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Technical Paper

Investigation of the Characteristics of a High Pressure Injector

This paper will focus on the spray characteristics of a high pressure (up to 155 MPa) accumulator type injector in a high pressure (chosen density) quiescent spray chamber. The injector uses a standard single orifice nozzle which produces a full cone spray. Using this apparatus, we are examining the fundamental aspects of high pressure spray formation under controlled conditions. Experimental data was collected using high speed photography (10,000 frames per second) which used a pulsed copper-vapor laser as a light source. Two photographic techniques are being utilized. Direct attenuation allows measurement of tip penetration, spray cone angle, and injection duration. Scattering from a sheet of laser light perpendicular to the camera field of view is being developed in an attempt to resolve inner spray cone structure. In addition to the quantitative data from the high speed photography, injector accumulator pressure, supply pressure and injection rate histories were recorded.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Zero-Dimensional Thermodynamic Models for IC Engine Data Analysis

The heat release type models have been classified as zero-dimensional because they have no spatial resolution and therefore don't contain any information on the fluid mechanics in them. They have been a significant contribution because they incorporate the rate processes occurring in the engine and are an aid in the analysis of the data. Because they are thermodynamic models it is necessary to define the control volumes on which the thermodynamic analysis is to be performed. The different control volume descriptions, called one, two and three zone models, and the analysis of the combustion event using these models is discussed. Finally a description of second law zero-dimensional models is given. These models have similar limitations as the First Law models; no spatial resolution and a control volume definition is required. These models are useful because they enable one to analyze the magnitude of the losses that occur in the different processes which comprise the engine cycle.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Volatiles and Fixed Carbon Combustion

Diesel particulate samples were collected from a light duty engine operated at a single speed-load point with a range of biodiesel and conventional fuel blends. The oxidation reactivity of the samples was characterized in a laboratory reactor, and BET surface area measurements were made at several points during oxidation of the fixed carbon component of both types of particulate. The fixed carbon component of biodiesel particulate has a significantly higher surface area for the initial stages of oxidation, but the surface areas for the two particulates become similar as fixed carbon oxidation proceeds beyond 40%. When fixed carbon oxidation rates are normalized to total surface area, it is possible to describe the oxidation rates of the fixed carbon portion of both types of particulates with a single set of Arrhenius parameters. The measured surface area evolution during particle oxidation was found to be inconsistent with shrinking sphere oxidation.
Technical Paper

An Investigation Into the Effect of Fuel Composition on HCCI Combustion Characteristics

A single cylinder CFR research engine has been run in HCCI combustion mode for a range of temperatures and fuel compositions. The data indicate that the best HCCI operation, as measured by a combination of successful combustion with low ISFC, occurs at or near the rich limit of operation. Analysis of the pressure and heat release histories indicated the presence, or absence, and impact of the fuel's NTC ignition behavior on establishing successful HCCI operation. The auto-ignition trends observed were in complete agreement with previous results found in the literature. Furthermore, analysis of the importance of the fuel's octane sensitivity, through assessment of an octane index, successfully explained the changes in the fuels auto-ignition tendency with changes in engine operating conditions.
Journal Article

Pathline Analysis of Full-cycle Four-stroke HCCI Engine Combustion Using CFD and Multi-Zone Modeling

This paper investigates flow and combustion in a full-cycle simulation of a four-stroke, three-valve HCCI engine by visualizing the flow with pathlines. Pathlines trace massless particles in a transient flow field. In addition to visualization, pathlines are used here to trace the history, or evolution, of flow fields and species. In this study evolution is followed from the intake port through combustion. Pathline analysis follows packets of intake charge in time and space from induction through combustion. The local scalar fields traversed by the individual packets in terms of velocity magnitude, turbulence, species concentration and temperatures are extracted from the simulation results. The results show how the intake event establishes local chemical and thermal environments in-cylinder and how the species respond (chemically react) to the local field.