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Human Systems Integration and SAE6906

This course introduces Human Systems Integration (HSI) and the new SAE International HSI best practice standard (SAE6906). DoD and other customers currently require HSI program plans in accordance with Department of Defense Data Item Description (DID) DI-HFAC-81743A. It is assumed that, for future system acquisition programs, customers (especially DoD) will require establishment and execution of a Human Systems Integration Program in compliance with SAE Systems Management Standard SAE6906. This course will assist students with planning and executing HSI program that are consistent with the DoD DID and SAE Standard 6906.
Technical Paper

Human Engineering: A New Approach to Driver Efficiency and Transport Safety

HIGHWAY safety-an important problem in the truck and bus industries - is governed by many factors, one of the most important being the human element. This paper describes the Harvard School of Public Health research program concerning the human factor in vehicle design and operation. The project is Sponsored by the Commission on Accidental Trauma of the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board, Department of Defense; the National Association of Automotive Mutual Insurance Companies; the American Trucking Associations, Inc.; and the National Association of Motor Bus Operators. Some items of this investigation include the study of near accidents; detection of the accident repeater; personal adjustment and morale of drivers; human body size and capabilities with relation to controls, instruments, seats, and vision; the effects of temperature, ventilation, noise, and vibration; and desirable safety features to protect the operator if an accident occurs.
Technical Paper

Human Factors in Highway Transport Safety

ABROAD research program in the field of highway safety has been in progress at the Harvard School of Public Health during the past six years. These studies were initiated by the American Trucking Associations, Inc., the National Association of Motor Bus Operators, and the National Association of Automotive Mutual Insurance Companies. Since 1951 the Commission on Accidental Trauma of the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board, Department of Defense has sponsored research on the human factors in vehicular accidents at Harvard and at a number of other universities and research institutions. Thus far the research program has stressed basic causes in the areas of: 1. Identifying traits of personality and behavior which lead to repeated errors. 2. Defects in the design of equipment (human engineering). 3. Injuries and fatalities resulting from vehicular crashes. 4. Mathematical studies of the various interrelationships of contributory causes in accidents.
Technical Paper

Wing-Lift Augmentation Methods for the Improvement of Low-Speed Performance of High-Speed Aircraft

FOR more than half a century, aeronautical researchers have attempted to augment wing-lift beyond the capabilities of mechanical flaps, slots, and the like. Theoretical studies and wind tunnel tests promised large gains in aircraft performance, but flight installations all over the world proved a long series of failures. Because of the problems inherent in the operation of high-speed jet aircraft, the Department of Defense revived interest in lift-increase systems. A development of the Bureau of Aeronautics recently flight-tested on a Grumman jet fighter demonstrated what is considered the first practical, operationally suitable lift-augmentation system. Under the name of the BuAer Supercirculation System, whereby engine power was successfully diverted to create lift, it has provided new impetus for industry-wide research in the field.
Technical Paper

Control for Maintainability in Aerospace Fluid Power Systems

The cost of Department of Defense maintenance coupled with the need for improved maintenance in many aerospace activities has resulted in large changes to the approach of maintainability. For hydraulic controls and systems for airborne vehicles, recent procedures have been instituted which put special and continued emphasis on maintainability from the inception of a program and not as an after-the-fact operation. These changes have resulted in detailed improvements in maintainability through both procedural and component design improvements. This has resulted in marked field improvements, ease of maintenance and improved operational times.
Technical Paper

Value Engineering Is Earthmoving

The technical specialty Value Engineering, conceived during World War II in General Electric Co., today is recognized as an effective approach for product improvement and technological advancement, and for cost reduction. In recent years, many consumer and defense industries have augmented their efforts to reduce product costs by introduction of value engineering programs. This paper: (1) provides a history of value engineering; (2) describes philosophy and techniques of value engineering; (3) demonstrates the effectiveness and acceptance of value engineering by presenting results of programs instituted in several companies; and, (4) relates experiences and procedures at Eclipse-Pioneer Div. of Bendix. The case study is presented with emphasis on the impact value engineering has on top management and management personnel.
Technical Paper

The Role of Effort Classification in System Design and Evaluation

Northrop Ventura has implemented, as part of their internal management control, six categories, similar to those in the Department of Defense, for various types of development. This implementation required that (1) the DOD development categories to be expanded and interpreted in terms of Northrop Ventura's product interests, and (2) levels of appropriate effort within each of the development categories be defined for all functions involved in the development process. These latter levels constitute what is called “effort classification.” Effort classification has been credited with reducing the time required to prepare and negotiate proposals, simplifying program management, and achieving product maturity.
Technical Paper

A Solution to Some Problems in the Planning and Control of First Article Costs and Schedules

A PERT network and reporting system with several thousand activities has a tendency toward rigidity and resistance to change, whereas on a high level PERT is a useful tool of management. Control problems of first article manufacture, such as lack of data, continuity of data, ineffectiveness of computer data, and failure to utilize first line supervisors are discussed and solutions to these problems presented. To solve planning problems of first article manufacture, a system of work breakdown, job definitions, and further breakdown of work into job packages is illustrated. Problems and inherent conditions of the defense industry—various programs projectized at one time, different funding practices, developing technical capabilities, relations in customer environment—are identified.
Technical Paper

Defense Viewpoints of Standardization and Flexibility

The Department of Defense has established a Defense Supply Agency to provide the logistics support of a large portion of supplies common to the various military forces, and other services. The agency is vitally interested in standardization, which is needed to prevent waste and inefficiency. Preparation of military specifications follows five stages, the third being submission to industry (machine tool builders) for comments and recommendations.
Technical Paper

Increasing the Lubricity of JP-8 to Fuel Two-stroke Spark Ignition Engines for Midsized Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

In order to satisfy the single-fuel initiative, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) has the need for engines in the 20 to 50 hp range to power midsized Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) able to operate on JP-8 “heavy” fuel. It may be possible to convert two-stroke engines designed to operate on a gasoline-oil mixture to run on JP-8; however, one concern is that using JP-8 in lieu of the original fuel mixture will have an impact on engine lubrication. The research described in this paper investigated the lubricity of JP-8 and S-8 (synthetic heavy fuel) and compared it to the lubricity of a gasoline and lubricating oil combination typically used in two-stroke engines. In addition, three lubricity agents, synthetic lubricating oil, B100 biodiesel, and Military Specification engine oil, were added to heavy fuel and the resulting lubricity measured.
Journal Article

Conversion of a Spark-Ignited Aircraft Engine to JP-8 Heavy Fuel for Use in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

In order to satisfy a single-fuel mandate, the U.S. Department of Defense has a need for engines in the 20 to 50 hp range to power midsized Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and the ability to operate on JP-8 also known as “heavy” fuel. It is possible to convert two-stroke aircraft engines designed to operate on a gasoline-oil mixture to run on JP-8/oil using the Sonex Combustion System (SCS) developed by Sonex Research, Inc. Conversion of the engine involves replacing the cylinder heads with new components designed to accept a steel combustion ring insert. Also required are glow-plugs to preheat the cylinder head prior to engine start. The converted engine produces the same power output as the stock engine operating on gasoline. Conversion of both a 20 hp and 40 hp engine was successfully achieved using the SCS.
Technical Paper

Development of a Large-Scale Microphone Array for Aircraft Jet Plume Noise Source Characterization

Military jet aircraft expose both ground maintenance personnel and the community to high levels of noise. The U.S. Department of Defense is funding research to develop advanced modeling tools for noise reduction techniques and community noise exposure. A large-scale microphone array for portable near-field acoustic holography (NAH) and data acquisition system was created for this purpose. The system was designed for measuring high-amplitude jet noise from current and next-generation military aircraft to provide model refinement and benchmarking, evaluate performance of noise control devices, and predict ground maintenance personnel and community noise exposure. The acoustical instrumentation system was designed to be easy to use with scalable data processing as the primary focus. The data acquisition system allowed up to 152 channels simultaneously sampled at a rate of 96 kHz.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Systems Engineering for the Design and Development of Complex Aerospace Systems

The complexity of modern aerospace vehicles is growing constantly. New technologies create opportunities for higher levels of integration. Modern vehicles contain a larger number of components that interact with each other in non-linear and often unpredictable ways. Unintended interactions lead to unexpected behaviors and consequences, some of which have proven to be catastrophic. A key technical challenge in developing such complex systems is to ensure that catastrophic subsystem and component interactions are well understood and contained prior to full-scale development. To address these challenges, the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is investing in novel methods for design and verification of complex systems. The META program is specifically aimed at compressing the timeline for product development and deployment of complex defense systems, through model-based design and manufacturing.
Journal Article

Application of Laminated Composite Materials in Vehicle Design: Theories and Analyses of Composite Beams

With rising fuel prices, lightweight structures and materials (like composites) are receiving more attention. Composite materials offer high stiffness to weight and strength to weight ratios when compared with traditional metallic materials. Traditionally, composite materials were generally costly which made them only attractive to very limited industries (e.g., the defense industry). Advances in their manufacturing and new innovations have brought the cost of these materials down and made them reasonably competitive. They have gained more and more usage in the last 3 decades in the aerospace industry and have recently been gaining more usage in the automotive industry. In automotive design, they yield lighter structures which have positive impact on attributes like fuel economy, emission and others. Proper modeling and analyses need to be performed to make sure that other attributes (e.g. durability, noise, vibration and harshness or NVH) are assessed properly and remain competitive.
Technical Paper

Development of New Generation of Multibody System Computer Software

This paper discusses a new Department of Defense (DoD) initiative focused on the development of new generation of MBS computer software that have capabilities and features that are not provided by existing MBS software technology. This three-decade old technology fails to meet new challenges of developing more detailed models in which the effects of significant changes in geometry and large deformations cannot be ignored. New applications require accurate continuum mechanics based vehicle/soil interaction models, belt and chain drive models, efficient and accurate continuum based tire models, cable models used in rescue missions, models that accurately capture large deformations due to thermal and excessive loads, more accurate bio-mechanics models for ligaments, muscles, and soft tissues (LMST), etc.
Technical Paper

Traceability in the Age of Globalization: A Proposal for a Marking Protocol to Assure Authenticity of Electronic Parts

Proposes adoption of an industry standard marking protocol to assure the authenticity of high-reliability electronics. The protocol is seen as a key ingredient in the industry's effort to control counterfeit electronic parts escapes. The specifications of the marking protocol have been informed by the experience of the authors, who are currently participating in a DNA marking program mandated by the Defense Logistics Agency. The protocol would set out these criteria for an effective marking program: Simplicity Proven uncopyability Reportability: transparency and ease of oversight Legal validity: empowering of law enforcement Quick ramp-up and seamless implementation Extreme fidelity and absolute character of results - reliability of the mark at a very high level Universal adoption
Journal Article

High Power Electrochemical Energy Storage for Directed Energy Applications

The desire of the US Department of Defense (DoD) to field new directed energy systems for a variety of applications increases daily. This desire stems from recent advances in energy storage and solid-state switch technologies, which enable researchers to make systems more compact and energy dense than ever before. While some systems can draw power from the mobile platform on which they are mounted, other systems need to operate independent of a platform and must be completely self-sufficient. The transient and repetitive operation of these directed energy systems requires that the prime energy source provide high power to intermediate energy storage devices. The ability of electrochemical energy storage devices, such as lithium-ion batteries, to source high power quickly has previously been limited. However, battery manufacturers have recently produced cells that are more power dense then previously available.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Driving - A Practical Roadmap

Successful demonstrations of fully autonomous vehicle operation in controlled situations are leading to increased research investment and activity. This has already resulted in significant advancements in the underlying technologies necessary to make it a practical reality someday. Not only are these idealized events sparking imaginations with the potential benefits for safety, convenience, fuel economy and emissions, they also embolden some to make somewhat surprising and sometimes astonishing projections for their appearance on public roads in the near future. Are we now ready for a giant leap forward to the self-driving car with all its complexity and inter-dependencies? Humans will need to grow with and adapt to the technological advancements of the machine and we'll deeply challenge our social and political paradigms before we're done. Even if we as engineers are ready, is the driving public ready?
Technical Paper

Laboratory Testing and Field Demonstration of an Environmentally Benign and Reduced Corrosion Runway Deicing Fluid

Currently the U. S. Department of Defense (DoD) exclusively uses potassium acetate (KAc)-based runway deicing fluids (RDFs) to deice and anti-ice military runways and taxiways. Commercial airports predominantly use KAc, but some also use RDFs composed of KAc plus propylene glycol (PG) or urea plus PG. Conventional RDFs have environmental concerns due to toxicity as well as material compatibility problems such as corrosion of aircraft carbon brake-pad components, cadmium-plated landing gear, and airfield lighting fixtures. Under the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Battelle tested a series of patented - bio-based RDFs to address these issues. Tests showed that the Battelle RDFs met the mandatory Aerospace Material Specification (AMS) 1435 requirements. These new RDFs have reduced ecotoxicity compared to currently used RDFs and are compliant with all other environmental requirements.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Driving Course for Military Personnel -Curriculum and Assessment Results

Driving skills and driving experience develop differently between a civilian and a military service member. Since 2000, the Department of Defense reports that two-thirds of non-related to war fatalities among active duty service members were due to transportation-related incidents. In addition, vehicle crashes are the leading non-related to war cause of both fatalities and serious injuries among active duty Marines. A pilot safe driving program for Marines was jointly developed by the Richard Petty Driving Experience and Clemson University Automotive Safety Research Institute. The pilot program includes four modules based on leading causes of vehicle crashes, and uses classroom and behind the wheel components to improve and reinforce safe driving skills and knowledge. The assessment results of this pilot program conducted with 192 Marines in September 2011 at Camp LeJeune, NC are presented and discussed.