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Training / Education

Patent Litigation Risk Management Toolkit

In recent years, total annual United States patent grants have increased to over 300,000, while patent infringement lawsuit filings have exceeded 6,000 per year. Only a small fraction of granted patents ever end up in litigation. Of the many causes for the disparity is the growing awareness and sensitivity of companies to patent infringement risk management practices. This course addresses a number of those practices (and tools for implementing the practices), placing them into context, and providing a practical overview for how to implement them to help reduce the prospect of patent infringement litigation.
Training / Education

Effective Writing for Engineering and Technical Professionals

2018-11-26
The ability to write concise and unambiguous reports, proposals, manuals, or other technical documents is a key skill for any high-functioning engineer or technical staff person in the mobility industries. Through a combination of class discussions, interactive workshop activities, assignments, checker teams (review teams) and job aids, this course delivers real-life technical writing techniques and tools that can be immediately applied. Attendees discover the importance of knowing their audiences and how to communicate technical information in a "user-friendly" style.
Training / Education

Design Considerations for Secure Embedded Systems

2018-10-15
Embedded hardware is everywhere you look today from your vehicle’s infotainment system to refrigerator to medical devices and everything else in-between. With so much exposure one would think that such devices are secure against attack; however, sadly for many devices this is not the case. For proof, just look no further than your local news reports. They are full of reports on devices being hacked. So, as engineers, how do we go about first identifying and mitigating (or capitalizing) the potential security vulnerabilities within these devices?
Training / Education

AS9100D Internal Auditor Training

2018-09-12
Internal audits (a requirement of the AS9100 Rev D Standard) are intended to verify the compliance and effectiveness of the organization's quality management system. Internal auditors must be knowledgeable of these requirements and the expectations as identified in the standard. In addition, the audit requirements outlined in the AS9101 Standard have significantly changed the way auditors are expected to conduct audits in the aviation, space and defense industries.
Training / Education

Vehicle Crash Reconstruction Principles and Technology

2018-08-06
Crash reconstruction utilizes principles of physics and empirical data to analyze the physical, electronic, video, audio, and testimonial evidence from a crash to determine how and why the crash occurred. This course will cover basic principles and approaches to accident reconstruction (breaking the analysis down into phases, for instance). Methods of evidence documentation will be covered.
Technical Paper

Application of Optical Inspection Methods in Surface Distortion Measurement

2009-04-20
2009-01-1034
The demand for greater quality on the surface of components has created a need of better techniques for surface distortion measurement. Recently, there are considerable research activities in the development of optical methods for surface distortion inspection. Severe different optical inspection methods have been used for body surface inspection. The main objective of this paper is to give a review of optical methods in this area. The fundamental and working principle will be demonstrated by example of surface distortion measurement on parts of a car body.
Technical Paper

The New High-Performance V6 Gasoline Turbocharged Engine from NISSAN

2009-04-20
2009-01-1067
It can be said that super sports car has a mission to drive the evolution of cars with optimizing the balance between power and environmental performances and pursuing the ultimate driving performance. Nissan has therefore developed the brand new V6 gasoline twin-turbocharged engine for a new generation of super sports cars. To achieve high environmental as well as high dynamic performance, the V6-cylinder layout was selected for its compact size and lightweight while the twin-turbocharged design was aiming for downsizing. All engine parts were designed to achieve high efficiency, as for example, the plasma-sprayed coating of the bore which improves greatly the cooling performance, or the super-heat resistant steel used for the turbocharger, which improves combustion efficiency. Thanks to this technological advance, top-level properties could be attained for sports cars in terms of fuel economy and emissions.
Journal Article

Properties of Partial-Flow and Coarse Pore Deep Bed Filters Proposed to Reduce Particle Emission of Vehicle Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1087
Four of these Particulate Reduction Systems (PMS) were tested on a passenger car and one of them on a HDV. Expectation of the research team was that they would reach at least a PM-reduction of 30% under all realistic operating conditions. The standard German filter test procedure for PMS was performed but moreover, the response to various operating conditions was tested including worst case situations. Besides the legislated CO, NOx and PM exhaust-gas emissions, also the particle count and NO2 were measured. The best filtration efficiency with one PMS was indeed 63%. However, under critical but realistic conditions filtration of 3 of 4 PMS was measured substantially lower than the expected 30 %, depending on operating conditions and prior history, and could even completely fail. Scatter between repeated cycles was very large and results were not reproducible. Even worse, with all 4 PMS deposited soot, stored in these systems during light load operation was intermittently blown-off.
Technical Paper

A Review of Solid Materials as Alternative Ammonia Sources for Lean NOx Reduction with SCR

2009-04-20
2009-01-0907
The need for improved emissions control in lean exhaust to meet tightening, world-wide NOx emissions standards has led to the development of selective catalytic reduction of NOx with ammonia as a major technology for emissions control. Current systems are being designed to use a solution of urea (32.5 wt %) dissolved in water or Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) as the ammonia source. While DEF or AdBlue® is widely used as a source of ammonia, it has a number of issues at low temperatures, including freezing below −12 °C, solid deposit formation in the exhaust, and difficulties in dosing at exhaust temperatures below 200 °C. Additionally creating a uniform ammonia concentration can be problematic, complicating exhaust packaging and usually requiring a discrete mixer.
Technical Paper

The Role of the Data Dictionary in the Model-Based Development Process

2009-04-20
2009-01-0919
Data dictionaries in embedded automotive applications are used for storing data elements and definitions supporting functional and software development. A robust model-based development process should be driven by a data dictionary that can interact with tools supporting a model-based environment and provide a linkage between different stages of the development process. A data dictionary could significantly increase automation of the modeling, validation and autocoding stages of the process. Using a data dictionary in model-based development implies additional requirements to the Dictionary compared to the traditional non-model development process. This paper describes the usage of a data dictionary in different stages of the model-based development process. It specifies the set of major requirements for the data dictionary and offers the possible implementation of these requirements based on a data dictionary developed by Delphi.
Technical Paper

Introduction to Vehicular Embedded Security

2009-04-20
2009-01-0916
For new automotive applications and services, information technology (IT) has gained central importance. IT-related costs in car manufacturing are already high, and they will increase dramatically in the future. Yet whereas the area of safety and reliability has become a relatively well-established field, the protection of vehicular IT systems against systematic manipulation or intrusion has only recently started to emerge. Nevertheless, IT security is already the base of some vehicular applications, such as immobilizers or digital tachographs. To securely enable future automotive applications and business models, IT security will be one of the central technologies for the next generation of vehicles. After a state-of-the-art overview of IT security in vehicles, this paper will give a short introduction into cryptographic terminology and functionality.
Technical Paper

The Study on New Product Designing Method by Using TRIZ

2009-04-20
2009-01-0988
After era of productivity and quality, creativity is considered as an important issue to become winner and build paradigm in the global market. In the past, brainstorming based on inspiration and experience was the most popular method for accelerating creativity in R&D process. But if there is more efficient and powerful method similar to mathematical formula instead of trial & error, the productivity of creation could be increased dramatically. TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) can be a powerful method of innovation. It is developed by Russian scientist, Genrich Altshuller since from 1950s. He found pattern and laws for problem solving and technical evolution through investigation of millions of patent and innovation cases. Like mathematics, every technical problem can be changed to simplified model and every model has its own model of solution. Because TRIZ is inductive theory, the solution model has its own real practices.
Technical Paper

Advantages of a Thermoplastic Bumper Energy Absorber in a World Without a 5 MPH Bumper Requirement

2009-04-20
2009-01-0963
With the recent change to the Canadian bumper impact requirement (CMVSS 215) to match Title 49, part 581 of Code of Federal Regulation of the United States (CFR part 581) and/or ECE R42 there is a tendency to think that having capable energy absorbers is no longer beneficial. However, many benefits of thermoplastic energy absorbers are still relevant. For example, highly efficient energy absorbers allow vehicle package space to be minimized. This can help improve vehicle styling or reduce vehicle mass. Thermoplastic energy absorbers (EA) have a history of helping solve poor overlap conditions in both pendulum impacts and deformable barrier impacts. Because of the increased emphasis placed on avoiding high pendulum plane loads as defined in CFR part 581, good “catching” capability from an EA is highly advantageous.
Technical Paper

Getting Your Vehicle Connected

2009-04-20
2009-01-0961
The influence of consumer electronics in our life has been profound. Devices such as smart phones, portable audio players and portable navigation devices have generated an accelerated pace of change that has been a challenge for most automotive OEMs to manage. One such change has been to so-called connectivity. Car owners want gadgets that enable smooth connectivity to the car environment, with the same level of features and ease of use they have at workstations: background synchronization, flexibility, upgrades, personalization and standardization. This new set of requirements is changing the automotive industry in an exciting and profound way. The paper will look at challenges that arise when bringing consumer electronics into the automobile, with a focus on time to market. It will review creative solutions being offered today by some semiconductor companies to overcome challenges generated by this new paradigm.
Technical Paper

Loudness Compensation in Automobiles

2009-04-20
2009-01-0958
Loudness compensation is used in audio systems to compensate for the human ear’s reduced sensitivity to low-level, low frequency sounds. Volume controls in both home and automotive audio systems feature bass boost to preserve the listening experience as volume is reduced. Equal loudness contours from ISO226: 2003 suggest that at lower listening levels, as much as 30 dB of bass boost would be needed. In a vehicle, the essentially 1/F nature of cabin noise further suggests the need for bass content elevation. But loudness functions included in most vehicular systems today lack sufficient boost to meet either equal loudness requirements or vehicle noise compensation needs. This paper discusses the history of loudness compensation, shows samples of loudness characteristics used today and discusses a limited experiment that attempted to examine the subject’s loudness compensation settings that they preferred during blind testing.
Technical Paper

Communication between Plug-in Vehicles and the Utility Grid

2010-04-12
2010-01-0837
This paper is the first in a series of documents designed to record the progress of the SAE J2293 Task Force as it continues to develop and refine the communication requirements between Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV) and the Electric Utility Grid. In February, 2008 the SAE Task Force was formed and it started by reviewing the existing SAE J2293 standard, which was originally developed by the Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Controls Task Force in the 1990s. This legacy standard identified the communication requirements between the Electric Vehicle (EV) and the EV Supply Equipment (EVSE), including off-board charging systems necessary to transfer DC energy to the vehicle. It was apparent at the first Task Force meeting that the communications requirements between the PEV and utility grid being proposed by industry stakeholders were vastly different in the type of communications and messaging documented in the original standard.
Technical Paper

Zero-dimensional Model and Pressure Data Analysis of a Variable-Displacement Lubricating Vane Pump

2009-06-15
2009-01-1859
A zero-dimensional dynamic model was developed in the Matlab/Simulink® environment to predict the behaviour of a variable-displacement lubricating vane pump for internal combustion engine applications. Based on the geometric and kinematic characteristics of the pump, the model allows predictions of the pressure evolution in each chamber of the pump and in the delivery piping, by employing an integrative-derivative approach. Simulation results were compared with experimental data of pressure transducers, which were fitted along the periphery of the pump case and in the delivery channel. The analysis of the experimental data shows that the pressure dynamics, which is experienced by the transducers, is in some cases quite different from the pressure dynamics in the pump chambers and produces pressure peaks which are not actually present in the original signal. The pressure transducers output was then also modelled in order to properly compare simulation results and experimental data.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Temperature on Performance and Emissions of a Common Rail Diesel Engine Operating with Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME)

2009-06-15
2009-01-1896
The paper presents analysis of performance and emission characteristics of a common rail diesel engine operating with RME, with and without EGR. In both cases, the RME fuel was pre-heated in a heat exchanger to control its temperature before being pumped to the common rail. The studied parameters include the in-cylinder pressure history, rate of heat release, mass fraction burned, and exhaust emissions. The results show that when the fuel temperature increases and the engine is operated without EGR, the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) decreases, engine efficiency increases and NOx emission slightly decreases. However, when EGR is used while fuel temperature is increased, the bsfc and engine efficiency is independent of fuel temperature while NOx slightly increases.
Journal Article

Trends in Performance Characteristics of Modern Automobile SI and Diesel Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1892
A prior study (Chon and Heywood, [1]) examined how the design and performance of spark-ignition engines evolved in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s. This paper carries out a similar analysis of trends in basic engine design and performance characteristics over the past decade. Available databases on engine specifications in the U.S., Europe, and Japan were used as the sources of information. Parameters analyzed were maximum torque, power, and speed; number of cylinders and engine configuration, cylinder displacement, bore, stroke, compression ratio; valvetrain configuration, number of valves and their control; port or direct fuel injection; naturally-aspirated or turbocharged engine concepts; spark-ignition and diesel engines. Design features are correlated with these engine’s performance parameters, normalized by engine and cylinder displacement.
Technical Paper

Possible Influence of High Injection Pressure on Diesel Fuel Stability: A Review and Preliminary Study

2009-06-15
2009-01-1878
Recent developments in diesel engines and fuel injection equipment combined with the change to ULSD and bio-blends have resulted in increased reports regarding deposits within injectors and filters. A review of known fuel degradation mechanisms and other relevant chemistries suggests the effects of high pressure and high shear environments should be examined as the most probable causes of increasing deposit formation. Existing fuel quality tests do not correlate with reported fouling propensity. Analytical studies have shown that there are only subtle chemical changes for the materials within the standard diesel boiling range. The implications for further scientific study are discussed.
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