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The Future (& Past) of Electrified Vehicles

The presentation offers a brief history of the electric vehicle and parallels the realities of those early vehicles with the challenges and solutions of the electrified vehicles coming to market today. A technology evolution for every major component of these vehicles has now made this mode of transportation viable. The Focus Electric is Ford's first electric passenger car utilizing the advanced technology developments to meet the needs of electric car buyers in this emerging market. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.

RFID on Aircraft Parts - Industry Initiatives, Testing Standards, and Best Practices for Storing Maintenance History Information Directly on Aircraft Parts

The aerospace industry has long sought a solution for storing maintenance history information directly on aircraft parts. In 2005 leading airframe manufacturers determined that passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology presented a unique opportunity to address this industry need. Through the efforts of the Air Transport Association (ATA) RFID on Parts Committee and SAE International testing standards and data specifications are in place to support the broad adoption of passive RFID for storing parts history information directly on aircraft parts. The primary focus of the paper will be on the SAE AS-5678 environmental testing standard for passive RFID tags intended for aircraft use. Detail will be provided to help aerospace manufacturers understand their role and responsibilities for current programs and understand how this may impact their parts certification process.

Pioneers of the U.S. Automobile Industry, Vol. IV

Pioneers of the U.S. Automobile Industry uses four separate volumes to explore the essential components that helped build the American automobile industry - the people, the companies and the designs. This volume uses nearly 270 photos to go behind the scenes to explore the people who created car designs that have become famous with the American car industry. Pioneers covered in this edition include: Elmer and Edgar Apperson Vincent Bendix James Scripps Booth Alanson Brush David Buick Joseph Cole Clyde Coleman Claude Cox Herbert Franklin and John Wilkinson Elwood Haynes Frederick Haynes Thomas Jeffery Edward Jordan Charles King Howard Marmon Jonathan Maxwell Percy Owen Raymond and Ralph Owen Andrew Riker Frank Stearns Thomas J. and Thomas L. Sturtevant C. Harold Wills Alexander Winton
Technical Paper

High-Temperature Liquid-Cooling

BEGINNING with a statement of the requirements of a high-temperature cooling-liquid and a short history of what had been previously done in this field, the author gives a description of the liquid used in the investigation which was conducted by the Materiel Division at Wright Field. The investigation is divided into five parts which includes dynamometer test of Curtiss V-1570 and D-12 engines, endurance test and flight tests of D-12 engine and a dynamometer test of a high compression-ratio D-12 engine. The engines and cooling systems used, the results obtained and troubles experienced are given in detail, with curves, sketches and views of the airplanes. Extremely low fuel-consumption was obtained, and the results show that the ratio of installed weight to power of a liquid-cooled airplane-engine is considerably reduced by using this system of cooling.
Technical Paper

Canadian Store-Door Delivery

AFTER defining the meaning of store-door delivery and outlining its history in Canada, the author reviews in detail the functions of the cartage agent and the railroad company under that system, and gives an idea of the territory and population served. Operation of Canadian store-door delivery is fully described, both as to the terminal facilities and the methods of handling, recording and checking outbound and inbound freight shipments. The author shows that in eastern Canada more than 97 per cent of the carted inbound tonnage is delivered to consignees by the end of the day following its receipt at the railroad sheds. Cartage tariffs used in Canadian store-door delivery are given and the legal situation involved in the operation of cartage service by railroads is outlined.
Technical Paper

What the Traveling Public Wants in the Future

“DON'T let any industry kid itself that it is not in the midst of an absolute change, and particularly if it be a transportation industry. “This will not be a mere slight improvement or an addition of attachments and gadgets, but an absolute fundamental metamorphosis. “Industry, after its bristling period in the market, went into a coma and disappeared entirely into the chrysalis of the experimental laboratory where it has been for four years. Now, under the impetus of the new day, it is emerging from this cocoon of experimentation no longer a narrow short-sighted, crawling creature, but a butterfly with wings, preening itself in the sun and ready to take off almost any time for far more distant flights of progress than ever before in the history of mankind.” Mr.
Technical Paper

The Application of Photoelasticity to the Study of Indeterminate Truss-Stresses

THIS paper contains a brief description of the history, theory and application of photoelasticity, which is a new and useful optical method of stress analysis. A simple, cheap and compact photoelastic polariscope developed for the purpose is described. The application of photoelasticity to indeterminate truss-stress analysis produces quantitative stress measurements within a maximum experimental error of 6 per cent. The tests yield with considerable speed and convenience information concerning stress concentrations at corners and fillets that cannot be obtained by other methods. The author describes a photoelastic test of an airplane-wing-rib model whereby the axial and bending stresses in the members are determined and severe stress concentrations at the spar corners are noted.
Technical Paper

Effect of Legislation on Motor-Vehicle Design and Operation

EXISTING legal restrictions prevent the public from deriving the utmost benefits from the progress made in transport-vehicle and highway engineering. Legislative regulation has not yet affected the design of passenger automobiles in this Country, but curtailment of usage is evident in those States where gasoline taxes have reached exorbitant levels. The design and operation of motorcoaches, trucks and trailers has been affected, and the trend of motor-vehicle legislation presents a problem that is more acute than ever before in the history of the industry. We have 49 different sets of State and District regulations, each differing in some ways from the others, most seriously as regards size and weight. If uniform regulations could be put into effect in all States, design and operating practices would be simplified and lower manufacturing and operating costs effected.
Technical Paper


Dr. Dickinson outlines the history of the Research Department since its organization, indicates why the universities are the principal bases of operation for pure research, describes how the department functions as a clearing-house with regard to research data and comments upon the bright prospects for the future. He enumerates also the facilities the Research Department has for the coordination of research problems. The practical achievements of the Department have resulted from its recent concentration upon the three major projects of study with regard to the tractive resistance of roads, with reference to fuel and to testing programs, and of an effort to render financial assistance to the Bureau of Standards and the Bureau of Mines that would enable these Bureaus to continue their elaborate research programs, details of all of this work being included.
Technical Paper


The author (Chicago Tractor Meeting paper) divides the history of the application of mechanical power to farm work into three periods, reviews each one and comments upon the various phases of progressive development that influence the type of tractor most desirable for satisfying present needs. The requirements of farm work are outlined, and the different types of tractor built and being constructed to meet these demands are reviewed, discussion of large versus small tractors, type of drive, power needed, control, methods of operation and the factors constituting general-purpose service being included. So far as adopting the tractor for farm usage is concerned, the author believes that the present limitation of such utilization lies with the tractor industry and with tractor engineers, rather than with the farmer.
Technical Paper


First sketching the history of the sleeve-valve engine, the author reviews the valve action of the Knight, discusses combustion-chamber shape and comments upon permissible compression, remarking also on the subject of carbon deposit in the sleeve-valve type of engine. Endurance tests of Knight engines are described and, in the author's opinion, should constitute a reliable guide in judging its performance characteristics. From the beginning, one of the foremost claims for the sleeve-valve engine has been that the sleeve type of valve permits much greater port openings and more rapid opening and closing of the ports. In view of this claim, it is said to be rather strange that sleeve-valve engines have not been more of a factor in speed contests; but the explanation undoubtedly is that exceedingly large valve-capacity can be obtained with poppet valves if quiet valve-action is not a consideration, according to the author.
Technical Paper


Reviewing briefly the history of the automotive clutch and summarizing the most interesting achievements in clutch design during recent years, the author discusses friction facings and says that the development of the asbestos-base friction-bearing has made possible the multiple-disc dry-plate and the single-plate types. For severe service, the qualifications of a satisfactory friction-facing are density of structure, together with a reasonably high tensile-strength; the coefficient of friction should be high and fairly constant over a wide range of temperature; the facing must be able to withstand high temperature without deterioration; the impregnating compound must not bleed out at high temperature; and the permeation of the impregnating solution must be complete so that the wear resistance is constant throughout the thickness of the facing. The molded and the woven types of facing are treated at length.
Technical Paper


This paper is mainly an argument in favor of the use of large, single rear wheel truck tires instead of smaller dual tires. Although the practice of using large singles is comparatively new, the author gives the results of experience and research to show the advantages of the newer method of rear tire equipment. In developing his arguments in favor of single tires, the author goes into the history of dual tire application to show why it was necessary to use two tires in the earlier days of truck operation. As the necessity for increased carrying-capacity grew, tire manufacturers found the then existing single tire equipment inadequate, and they set about to develop suitable equipment to meet the new condition, the result being dual practice. The method of attaching the earlier dual tires is shown to have been poor, resulting in circumferential creeping of the whole tire to a much greater extent as the width of the dual equipment increased.
Technical Paper


The author outlines the history of the 550 submarine chasers built for the British Government between April, 1915, and November, 1916, and attributes the success of the undertaking largely to scientific standardization. He cites some of the early difficulties in obtaining supplies and tells how they were met, and mentions how and why the fabrication was carried out in this country and the assembly made in Canada. The paper concludes with citation of the principal dimensions of the boats, power, speed and cruising radius. In the course of the discussion the author refers further to the power plant and mentions some of the war-time duties of this type of craft.
Technical Paper


Motorization, as developed during the war, is stated as the greatest single advance in military engineering since the fourteenth century. Excepting about 66 per cent of the 77-mm. guns in the combat division, all mobile weapons of the United States artillery are motorized and complete motorization has been approved. The history of artillery motorization is sketched and a tabulation given of the general mechanical development in artillery motor equipment to May, 1919. Caterpillar vehicle characteristics are next considered in detail, followed by ten specifically stated problems of design which are then discussed. Five primary factors affecting quantity production, successful construction and effective design, in applying the caterpillar tractor to military purposes, are then stated and commented upon. A table shows specifications of engines used by the Ordnance Department and three general specifications for replacing present engine equipment are made.
Technical Paper


THIS paper presents a brief history of past experience at Boeing with turbosupercharged airplanes. Installation problems are discussed by the author who also offers suggestions for future design. A basic airplane and engine are chosen and several types of supercharging analyzed by Mr. Disch. A method of turbo selection is also briefly presented by him. Assuming that flight at 25,000 ft is desired, a comparison of range and payload is shown, depicting the benefits of employing a cruising type of turbosupercharger for increased fuel economy and range. In conclusion, the author summarizes the overall benefits with this type of installation.
Technical Paper


A brief resume of the history of power requirement studies of agricultural machinery at Ohio State University will, I hope, be of interest and helpful to establish a background for the work to be discussed later in this paper. The first portable belt dynamometer was built by the Department of Agricultural Engineering in 1922. It consisted of a four cylinder gasoline engine mounted in a balanced cradle. The torque reaction and speed was recorded on a gulley traction dynamometer recording device. A few over-all power requirement studies of a Rumely 22 x 36 thresher were made during the summer of 1923. A study of these first tests gave an impetus to the working out of a more comprehensive technique and program of testing of various types of belt driven agricultural machinery.