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Standard

Aircraft Fuel Weight Penalty Due to Air Conditioning

1989-09-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/8
The purpose of this section is to provide methods and a set of convenient working charts to estimate penalty values in terms of take-off fuel weight for any given airplane mission. The curves are for a range of specific fuel consumption (SFC) and lift/drag ratio (L/D) compatible with the jet engines and supersonic aircraft currently being developed. A typical example showing use of the charts for an air conditioning system is given. Evaluation of the penalty imposed on aircraft performance characteristics by the installation of an air conditioning system is important for two reasons: 1 It provides a common denominator for comparing systems in the preliminary design stage, thus aiding in the choice of system to be used. 2 It aids in pinpointing portions of existing systems where design improvements can be most readily achieved.
Standard

Aircraft Fuel Weight Penalty Due to Air Conditioning

2011-07-25
CURRENT
AIR1168/8A
The purpose of this section is to provide methods and a set of convenient working charts to estimate penalty values in terms of take-off fuel weight for any given airplane mission. The curves are for a range of specific fuel consumption (SFC) and lift/drag ratio (L/D) compatible with the jet engines and supersonic aircraft currently being developed. A typical example showing use of the charts for an air conditioning system is given. Evaluation of the penalty imposed on aircraft performance characteristics by the installation of an air conditioning system is important for two reasons: 1 It provides a common denominator for comparing systems in the preliminary design stage, thus aiding in the choice of system to be used. 2 It aids in pinpointing portions of existing systems where design improvements can be most readily achieved.
Standard

Aerospace Pressurization System Design

1991-03-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/7
The pressurization system design considerations presented in this AIR deal with human physiological requirements, characteristics of pressurization air sources, methods of controlling cabin pressure, cabin leakage control, leakage calculation methods, and methods of emergency cabin pressure release.
Standard

Aerospace Pressurization System Design

2011-07-25
CURRENT
AIR1168/7A
The pressurization system design considerations presented in this AIR deal with human physiological requirements, characteristics of pressurization air sources, methods of controlling cabin pressure, cabin leakage control, leakage calculation methods, and methods of emergency cabin pressure release.
Standard

High Temperature Pneumatic Duct Systems for Aircraft

1997-12-01
CURRENT
ARP699E
This Recommended Practice is intended to outline the design, installation, testing, and field maintenance criteria for a high temperature metal pneumatic duct system, for use as a guide in the aircraft industry. These recommendations are to be considered as currently applicable and necessarily subject to revision from time to time, as a result of the rapid development of the industry.
Standard

Thermodynamics of Incompressible and Compressible Fluid Flow

1989-03-01
CURRENT
AIR1168/1
The fluid flow treated in this section is isothermal, subsonic, and incompressible. The effects of heat addition, work on the fluid, variation in sonic velocity, and changes in elevation are neglected. An incompressible fluid is one in which a change in pressure causes no resulting change in fluid density. The assumption that liquids are incompressible introduces no appreciable error in calculations, but the assumption that a gas is incompressible introduces an error of a magnitude that is dependent on the fluid velocity and on the loss coefficient of the particular duct section or piece of equipment. Fig. 1A-1 shows the error in pressure drop resulting from assuming that air is incompressible. With reasonably small loss coefficients and the accuracy that is usually required in most calculations, compressible fluids may be treated as incompressible for velocities less than Mach 0.2.
Standard

Aerothermodynamic Systems Engineering and Design

1989-09-01
CURRENT
AIR1168/3
This section presents methods and examples of computing the steady-state heating and cooling loads of aircraft compartments. In a steady-state process the flows of heat throughout the system are stabilized and thus do not change with time. In an aircraft compartment, several elements compose the steady-state air conditioning load.
Standard

Heat Sinks for Airborne Vehicles

2015-11-19
CURRENT
AIR1957A
This document summarizes types of heat sinks and considerations in relation to the general requirements of aircraft heat sources, and it provides information to achieve efficient utilization and management of these heat sinks. In this document, a heat sink is defined as a body or substance used for removal of the heat generated by thermodynamic processes. This document provides general data about airborne heat sources, heat sinks, and modes of heat transfer. The document also discusses approaches to control the use of heat sinks and techniques for analysis and verification of heat sink management. The heat sinks are for aircraft operating at subsonic and supersonic speeds.
Standard

Heat Sinks for Airborne Vehicles

2002-09-16
HISTORICAL
AIR1957
This document summarizes types of heat sinks and considerations in relation to the general requirements of aircraft heat sources, and it provides information to achieve efficient utilization and management of these heat sinks. In this document, a heat sink is defined as a body or substance used for removal of the heat generated by hydrodynamic or thermodynamic processes. This document provides general data about airborne heat sources, heat sinks, and modes of heat transfer. The document also discusses approaches to control the use of heat sinks and techniques for analysis and verification of heat sink management. The heat sinks are for aircraft operating at subsonic and supersonic speeds.
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