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Training / Education

FAA/EASA Certification, Methods of Compliance for 29.801 Ditching

Certifying an aircraft, part or appliance can be a challenge. The FAA/EASA procedures can be frustrating and a maze of rules, policy and guidance. Understanding the process and procedures can provide you with a competitive edge and reduce your time obtaining a Certification approval. This course provides an overview of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) policies, guidelines and requirements leading to Type and Supplemental Type airworthiness approvals. This course has a focus on 29.801 Ditching and EASA 29.802 Emergency Flotation.
Training / Education

Fundamentals of Motor Vehicle Fire Investigation

2021-05-11
The manner in which a motor vehicle fire is initiated and subsequently spreads is dependent on a number of complex, interdependent, phenomena including combustion kinetics, heat transfer and fluid dynamics. Because the damage caused by a fire is coupled to these phenomena, damage patterns can sometimes be used to understand certain characteristics about the fire. In many cases, the goal is to determine the cause and origin of the fire.
Collection

Automotive Lighting Technologyand Human Factors in Driver Vision and Lighting, 2012

2012-04-13
The 14 papers in this technical paper collection cover automotive lighting technology and human factors in driver vision and lighting. Topics discussed include LED design and applications, signal lighting, side view cameras, red light cameras, high dynamic range photography, and more. The 14 papers in this technical paper collection cover automotive lighting technology and human factors in driver vision and lighting. Topics discussed include LED design and applications, signal lighting, side view cameras, red light cameras, high dynamic range photography, and more.
Standard

Equivalence of Equipment Environmental Qualification Standards for Civil and Military Aircraft Equipment

2017-10-05
WIP
AIR6811
Provide guidance for applying aircraft equipment electromagnetic, electrical, and mechanical qualification standards, including RTCA/DO-160, MIL-STD-461, MIL-STD-810, and MIL-STD-704, to civil aircraft certification intended for military use and for military aircraft equipment installed on civil aircraft. The guidance will identify where the equipment environmental qualification standards meet the intent of the civil or military aircraft certification requirements. Conversely, the guidance will identify where the equipment environmental qualification standards have differences that do not meet the intent of the civil or military aircraft certification requirements and when these differences matter based on equipment criticality.
Technical Paper

Micro-Macro Acoustic Modeling of Heterogeneous Foams with Nucleation Perturbation

2020-09-30
2020-01-1526
The properties of a polyurethane foam are greatly influenced by the addition of graphite particles during the manufacturing process, initially used as a fire retardant. These thin solid particles perturbate the nucleation process by generating bubbles in its immediate vicinity. The preponderance of work so far has focused on foams that are locally relatively homogeneous. We propose a model for locally inhomogeneous foams (including membrane effects) consisting of a random stack of spheres that permits one to represent certain pore size distribution functions. The cellular structure of the foam is obtained through a Laguerre tessellation and the solid skeleton determined from the minimization of surface energy (Surface Evolver). The structure of real foam samples is analyzed using X-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy followed by image processing to create computerized three-dimensional models of the samples.
Technical Paper

Reinforcement of Low-Frequency Sound by Using a Panel Speaker Attached to the Roof Panel of a Passenger Car

2020-09-30
2020-01-1570
The woofer in a car should be large to cover the low frequencies, so it is heavy and needs an ample space to be installed in a passenger car. The geometry of the woofer should conform to the limited available space and layout in general. In many cases, the passengers feel that the low-frequency contents are not satisfactory although the speaker specification covers the low frequencies. In this work, a thin panel is installed between the roof liner and the roof panel, and it is used as the woofer. The vibration field is controlled by many small actuators to create the speaker and baffle zones to avoid the sound distortion due to the modal interaction. The generation of speaker and baffle zones follows the inverse vibro-acoustic rendering technique. In the actual implementation, a thin acrylic plate of 0.53ⅹ0.2 m2 is used as the radiator panel, and the control actuator array is composed of 16 moving-coil actuators.
Technical Paper

Recent Developments in Aircraft Ignition-Systems

1927-01-01
270063
THE fundamental electrical and mechanical requirements of ignition equipment for aircraft engines are outlined and the special requirements peculiar to this service and that apply, in general, equally to military and commercial aircraft, are described. Brief descriptions are given of various new types of both magneto and battery ignition and the developments in each are pointed out. Characteristics of an ideal ignition system are enumerated as a basis for further development. Among the general requirements reliability is given place of first importance, followed by light weight, compactness, low cost and adaptability of a single model to engines of different types. The chief design-requirements are speed, ruggedness, simple mounting, light rotating-parts, resistance to vibration, ample lubrication, protection against moisture, and fire-proof ventilation. Each of these subjects is dealt with specifically.
Technical Paper

Suppressing Ignition-Interference on Radio-Equipped Aircraft

1930-01-01
300038
THE AUTHORS say in part that although it has been recognized for many years that electrical ignition systems on airplane powerplants are a prolific source of disturbances tending to prevent the successful reception of radio signals, the serious and intensive development of methods of suppressing such interference is a comparatively recent undertaking. This arises from the fact that only in recent years has special significance been attached to radio operations with limited collecting structures or antennas, over such distances that the signaling waves intercepted by these antennas are relatively weak. They then outline the systems in which interference is present and discuss how it can be suppressed.
Technical Paper

ECONOMICS OF MOTOR TRANSPORT

1922-01-01
220028
The author states that motor transport today is threatened with arrested progress due to the lack of economic coordination between motor-vehicle operation, highway construction and legislative regulation. Highways constructed at considerable cost to the public have gone to pieces in many places, sometimes years before their bond issues have matured. Efforts to preserve these roads have been confined principally to heavy taxation and restriction of motor transport; they have not been made upon a sound economic basis, largely because principles of highway-transport economics are not only imperfectly understood, but have hardly been studied sufficiently to provide any definite basis of understanding.
Technical Paper

INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS

1924-01-01
240002
Radiation, although the subject of study for many years, is not yet thoroughly understood. The investigations of von Helmholtz 30 years ago showed that from 10 to 20 per cent of the total heat of combustion is due to radiation; but flames burning in the atmosphere show different characteristics from those subjected to a change of density in a combustion-chamber and the same conclusions do not apply. The possibility of a non-luminous flame's causing loss of heat during and after combustion was first noted by Professor Callendar in 1907. The principal theory as to the source of radiation is that it is due to the vigorous vibration of the gas molecules formed on combustion, and that, like the high-frequency radiations producing light, it is caused by chemical rather than thermal action. It has been shown that radiation emanates almost wholly from the carbon dioxide and the water molecules.
Technical Paper

THE DESIGN OF COMMERCIAL AIRPLANES

1923-01-01
230029
The author discusses commercial-airplane design in general terms, considering the subject under the main divisions of economy, safety, speed and comfort. Under economy, mention is made of possible reductions of first cost by designing for long life and reliability, the effect of the former on the depreciation allowance being obviously advantageous. Airplane size is debated also, the trend of progress being seemingly toward the giant airplane. Safety is stated to be dependent upon reliability, structural strength, stability, control, fire prevention and reduction of risk of injury to passengers in the event of a crash. Minimizing the results of a crash is considered suggestively. Speed is governed almost solely by the ratio of wing loading to power loading; hence, speed will always be kept as low as possible without loss of business to competing transportation enterprises. Included among desirable measures to secure comfort are adequate ventilation and the elimination of noise.
Technical Paper

SOME PROBLEMS IN AIRPLANE CONSTRUCTION

1917-01-01
170001
The authors advance for discussion some important problems in the construction of airplanes for military use in this country. The functions of military airplanes designed for strategical and tactical reconnaissance, control of artillery fire and for pursuit are outlined. Problems in construction with reference to the two-propeller system, methods of reducing vibration, application of starting motors, details of the gasoline supply-system, metal construction for airplanes, flexible piping, desirable characteristics of mufflers, shock absorbers, landing gear, fire safety-devices, control of cooling-water temperature, variable camber wings, variable pitch propellers and propeller stresses, are all given consideration. The paper is concluded with suggestions for improvement in design relating to the use of bearing shims, the rigidity of crankcase castings, interchangeability of parts and better detail construction in the oiling, ignition, fuel supply and cooling systems.
Technical Paper

Development of the High-Speed Diesel Engine

1927-01-01
270035
AN original definition of a four-stroke Diesel-engine is given by the author, who then presents a short history of high-speed Diesel-engine development which includes mention of the main features of the following engines: Junkers, Attendu, Sperry, Beardmore, Hindilmeier, Lang, Benz, M. A. N., Maybach, Peugeot, and others. The engineering problems relating to Diesel engines for automotive use are then discussed, with emphasis on the factors of atomization and distribution of the fuel in the air-charge, turbulence and airless fuel-injection, including types of igniter suitable for engines equipped with an antechamber. As to the possibilities of the oil-burning engine in the automotive field, the author says that the two main advantages it offers are reduced fuel-cost and reduced fire-hazards and that its chances are greatest wherever these are important factors.
Technical Paper

Recent Development in Aircraft Powerplants

1927-01-01
270027
NAVAL aviation confined its activities to training and to coastal patrol during the World War. This limited operation was necessitated by the small amount of materiel suitable for operation over water, the strategical and geographical situation which determined the nature of the naval operations, the very limited performance of seaplanes of that period, and the fact that warships were not equipped for handling aircraft or prepared for aircraft cooperation. At the end of the War, naval aviation was made part and parcel of the fleet. Fighting airplanes are required to gain and maintain control of the air. Observation airplanes are used for short-range scouting and also for controlling long-range fire of capital ships by reporting the fall of shot to the ship by radio. For torpedo and bombing work, the first requirement is large weight-carrying capacity.
Technical Paper

Design and Operation of Modern Garages

1928-01-01
280070
THE design of the modern multi-story urban garage, commonly built of reinforced concrete, is based largely on arrangements for the vertical movement of individual cars at higher speed than prevailed in the garages of the older types, or the vertical movement of a greater number of cars at the same speed, according to the author. Basic considerations affecting the design are location, type of district, capacity, and method of vertical movement. Location on a main thoroughfare is advocated. The location in several typical districts, such as retail-shopping, office-building, hotel and club, theater and amusement, and middle or high-class residential, are discussed in connection with the several classes of patronage and their bearing on design and equipment.
Technical Paper

Possible Improvement of Present-Day Aircraft

1929-01-01
290051
WHAT can be done to increase safety, efficiency and comfort in flight of aircraft now in use? In answer, the author describes several devices designed to bring about this result and supplements this with the results of wind-tunnel research. Detailed descriptions of the particular devices mentioned are not included, the object of this paper being to show the great possibilities of their use and the resulting improvement in performance.
Technical Paper

HEADLIGHTS

1925-01-01
250054
Two points are cited as illustrating the difficulty of enforcing the present regulations, namely, (a) the variation in the angle of the headlight beam caused by the compression of the springs when the loading of the car is changed from no load to full load and (b) the variation of the tilting of the beam caused by the pitching of the car on an ordinary road, the effect being similar to that produced by flashes of lightning in a pitch-dark night. Denial is made of the author's alleged advocacy of diffused lighting and comparison is made of the distribution-curves obtained with frosted bulbs and those obtained with fairly good lamps conforming to the Society's specifications.
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