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Training / Education

Functional Gaging and Measurement 2-day

This course introduces functional gaging design and covers how to verify part dimensional requirements using functional gages and other measurement methods. Utilizing the expertise of world-renowned GD&T expert Alex Krulikowski, this course offers an explanation of metrology, the roles of the metrologist and inspector, measurement uncertainty, inspection tools, functional gages, inspection planning and reporting, and simulating datums. Newly acquired learning is reinforced throughout the class with numerous practice problems.
Training / Education

Fundamentals of GD&T for Inspectors 2-day

This course builds on geometric dimensioning and tolerancing fundamentals and teaches an introduction of how to inspect GD&T requirements. Utilizing the expertise of world-renowned GD&T expert Alex Krulikowski, this course offers an explanation of the geometric symbols, rules, and concepts, the datum system, and how to inspect GD&T requirements using tools from the four categories of inspection tools (CMM; comparison instruments and fixed gages; hand tools and open set up; and production gaging systems). Newly acquired learning is reinforced throughout the class with numerous practice problems.
Training / Education

AS13002 Qualifying an Alternate Inspection Frequency Plan

2021-06-28
AS13002 defines the process for qualifying an Alternate Inspection Frequency Plan for suppliers within the aero-engine sector. This two-day course will provide common requirements for developing and qualifying an alternate inspection plan, other than 100% inspection of all features. This course is designed to cover the basic elements of the process to be applied to design characteristics (as defined in AS9102), and parts or inspection processes as defined by the purchaser.
Training / Education

Fundamentals of GD&T 2018 3-day

2020-10-28
This course teaches the terms, rules, symbols, and concepts of GD&T as prescribed in the ASME Y14.5-2018 Standard. This course offers an in-depth explanation of geometric tolerancing symbols, their tolerance zones, applicable modifiers, common applications, and verification principles. The class includes a comparison of GD&T to the directly toleranced dimensioning method; Rules #1 and #2; form and orientation controls; tolerance of position; runout and profile controls. Newly acquired learning is reinforced throughout the class with more than 150 practice problems.
Technical Paper

Motorcoach Maintenance

1929-01-01
290087
HEREIN the author points out, as a preface to a description of the preventive-maintenance system which he describes, that any system of maintenance is only as good as the men behind it and the honesty with which they use it. The personnel must be convinced that if the system is followed it will help the men to better themselves by pointing out their mistakes. The workers must be made to realize that the thing which really counts is not so much who made the mistake but what the mistake was and why it was made. Daily, weekly and general inspections are practised in accordance with this preventive-maintenance policy, and details of the procedure with regard to records are given by the author. The company's repair and overhaul program is designed to eliminate guesswork to the greatest possible extent by providing instruments and standard testing-apparatus for determining the actual condition of the various motorcoach units both before and after repairs are made.
Technical Paper

Motorcoach-Fleet Maintenance

1929-01-01
290089
METHODS of operation and maintenance pertaining to a small fleet of motorcoaches are described by the author, who outlines the development of this transportation service from July, 1922, when operation was begun. An inspection system was inaugurated in which due consideration was given to the type of equipment, the nature of the service performed, average loads, the speed maintained, and the nature of the roadway over which the vehicles traveled. In this manner preventive-maintenance methods were put into effect, the results being a steady increase in efficiency. In the author's opinion, itemized costs must be kept for each unit of the fleet so that the data will be available for the month, the year to date, the last full year and, if possible, for the last several years. The figures should be embodied in a statement so that comparison can be made between similar items for each unit operated. Units differing in make or type should be grouped and averages shown for each group.
Technical Paper

Relation of Design to Airplane Maintenance

1932-01-01
320066
LOW-COST maintenance is secured by attacking the problem before the design is started. The author tells how this important feature can be designed into the airplane. Maintenance requirements should be written into the contract specifications which should indicate the time within which each part should be inspected and serviced. A suggested set of such specifications is submitted. By this procedure maintenance time can be cut in half. The work of designing must not be rushed. To provide for quick maintenance, some broad changes from customary design are needed and will add to first cost but save money in the long run. Numerous recommendations are made as to design or type of important elements which will facilitate maintenance, avoid exasperation and add to passenger safety and comfort.
Technical Paper

SOME ASPECTS OF AIRPLANE INSPECTION

1925-01-01
250069
Following a description of airplane structure, the author discusses structural requirements and outlines the main features of properly coordinating the engineering and the manufacturing activities. He says that each of the three subdivisions of airplane design has its own series of calculations, these being related to predictions of performance before the machine is built, to stability determinations and to the design of a self-contained structure of sufficient strength to withstand any stresses developed in flight or in landing. He states also that no inspection is worth the name or the money spent on it that does not include constructive work and a knowledge at all times that the intentions of the designers are being carried out in detail so that the safety of the craft is assured. Materials used in aircraft should be light and easily workable and should possess the desired physical and chemical properties; they must have the specified cross-section and be free from defects.
Technical Paper

OPERATION OF THE AIR MAIL SERVICE

1925-01-01
250070
The personnel and the ground facilities that have produced such excellent results in the Air Mail Service are discussed apart from the flying equipment and its operation in the air. An airway is on the ground and the performance and safety of the pilots are dependent upon the ground facilities provided and the efficiency of the ground personnel. Pilots perform a highly important part in the operation of airlines and no matter how good the flying equipment may be, the desired results cannot be obtained without thoroughly trained and capable pilots. When selecting new pilots, the Air Mail Service looks for men who handle an airplane in a businesslike way and who are able, without taking unnecessary risks, to fly the ship without letting the ship fly them.
Technical Paper

INSPECTION METHODS

1925-01-01
250058
With the passing of the apprenticeship system and the introduction of the present method of employing unskilled labor on a piecework basis for assembling, careful inspection has become a necessity. Under these conditions, the only way in which the product can be held to the required standards is to make the component parts fit accurately. If the inspection is adequate, parts can be held to closer limits and cheaper labor can be used in the assembling process. Believing that no reason can exist for failure to maintain standards of accuracy if the ratio of the number of men engaged in production to one inspector does not exceed 15 to 1, the officials of the Buick Company have worked out a system, similar in many respects to a budget, in which a certain ratio of production hours to inspection hours is allowed in each plant, the number depending upon the nature of the work and varying from about 10 to 1 in the engine plant to about 34 to 1 in the gray-iron foundry.
Technical Paper

AN ANALYSIS OF MACHINE-TOOL MAINTENANCE

1925-01-01
250060
Machine-repair analysis and a criticism of present-day equipment, with analytical tables based on data collected from a 5 months' study, are followed by conclusions relative to the reliability of present-day equipment. Eight types of common machine-tools are considered and the maintenance advantage of one over the other is deduced from the consolidated tables based on monthly reports. A comparison of each class of machine-tools with the others is made, as well as a summary of the weaknesses of each class from the frequency of repairs of the elementary parts. The attention of the builders is drawn to the conditions that the shop encounters with their equipment. A maintenance budget-system is described that has been installed in one plant to give the men a comparative idea of particular equipment that is running in excess of the budget time. It also serves in lieu of an inspection of the conditions of the equipment and is an indication of the time when overhauling is advisable.
Technical Paper

THE COST OF OPERATION AND ECONOMIC LIFE OF MOTOR TRUCKS

1926-01-01
260055
In order to flourish, business must operate at a profit. As the margin of profit is daily becoming smaller, costs must be analyzed so that economies can be effected. As a lack of uniformity exists in the methods of arriving at the cost of operation, a brief outline is given of the items that enter into the totals from which operating costs are calculated and also of what constitutes the economic life of a motor vehicle. Selection of the correct type and size of vehicle is of paramount importance; and standardization of the various makes will result in better operation, more efficient inspection, and more economical repair and upkeep. Having then determined the cost of operation of a vehicle, a decision must be made as to the basis on which its economic life can be computed.
Technical Paper

INSPECTION ALONG THE LINE

1926-01-01
260057
Although production has been increased greatly during the last decade by the use of special automatic machinery, conveyors and improved methods, plans for the application of wage incentives to indirect labor have not been widely adopted. Inasmuch as time-studies of some sort of wage-incentive system have served to keep the individual output of direct labor close to its assignment, the assumption is made that the labor of the indirect workers might also be so measured to a standard that the compensation would be governed by the quantity and the quality of the ultimate output. The advantages and functions of inspection are discussed and a method is suggested for establishing a quality-bonus incentive-plan based on the amount of rejected and scrap material per car and the number of inspectors employed per unit of production.
Technical Paper

TECHNIQUE OF SOUND MEASUREMENTS

1926-01-01
260038
Research methods applied to the inspection of automotive parts for noise-producing causes are analyzed by the author, who notes the increasing tendency toward the use of sound-measuring instruments and discusses first the units of sound intensity and loudness. The dyne per square centimeter is a convenient size of unit for measuring the pressure amplitude of sound-waves, since 1 dyne per sq. cm. lies within the range of amplitudes at which the ear normally functions, being approximately that at one's ear when listening to conversation. In calibrating at high frequencies, the thermophone is used. It consists of a small strip of thin platinum or gold a few centimeters long and about 1 cm. wide through which an alternating current of desired frequency is sent.
Technical Paper

METALLURGY IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

1917-01-01
170044
The author states that the purpose of the paper is to outline that phase of metallurgical work pertaining to the connection between the laboratory and production in the automotive industry. Reasons are cited for selecting certain designs for parts to facilitate machining, complete or partial case-hardening, finishing and assembling. The next step is the choice of materials, a subject which is treated at some length. The author then takes up in turn the field for standardization in steel specifications, inspection of materials, physical testing of steels, uniformity of composition of metals, heat-treating operations, methods of carburizing, depths of case-hardening, treatment after carburization, errors in overspeeding hardening operations and drawing heat-treatment at low temperatures. Types of pyrometers, operations on hardened work, inspection for hardness and selection of hardening equipment are some of the other topics discussed.
Technical Paper

Use and Evaluation of HEAVY - DUTY ENGINE OILS

1946-01-01
460197
IN carrying out their purpose of giving here a general survey of the use and evaluation of heavy-duty engine oils, the authors have divided their subject into four parts, each of which gives their answer to a question, namely: 1. What are heavy-duty oils and how are they made? 2. Can the engine performance quality of such oils be predicted from conventional inspection test data? 3. How can oils be properly evaluated as to engine performance characteristics? 4. When is it necessary to use heavy-duty oils, and how should they be used?
Technical Paper

ADHESIVES-MODERN TOOL OF FABRICATION

1946-01-01
460232
THE application of high strength adhesives to the fabrication of automotive parts and assemblies is discussed here by Mr. Swayze, who covers the design, tooling, and inspection phases of the subject, the properties of adhesives, and the relative cost of chemical bonding, compared with other methods of assembly. To benefit fully from the use of adhesives, the author reports that the parts must be designed so that loads applied to the bond are in shear or direct tension, eliminating peel and cleavage. Freedom of design, he added, however, is permitted by the wide variety of materials that can be bonded in all sorts of combinations.
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