinder pressure was processed to evaluate SOHR. The effect of intake air and coolant temperature on SOHR increases as engine speed increases. In order to gain more insight into the combustion phenomena, SOHR was calculated using the theory of Livengood-Wu and compared with the experimental data. Dependence of SOHR on the equivalence ratio shows good correspondence between experiment and calculation. On the contrary, dependence on the intake air temperature and compression ratio shows poorer correspondence with predictions, especially under low engine speed. We interpret this as an indication of the importance of the active intermediate species that remain in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Composition on Combustion and Detailed Chemical/Physical Characteristics of Diesel Exhaust

2003-05-19
2003-01-1899
An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of fuel composition on combustion, gaseous emissions, and detailed chemical composition and size distributions of diesel particulate matter (PM) in a modern heavy-duty diesel engine with the use of the enhanced full-dilution tunnel system of the Engine Research Center (ERC) of the UW-Madison. Detailed description of this system can be found in our previous reports [1,2]. The experiments were carried out on a single-cylinder 2.3-liter D.I. diesel engine equipped with an electronically controlled unit injection system. The operating conditions of the engine followed the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 8-mode test cycle. The fuels used in the current study include baseline No. 2 diesel (Fuel A: sulfur content = 352 ppm), ultra low sulfur diesel (Fuel B: sulfur content = 14 ppm), and Fisher-Tropsch (F-T) diesel (sulfur content = 0 ppm).
Technical Paper

Zero-Dimensional Soot Modeling

2003-03-03
2003-01-1070
A zero-dimension model of spray development and particulate emissions for direct-injection combustion was developed. The model describes the major characteristics of the injection plume including: spray angle, liquid penetration, lift-off length, and temperatures of regions within the spray. The model also predicts particulate mass output over a span of combustion cycles, as well as a particulate mass-history over a single combustion event. The model was developed by applying established conceptual models for direct injection combustion to numerical relations, to develop a mathematical description of events. The model was developed in a Matlab Simulink environment to promote modularity and ease of use.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Limits of Improving DI Diesel Emissions By Increasing In-Cylinder Mixing

1998-10-19
982677
In the current investigation, the authors identified conditions under which increased in-cylinder turbulence can be used to improve diesel emissions. Two separate regimes of engine operation were identified; one in which combustion was constrained by mixing and one in which it was not. These regimes were dubbed under-mixed and over-mixed, respectively. It was found that increasing mixing in the former regime had a profound effect on soot emission. Fuel injection characteristics were found to be extremely important in determining the point at which mixing became inadequate. In addition, the ratio of the fuel injection momentum flux relative to that of the gas injection was found to be important in determining how increasing mixing would effect soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Soot Formation During DI Diesel Combustion Using a Multi-Step Phenomenological Model

1998-10-19
982463
Predictive models of soot formation during Diesel combustion are of great practical interest, particularly in light of newly proposed strict regulations on particulate emissions. A modified version of the phenomenological model of soot formation developed previously has been implemented in KIVA-II CFD code. The model includes major generic processes involved in soot formation during combustion, i.e., formation of soot precursors, formation of surface growth species, soot particle nucleation, coagulation, surface growth and oxidation. The formulation of the model within the KIVA-II is fully coupled with the mass and energy balances in the system. The model performance has been tested by comparison with the results of optical in-cylinder soot measurements in a single cylinder Cummins NH Diesel engine. The predicted soot volume fraction, number density and particle size agree reasonably well with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

In Cylinder Augmented Mixing Through Controlled Gaseous Jet Injection

1995-10-01
952358
An investigation was performed on a direct injection diesel engine equipped with a gaseous injector to determine the effects of augmented mixing on emission characteristics. The gaseous injector introduced a jet of gas of particular composition in the cylinder during the latter portion of diesel combustion. This injector was controlled to inject the gas at specific engine timings and at various injection pressures. Engine experiments were done on a LABECO/TACOM single cylinder, direct injected, 1.2 liter, four stroke diesel engine. This engine was operated at 1500 rpm at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 with simulated turbocharging. The fuel injection timing was changed for some cases to accommodate the gaseous injection. Exhaust particulate emissions were measured with a mini-dilution tunnel. All other emissions data were measured on a REGA 7000 Real-Time Exhaust Gas Analyzer Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) system.
Technical Paper

Cycle-by-Cycle Variations in Combustion and Mixture Concentration in the Vicinity of Spark Plug Gap

1995-02-01
950814
The correlations between IMEP and pressures at referenced crank angles have different trends for different equivalence ratios. A fiber optic spark plug was used to detect the initial flame development which was then used to analyze the combustion cyclic variation. Rayleigh scattering measurements were applied to detect the air-fuel mixture fluctuations in the vicinity of spark plug gap for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous mixture preparations in a spark ignition engine. The variation in mixture concentration in the vicinity of spark plug gap was not confirmed as a major contributor to cycle-by-cycle variation in combustion for any of the homogeneous mixture cases or for the stoichiometric and lean mixtures of port injection. However, a leaner mixture((ϕ=0.80) of port injection did correlate with the cyclic variation in combustion.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effect of Engine Speed on the Combustion Process and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine

1996-10-01
962056
Previous studies have shown that air motion affects the combustion process and therefore also the emissions in a DI diesel engine. Experimental studies indicate that higher engine speeds enhance the turbulence and this improves air and fuel mixing. However, there are few studies that address fundamental combustion related factors and possible limitations associated with very high speed engine operation. In this study, operation over a large range of engine speeds was simulated by using a multi-dimensional computer code to study the effect of speed on emissions, engine power, engine and exhaust temperatures. The results indicate that at higher engine speeds fuel is consumed in a much shorter time period by the enhanced air and fuel mixing. The shorter combustion duration provides much less available time for soot and NOx formations. In addition, the enhanced air/fuel mixing decreases soot and NOx by reducing the extent of the fuel rich regions.
Technical Paper

Data from a Variable Rate Shape High Pressure Injection System Operating in an Engine Fed Constant Volume Combustion Chamber

1990-10-01
902082
In current systems, for a given nozzle and injection pressure (pump speed), the shape of the injection rate is fixed and the injection timing is the only variable the engine designer can vary. For this non-interactive injection system, changing the injector nozzle (number and diameter of holes) will proportionately change the injection shape. New injection systems in which the rate of injection is a controlled variable are being developed. Results from one such injector, called the UCORS (Universal Combustion Optimization and Rate Shaping), are reported in this paper. The system can dynamically control its injection rate shape by controlling the position and size of a pilot injection relative to the main injection. Data and analysis from an out-of-engine and combustion chamber study of the UCORS injection system are presented.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Split Injection on Soot and NOx Production in an Engine-Fed Combustion Chamber

1993-10-01
932655
This research focused on the effects of split injection on combustion in a diesel environment. It was done in a specially designed engine-fed combustion chamber (swirl ratio of 5) with full field optical access through a quartz window. The simulated engine combustion chamber used a special backwards spraying injector (105°). The electronically controlled injector could control the size and position of it's, two injections. Both injections were through the same nozzle and it produced very rapid injections (1.5 ms) with a maximum injection pressure of 130 MPa. Experimental data included: rate of injection, injector pressure, combustion chamber dumping (NO & NOx concentrations), flame temperature, KL factor (soot concentration) combustion pressure, and rate of pressure rise. Injection rates indicate that the UCORS injection system creates very rapid injections with the ability to produce controllable split injections.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Split Injection on Fuel Distribution in an Engine-Fed Combustion Chamber

1993-03-01
930864
This research focused on the effects of split injection on fuel spray behavior in a diesel environment. It was done in a special designed engine-fed combustion chamber (swirl ratio of 5) with full field optical access through a quartz window. The simulated engine combustion chamber used a special backwards spraying injector (105°). The electronically controlled injector could control the size and position of it's two injections. Both injections were through the same nozzle and it produced very rapid injections (1.5 ms) with a maximum injection pressure of 130 MPa. Experimental data included: rate of injection, injector pressure, spray plume images, tip penetration, liquid and vapor fuel distributions, combustion pressure, and rate of pressure rise. From 105° forward scatter images, tip penetration was observed to be very rapid and reached a plateau at 25 mm.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Ignition Delay, Heat Transfer and Combustion During Dynamic Load Changes in a Diesel Engine

1989-09-01
892054
In this paper we report the results of experiments done during the transient operation of a single cylinder Cummins NH engine. The data taken include cycle resolved pressure, combustion chamber surface temperatures and ignition delay. The data was taken during a special type of engine operation in which the engine was repeatedly hopped from one load to another. In this way cycle to cycle variations could be averaged out by ensemble averaging individual cycles after the step load change. For analysis of the heat transfer a unique finite difference temperature probe was developed to delineate the 3-D heat transfer effects in place of the standard 1-D assumptions and a new analysis technique was developed to calculate the instantaneous heat flux during the transient. Analysis of the data indicates that the combustion reaches an equivalent steady state condition within 2000 engine cycles after the load change.
Technical Paper

Compression-Ignited Homogeneous Charge Combustion

1983-02-01
830264
Experimentally obtained energy release results, a semi-empirical ignition model, and an empirical energy release equation developed during this research were used to evaluate the combustion of compression-ignited homogeneous mixtures of fuel, air, and exhaust products in a CFR engine. A systematic study was carried out to evaluate the response of compression-ignited homogeneous charge (CIHC) combustion to changes in operating parameters with emphasis being placed on the phenomena involved rather than the detailed chemical kinetics. This systematic study revealed that the response of the combustion process to changes in operating parameters can be explained in terms of known chemical kinetics, and that through the proper use of temperature and species concentrations the oxidation kinetics of hydrocarbon fuels can be sufficiently controlled to allow an engine to be operated in a compression-ignited homogeneous charge combustion mode.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion and Ignition Properties of Fuels with Different Volatile Fraction Constituents

1986-10-01
861539
Six specially blended diesel fuels were tested in an open chamber TACOM-LABECO single cylinder diesel engine at turbocharged conditions, to determine if the chemical composition of the volatile fraction of the fuels had a significant effect on performance and emissions. The tests show that for this engine, which has a moderately high swirl and a four hole nozzle, the effects are very small. Additional tests were run, with these same fuels, in a homogenous autoigniting mode to determine if ignition trends were similar to those produced by the heterogeneous diesel ignition. The ignition delay trends were found to follow the same pattern, reinforcing the conclusion that the fuel combustion in the diesel was not significantly affected by distillation effects during the vaporization process.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Zero-Dimensional Thermodynamic Models for IC Engine Data Analysis

1985-10-01
852070
The heat release type models have been classified as zero-dimensional because they have no spatial resolution and therefore don't contain any information on the fluid mechanics in them. They have been a significant contribution because they incorporate the rate processes occurring in the engine and are an aid in the analysis of the data. Because they are thermodynamic models it is necessary to define the control volumes on which the thermodynamic analysis is to be performed. The different control volume descriptions, called one, two and three zone models, and the analysis of the combustion event using these models is discussed. Finally a description of second law zero-dimensional models is given. These models have similar limitations as the First Law models; no spatial resolution and a control volume definition is required. These models are useful because they enable one to analyze the magnitude of the losses that occur in the different processes which comprise the engine cycle.
Technical Paper

A Study of Fuel Nitrogen Conversion, Performance, and Emission Characteristcs of Blended SCR-II in a High-Speed Diesel Engine

1981-02-01
810251
Engine operation with blended SRC-II and pyridine doped diesel fuel were compared relative to regular #2 diesel fuel in a 4-stroke, turbocharged, direct injection, high speed commercial diesel engine. The brake specific fuel consumption, (M-Joule/hp-hr), turbocharging, combustion characteristics and smoke did not change between blended SRC-II and regular #2 diesel fuel. This was expected since the sample fuels were blended to be of the same cetane number. The maximum torque, hydrocarbon and NOx emissions were higher for blended SRC-II. There was essentially no difference in the NOx measurements of the pyridine doped fuel and regular #2 diesel fuel. The NOx emission increase for the blended SRC-II is believed to be caused by the increased aromatic content of the blended SRC-II and not the fuel nitrogen conversion.
Technical Paper

Sources and Tradeoffs for Transient NO and UHC Emissions with Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

2011-04-12
2011-01-1356
High bandwidth transient data from a multi-cylinder diesel engine operating in a low temperature combustion regime was analyzed to identify and characterize the transient response behaviors primarily responsible for transient emissions of NO and UHC. Numerous different speed and load transients as well as different combustion modes and control strategies were studied to determine how these parameters affect transient performance. Limitations in the transient response of the air system were found to be the largest contributor to transient emissions, although the mechanism by which these limitations affect performance can vary greatly depending on conditions. Analysis of the data shows that transient emissions for low temperature combustion strategies are highly dependent on cycle-to-cycle changes in intake charge conditions. No fundamental difference was observed between the transient processes controlling speed and load changes.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Benefits of Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engines

2011-09-13
2011-01-2216
A detailed thermodynamic analysis was performed to demonstrate the fundamental efficiency advantage of an opposed-piston two-stroke engine over a standard four-stroke engine. Three engine configurations were considered: a baseline six-cylinder four-stroke engine, a hypothetical three-cylinder opposed-piston four-stroke engine, and a three-cylinder opposed-piston two-stroke engine. The bore and stroke per piston were held constant for all engine configurations to minimize any potential differences in friction. The closed-cycle performance of the engine configurations were compared using a custom analysis tool that allowed the sources of thermal efficiency differences to be identified and quantified.
Technical Paper

Particulate Characteristics for Varying Engine Operation in a Gasoline Spark Ignited, Direct Injection Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1220
The objective of this research is a detailed investigation of particulate sizing and number count from a spark-ignited, direct-injection (SIDI) engine at different operating conditions. The engine is a 549 [cc] single-cylinder, four-valve engine with a flat-top piston, fueled by Tier II EEE. A baseline engine operating condition, with a low number of particulates, was established and repeatability at this condition was ascertained. This baseline condition is specified as 2000 rpm, 320 kPa IMEP, 280 [°bTDC] end of injection (EOI), and 25 [°bTDC] ignition timing. The particle size distributions were recorded for particle sizes between 7 and 289 [nm]. The baseline particle size distribution was relatively flat, around 1E6 [dN/dlogDp], for particle diameters between 7 and 100 [nm], before dropping off to decreasing numbers at larger diameters. Distributions resulting from a matrix of different engine conditions were recorded.
Technical Paper

Investigations into the Effects of Thermal and Compositional Stratification on HCCI Combustion – Part I: Metal Engine Results

2009-04-20
2009-01-1105
This study utilized a 4-valve engine under HCCI combustion conditions. Each side of the split intake port was fed independently with different temperatures and reactant compositions. Therefore, two stratification approaches were enabled: thermal stratification and compositional stratification. Argon was used as a diluent to achieve higher temperatures and stratify the in-cylinder temperature indirectly via a stratification of the ratio of specific heats (γ = cp/cv). Tests covered five operating conditions (including two values of A/F and two loads) and four stratification cases (including one homogeneous and three with varied temperature and composition). Stratifications of the reactants were expected to affect the combustion control and upper load limit through the combustion phasing and duration, respectively. The two approaches to stratification both affect thermal unmixedness. Since argon has a high γ, it reached higher temperatures through the compression stroke [1].
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