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AS13003 Measurement System Analysis (MSA) Requirements for Aerospace Engine Supplier Quality

AS 13003:2015 stipulates requirements to establish an acceptable measurement system (for variable and attribute features) for use on aerospace engines parts and assemblies. Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA) is used to evaluate and improve measurement systems in the workplace because it evaluates the test method, measuring instruments, and the process of acquiring measurements. The Aerospace Engine Supplier Quality (AESQ) Strategy Group published AS13003 to define the minimum requirements for conducting MSA for variable attribute assessment on characteristics as defined on the drawing specification.

SAE Video Tutorial

Simple instructions on how to successfully upload your video to the SAE Video web page.

Using SCADE System for the Design and Integration of Critical Systems

This presentation shows the SCADE System product line for systems modeling and generation based on the SysML standard and the Eclipse Papyrus open source technology. SCADE System has been developed in the framework of Listerel, a joint laboratory of Esterel Technologies, provider of the SCADE�, and CEA LIST, project leader of the Eclipse component, Papyrus. From an architecture point of view, the Esterel SCADE tools are built on top of the SCADE platform which includes both SCADE Suite�, a model-based development environment dedicated to critical software, and SCADE System enabling model-based system engineering. SCADE System includes Papyrus, an open source component (under EPL license), integrated in the modeling platform of Eclipse. Using this integrated modeling platform, both system and software teams share the same environment for system development. Furthermore, other model-based tools can be added to the environment, due to the use of Eclipse.

Spotlight on Design: Fuel Efficiency: Racing Toward CAFE 2025

“Spotlight on Design” features video interviews and case study segments, focusing on the latest technology breakthroughs. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Fuel efficiency, or simply put, how to get more mileage out of the same amount of fuel has become one of the main goals to be achieved by new automotive technologies in the future, thanks in part to new government regulations. In the episode “Fuel Efficiency: Racing toward CAFE 2025” (21:24) AVL engineers show simulation and testing being used to design more fuel efficient vehicles, including the equipment that actually analyzes fuel economy.

Counterfeit Materiel; Assuring Acquisition of Authentic and Conforming Materiel - Bearings

This document standardizes requirements for bearings: (a) supply chain management, procurement, inspection, parts management, and test/evaluation to assure the authenticity of bearings being acquired/used, and (b) response strategies when suspect or confirmed counterfeit bearings are discovered. Though developed primarily for critical application bearings, the document also may be applicable, at the discretion of the user, to other bearings with similar characteristics and applications. The bearings slash sheet is not intended to replace, conflict with, or duplicate requirements in quality system or AMS series material specs but rather to augment them with regards to counterfeit prevention and risk mitigation.

SAE Glossary of Automotive Terms-Second Edition

The second edition of the SAE Glossary of Automotive Terms is an updated compendium of automotive engineering terms and related definitions which appear in SAE Standards, Recommended Practices, and Information Reports. This volume includes nearly 800 new and revised terms, extracted from new and revised technical reports from 1986 to 1992. Terms and definitions are taken verbatim from SAE technical reports published in the 1992 SAE Handbook .
Technical Paper

The Gum Stability of Gasolines

AN investigation of the accelerated oxidation method for predicting the gum stability of gasolines was made to determine the effects of oxygen pressure and of temperature on the observed induction periods. The data obtained on the effect of pressure indicated that there was a definite relation between the induction period at any pressure and the induction period at an air pressure of 1 atmosphere. The data obtained on the effect of temperature showed that the induction periods of different gasolines changed to a different extent with temperature, so that gasolines with the same induction period at any one temperature might have very different periods of stability at storage temperatures. Since temperature has a marked effect on the observed induction period and since the gasoline is at a lower temperature than that of the bath for a considerable period of time at the beginning of the experiment, a correction factor was applied to obtain true induction periods at the bath temperature.
Technical Paper

Practical Tractive-Ability Methods

THE TRACTIVE ability of a motor-vehicle, as stated by the author, is the measure of its power to overcome outside resistances to its translation, based on the tangential force exerted by the driving wheels at their points of contact with the road. The propelling force is derived from the engine. To compute the “tangential force” of the foregoing definition it is engine torque that interests us rather than the horsepower, he states. If the horsepower is given, it can be converted into torque. After analyzing this point mathematically, the author discusses typical tractive-factors of modern motor-trucks so that he is enabled to develop an economic factor mathematically and thus be prepared to discuss tractive resistance as opposed to tractive effort. Air resistance is considered in detail as a particularly important factor concerning motorcoaches, and the author's points are backed up by diagrams and charts as well as by numerous tables of statistical and computed data.
Technical Paper

Fluidity and Other Properties of Aviation-Engine Oils

SELECTION of the proper crude is an important consideration in the manufacture of aviation-engine oils. The authors class petroleum into asphalt-base, paraffin-base and mixed-base crudes, stating that scientific research and actual-performance tests have demonstrated the advantages of paraffin-base oils over asphalt-base oils for aviation engines, and that their superiority is now conceded by most authorities. Much attention has been given recently to the dewaxing and fractionating of lubricating oils, and this has resulted in an improvement in their quality and in their unrestricted use as “all-weather aero oils.” After quoting statements from several authorities who agree that an oil which will meet both summer and winter requirements is desirable, the authors give the definitions of viscosity, fluidity, consistency and plasticity determined by the American Society for Testing Materials and then discuss the fluidity or consistency of aviation-engine oils below their A. S. T.
Technical Paper

Lacquer Surfacers

THE finishing of automotive products with lacquer is still in the transition stage, according to the author. Sufficient time has not elapsed to provide an adequate background of experience which establishes principles and practices that fully meet the requirements of the production engineer. In other words, many of the things we think we know about lacquer finishes and lacquer undercoatings are either not true or are correct in part only. The general function of a surfacer is to provide a smooth surface for the finishing coats. Inasmuch as the larger part of the material applied to provide such a surface must be cut away by sanding so as to bring the surface as a whole to the requisite smoothness, a satisfactory surfacer is one that can be applied with the minimum effort, can be sanded with the minimum amount of labor, and can be purchased cheaply, the reason being that most of it is carried away by the wash water during the sanding process.
Technical Paper


Mathematical relationships have been developed whereby excellent correlations are obtained between the road antiknock performance of conventional volatility gasolines and their Research and Motor octane numbers. Correlation equations for current and experimental high compression ratio engines at a given speed are about the same as in older cars of about 7:1 C.R. Although the road antiknock performance of fuels varies greatly from car to car, good correlations with laboratory octane ratings are obtained in cars causing extremes in fuel octane performance as well as in the average car. Fuel depreciation (Research O.N.-Road O.N.) is shown to be a poor measure of the relative effects of Research and Motor O.N. on road antiknock performance in many instances. Neither can fuel depreciation be used as a good measure of relative engine severity. A new definition of engine severity is proposed.
Technical Paper


Emphasis is placed upon the propriety of applying the term “research” only to such lines of investigation as are capable of yielding general results that can be utilized by other than the original observers. The distinction between research thus defined and much else that can be classed correctly as research according to its dictionary definition is explained. In stating the purpose and aim of the Research Department of the Society, the divisions of the thought include research personnel requirements, the support of research, the importance of research, problems suitable for research in the industrial, educational and independent laboratories, the general research program and the avoidance of duplication of research work.
Technical Paper


Stating that the knowledge now available does not permit an exact scientific definition of flame and giving the reasons, in this paper the author regards flames as gases rendered temporarily visible by reason of chemical action, discusses their physical rather than their chemical aspects and, unless otherwise indicated, refers to the flames of common gasoline and kerosene only. To gain a reasonably clear understanding of the requirements and characteristics of the different kinds of flame, it is necessary to begin with a study of atoms and molecules. The author therefore discusses the present atomic theory, the shape of the atom and molecular structure, and follows this with a lengthy detailed description of the beginning of combustion. The requirements and characteristics of the inoffensive variety of combustion are considered next and nine specific remedies are given for use in accomplishing the burning of heavy fuels with a blue flame in present engines.
Technical Paper


The authors state that the coefficient of friction between two rubbing surfaces is influenced by a very large number of variables, the most important being, in the case of an oiled journal, the nature and the shape of the surfaces, their smoothness, the clearance between the journal and the bearing, the viscosity of the oil, the “film-forming” tendency or “oiliness” of the oil, the speed of rubbing, the pressure on the bearing, the method of supplying the lubricant and the temperature. The primary object of the paper is to present the best available data regarding the fundamental mechanism of lubrication so as to afford a basis for predicting the precise effect of these different variables under any specified conditions. Definitions of the terms used are given and the laws of fluid-film lubrication are discussed, theoretical curves for “ideal” bearings being treated at length.
Technical Paper


The paper treats of the service, commercial and technical aspects of the subject in turn. The author calls attention to the fact that there can be no such thing as free service, because the customer pays in the end, and gives a specific definition of service. He argues that the engineering departments should urge upon merchandising departments intelligent distribution through dealers, the stocking of an adequate supply of parts and the maintaining of a well qualified mechanical force for the purpose of making engineering development work in the form of farm power automotive apparatus effective. There is a great need for a suitable system of training mechanics for tractor service work, and there should be a definite plan to assure that men making repairs and adjustments in the field are well qualified.
Technical Paper

Ice Formation in Aircraft-Engine Carburetors

ICE formation in the carburetor must depend on, at least, the factors (a) volatility and heat of vaporization of the fuel; (b) mixture ratio; (c) humidity, pressure, and the temperature of the intake air; and (d) heat transfer between the carburetor and its surroundings, especially the engine, according to the authors. Small-scale and full-scale tests were made, descriptions of the seven fuels used and of the testing apparatus being given. The procedures for both sets of tests are outlined and the results are analyzed. Other subjects treated are the heat necessary to melt ice, and correlation with the A.S.T.M. distillation. Five conclusions are stated. Appendix 1 refers to calculation of the relation between intake and mixture temperatures when ice formation occurs. Appendix 2 treats of the construction of equilibrium-air-distillation curves for a series of supplied mixture ratios. Appendix 3 is concerned with engine operation near the danger zone and definition of border conditions.
Technical Paper


After stating that the meaning of the term “gasoline” seems to be generally misunderstood for the reason that it has been assumed that gasoline is, or ought to be, the name of a specific product, the author states that it is not and never has been a specific product and that although gasoline has a definite and generic meaning in the oil trade it has no specific meaning whatever. It means merely a light distillate from crude petroleum. Its degree of lightness, from what petroleum it is distilled and how it is distilled or refined are unspecified. Specifically, “gasoline” is the particular grade of gasoline which at a given moment is distributed in bulk at retail. It can be defined with reasonable precision as being the cheapest petroleum product acceptable for universal use as a fuel in the prevailing type of internal-combustion engine.
Technical Paper

Manufacturing Phases of Metal-Aircraft Construction

THE introduction to this paper includes definitions of the major items under discussion, and is followed by a discussion of the materials most widely used in metal-aircraft construction and their important physical properties. In the remainder of the paper are described some of the problems encountered in metal construction and the processes that have been developed to facilitate manufacture. The following specific items are discussed: (1) Design, (2) Tooling, including lofting, (3) Fabrication, (4) Assembly, (5) Inspection, and (6) Protective coating. Special equipment and tools are illustrated.
Technical Paper


The procedures followed in selecting an advanced air weapon system are reviewed, from the establishment of the military requirement to the final design definition of the complete system. To illustrate these procedures, selection is made of an air vehicle type which best satisfies the hypothetical military requirement. Critical developmental areas peculiar to the air vehicle selected are described, and some of the major variables affecting the missile and booster design are defined. Design-analysis techniques used in optimizing the air vehicle portion of the weapon system are then outlined. The importance of integrating similar design analyses conducted on all major elements of the system to produce a weapon system of maximum military effectiveness is stressed.