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FAA/EASA Certification, Methods of Compliance for 29.801 Ditching

Certifying an aircraft, part or appliance can be a challenge. The FAA/EASA procedures can be frustrating and a maze of rules, policy and guidance. Understanding the process and procedures can provide you with a competitive edge and reduce your time obtaining a Certification approval. This course provides an overview of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) policies, guidelines and requirements leading to Type and Supplemental Type airworthiness approvals. This course has a focus on 29.801 Ditching and EASA 29.802 Emergency Flotation.
Training / Education

Fundamentals of Motor Vehicle Fire Investigation

The manner in which a motor vehicle fire is initiated and subsequently spreads is dependent on a number of complex, interdependent, phenomena including combustion kinetics, heat transfer and fluid dynamics. Because the damage caused by a fire is coupled to these phenomena, damage patterns can sometimes be used to understand certain characteristics about the fire. In many cases, the goal is to determine the cause and origin of the fire.

Automotive Lighting Technologyand Human Factors in Driver Vision and Lighting, 2012

The 14 papers in this technical paper collection cover automotive lighting technology and human factors in driver vision and lighting. Topics discussed include LED design and applications, signal lighting, side view cameras, red light cameras, high dynamic range photography, and more. The 14 papers in this technical paper collection cover automotive lighting technology and human factors in driver vision and lighting. Topics discussed include LED design and applications, signal lighting, side view cameras, red light cameras, high dynamic range photography, and more.

Equivalence of Equipment Environmental Qualification Standards for Civil and Military Aircraft Equipment

Provide guidance for applying aircraft equipment electromagnetic, electrical, and mechanical qualification standards, including RTCA/DO-160, MIL-STD-461, MIL-STD-810, and MIL-STD-704, to civil aircraft certification intended for military use and for military aircraft equipment installed on civil aircraft. The guidance will identify where the equipment environmental qualification standards meet the intent of the civil or military aircraft certification requirements. Conversely, the guidance will identify where the equipment environmental qualification standards have differences that do not meet the intent of the civil or military aircraft certification requirements and when these differences matter based on equipment criticality.
Technical Paper

Recent Developments in Aircraft Ignition-Systems

THE fundamental electrical and mechanical requirements of ignition equipment for aircraft engines are outlined and the special requirements peculiar to this service and that apply, in general, equally to military and commercial aircraft, are described. Brief descriptions are given of various new types of both magneto and battery ignition and the developments in each are pointed out. Characteristics of an ideal ignition system are enumerated as a basis for further development. Among the general requirements reliability is given place of first importance, followed by light weight, compactness, low cost and adaptability of a single model to engines of different types. The chief design-requirements are speed, ruggedness, simple mounting, light rotating-parts, resistance to vibration, ample lubrication, protection against moisture, and fire-proof ventilation. Each of these subjects is dealt with specifically.
Technical Paper

Suppressing Ignition-Interference on Radio-Equipped Aircraft

THE AUTHORS say in part that although it has been recognized for many years that electrical ignition systems on airplane powerplants are a prolific source of disturbances tending to prevent the successful reception of radio signals, the serious and intensive development of methods of suppressing such interference is a comparatively recent undertaking. This arises from the fact that only in recent years has special significance been attached to radio operations with limited collecting structures or antennas, over such distances that the signaling waves intercepted by these antennas are relatively weak. They then outline the systems in which interference is present and discuss how it can be suppressed.
Technical Paper


The author states that motor transport today is threatened with arrested progress due to the lack of economic coordination between motor-vehicle operation, highway construction and legislative regulation. Highways constructed at considerable cost to the public have gone to pieces in many places, sometimes years before their bond issues have matured. Efforts to preserve these roads have been confined principally to heavy taxation and restriction of motor transport; they have not been made upon a sound economic basis, largely because principles of highway-transport economics are not only imperfectly understood, but have hardly been studied sufficiently to provide any definite basis of understanding.
Technical Paper


Radiation, although the subject of study for many years, is not yet thoroughly understood. The investigations of von Helmholtz 30 years ago showed that from 10 to 20 per cent of the total heat of combustion is due to radiation; but flames burning in the atmosphere show different characteristics from those subjected to a change of density in a combustion-chamber and the same conclusions do not apply. The possibility of a non-luminous flame's causing loss of heat during and after combustion was first noted by Professor Callendar in 1907. The principal theory as to the source of radiation is that it is due to the vigorous vibration of the gas molecules formed on combustion, and that, like the high-frequency radiations producing light, it is caused by chemical rather than thermal action. It has been shown that radiation emanates almost wholly from the carbon dioxide and the water molecules.
Technical Paper


The author discusses commercial-airplane design in general terms, considering the subject under the main divisions of economy, safety, speed and comfort. Under economy, mention is made of possible reductions of first cost by designing for long life and reliability, the effect of the former on the depreciation allowance being obviously advantageous. Airplane size is debated also, the trend of progress being seemingly toward the giant airplane. Safety is stated to be dependent upon reliability, structural strength, stability, control, fire prevention and reduction of risk of injury to passengers in the event of a crash. Minimizing the results of a crash is considered suggestively. Speed is governed almost solely by the ratio of wing loading to power loading; hence, speed will always be kept as low as possible without loss of business to competing transportation enterprises. Included among desirable measures to secure comfort are adequate ventilation and the elimination of noise.
Technical Paper


The authors advance for discussion some important problems in the construction of airplanes for military use in this country. The functions of military airplanes designed for strategical and tactical reconnaissance, control of artillery fire and for pursuit are outlined. Problems in construction with reference to the two-propeller system, methods of reducing vibration, application of starting motors, details of the gasoline supply-system, metal construction for airplanes, flexible piping, desirable characteristics of mufflers, shock absorbers, landing gear, fire safety-devices, control of cooling-water temperature, variable camber wings, variable pitch propellers and propeller stresses, are all given consideration. The paper is concluded with suggestions for improvement in design relating to the use of bearing shims, the rigidity of crankcase castings, interchangeability of parts and better detail construction in the oiling, ignition, fuel supply and cooling systems.
Technical Paper

Recent Development in Aircraft Powerplants

NAVAL aviation confined its activities to training and to coastal patrol during the World War. This limited operation was necessitated by the small amount of materiel suitable for operation over water, the strategical and geographical situation which determined the nature of the naval operations, the very limited performance of seaplanes of that period, and the fact that warships were not equipped for handling aircraft or prepared for aircraft cooperation. At the end of the War, naval aviation was made part and parcel of the fleet. Fighting airplanes are required to gain and maintain control of the air. Observation airplanes are used for short-range scouting and also for controlling long-range fire of capital ships by reporting the fall of shot to the ship by radio. For torpedo and bombing work, the first requirement is large weight-carrying capacity.
Technical Paper

Design and Operation of Modern Garages

THE design of the modern multi-story urban garage, commonly built of reinforced concrete, is based largely on arrangements for the vertical movement of individual cars at higher speed than prevailed in the garages of the older types, or the vertical movement of a greater number of cars at the same speed, according to the author. Basic considerations affecting the design are location, type of district, capacity, and method of vertical movement. Location on a main thoroughfare is advocated. The location in several typical districts, such as retail-shopping, office-building, hotel and club, theater and amusement, and middle or high-class residential, are discussed in connection with the several classes of patronage and their bearing on design and equipment.
Technical Paper

Possible Improvement of Present-Day Aircraft

WHAT can be done to increase safety, efficiency and comfort in flight of aircraft now in use? In answer, the author describes several devices designed to bring about this result and supplements this with the results of wind-tunnel research. Detailed descriptions of the particular devices mentioned are not included, the object of this paper being to show the great possibilities of their use and the resulting improvement in performance.
Technical Paper


Two points are cited as illustrating the difficulty of enforcing the present regulations, namely, (a) the variation in the angle of the headlight beam caused by the compression of the springs when the loading of the car is changed from no load to full load and (b) the variation of the tilting of the beam caused by the pitching of the car on an ordinary road, the effect being similar to that produced by flashes of lightning in a pitch-dark night. Denial is made of the author's alleged advocacy of diffused lighting and comparison is made of the distribution-curves obtained with frosted bulbs and those obtained with fairly good lamps conforming to the Society's specifications.
Technical Paper


Reviewing briefly the history of the automotive clutch and summarizing the most interesting achievements in clutch design during recent years, the author discusses friction facings and says that the development of the asbestos-base friction-bearing has made possible the multiple-disc dry-plate and the single-plate types. For severe service, the qualifications of a satisfactory friction-facing are density of structure, together with a reasonably high tensile-strength; the coefficient of friction should be high and fairly constant over a wide range of temperature; the facing must be able to withstand high temperature without deterioration; the impregnating compound must not bleed out at high temperature; and the permeation of the impregnating solution must be complete so that the wear resistance is constant throughout the thickness of the facing. The molded and the woven types of facing are treated at length.
Technical Paper


Although many variables enter into the personal equation of the driver of an automobile, this paper concerns principally his reaction-time. The tests described had for their objects the determining of (a) the average time that elapses between the hearing of a signal, such, for example, as the shot of a pistol, and the applying of the brake; (b) the relation between the reaction-time and the variability of the individual; and (c) the effect on reaction-time of such factors as the speed of driving, training, age, sex, race, and general intelligence. The reaction-time was determined by two pistols mounted on the under-side of the running-board of an automobile and pointed toward the ground, the first being fired by the experimenter when the car had reached the desired speed, the second, by the person under test in making the initial motion of operating the brake-pedal.
Technical Paper

Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Engine-Fuel Flames

DETAILS are given of the method of control of the engine so that quantitative and reproducible measurements of detonation and comparisons with spectra can be made. Typical data are tabulated and photographs are shown of the free-burning flames of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, gasoline in a blow-torch, and the like. The spectra of explosion and of detonation in the engine confirm earlier conclusions. By means of a synchronous shutter, the spectra of radiation during the four quarters of a stroke are obtained for straight-run gasoline under detonating and non-detonating conditions for the same fuel containing tetraethyl lead, aniline and iodine as knock suppressers and for cracked-gasoline blends. The outstanding result is that, during detonation, the first-quarter spectrum extends far into the ultra-violet, that of the second quarter, a somewhat less distance; the third and fourth quarters are characterized by very little radiation energy.
Technical Paper


DESIGNING a jet engine, Mr. Mock warns at the beginning of his paper, is anything but a simple matter. In addition to the usual powerplant requirements of efficiency, complete combustion, proper temperature distribution, and minimum volume and weight, he points out that the internal-combustion turbine is subject to certain special requirements for aircraft operation, which he outlines as follows: 1. It should start easily, positively, and consistently, without detriment to engine life; it should restart in the air without complex or difficult manipulation by the pilot. 2. The engine should fire without blow-out or die-out at all speeds, altitudes, and throttle positions that the pilot can use in flying. All air/fuel regulation should be automatic; it should not be necessary for the pilot to nurse the throttles. 3.