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Jet Blast Windshield Rain Removal Systems for Commercial Transport Aircraft

1997-10-01
HISTORICAL
AIR805B
The purpose of this information report is to present factors which affect the design and development of jet blast windshield rain removal systems for commercial transport aircraft. A satisfactory analytical approach to the design of these systems has not yet been developed. Although detailed performance data are available for some test configurations, rain removal systems will generally be unique to specific aircraft. This, then, requires a preliminary design for the system based on available empirical data to be followed with an extensive laboratory development program.
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HEAT TRANSFER PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH AEROSPACE VEHICLES

1978-04-01
CURRENT
AIR732
The discipline of heat transfer concerns itself basically with the three modes of transferring thermal energy (convection, conduction, and radiation) and their inter-relations. In any phase of aerospace vehicle design, the importance of any of these basic modes will vary depending upon the natural and induced environment the mission imposes as well as the vehicle configuration.
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OZONE PROBLEMS IN HIGH ALTITUDE AIRCRAFT

1996-07-01
HISTORICAL
AIR910A
The purpose of this report is to provide information on ozone and its control in high altitude aircraft environmental systems. Sources of this information are listed in the selected bibliography appearing at the end of this report, to which references are made throughout.
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Aircraft Humidification

2005-03-21
CURRENT
AIR1609A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the design parameters for various methods of humidification applicable to aircraft, the physiological aspects of low humidities, the possible benefits of controlling cabin humidity, the penalties associated with humidification, and the problems which must be solved for practical aircraft humidification systems. The design information is applicable to commercial and military aircraft. The physiological aspects cover all aircraft environmental control applications.
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COOLING OF MODERN AIRBORNE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

1976-05-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1277
This document contains information on the cooling of modern airborne electronics, emphasizing the use of a heat exchange surface which separates coolant and component. It supplements the information contained in AIR 64 for the draw through method and in AIR 728 for high Mach Number aircraft. Report contents include basic methods, characteristics of coolants, application inside and outside of the "black box" use of thermostatic controls to improve reliability and system design. Characteristics of typical cooling components are treated sufficiently to permit selection and to estimate size and weight. While emphasis is placed herein on equipment cooling, section 9 dealing with thermal control of the environment, reminds the reader that some equipment will require heating for start up from a cold condition or as a means to control temperature within narrow limits (e.g. in a crystal oven). Property data and constants are also tabulated.
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THERMOPHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WORKING FLUIDS AND HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS

1992-04-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/10
This AIR is arranged in the following two sections: 2E - Thermodynamic Characteristics of Working Fluids, which contains thermodynamic diagrams for a number of working fluids currently in use and supplied by various industrial firms. 2F - Properties of Heat Transfer Fluids, which contains data, primarily in graphical form, on fluids that are frequently used in fluid heat transfer loops. Other properties of the environment, gases, liquids, and solids, can be found, as follows, in AIR1168/9: 2A-Properties of the Natural Environment 2B-Properties of Gases 2C-Properties of Liquids 2D-Properties of Solids
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Thermophysical Characteristics of Working Fluids and Heat Transfer Fluids

2017-05-19
CURRENT
AIR1168/10A
This AIR is arranged in the following two sections: 2E - Thermodynamic Characteristics of Working Fluids, which contains thermodynamic diagrams for a number of working fluids currently in use and supplied by various industrial firms. 2F - Properties of Heat Transfer Fluids, which contains data, primarily in graphical form, on fluids that are frequently used in fluid heat transfer loops. Other properties of the environment, gases, liquids, and solids, can be found, as follows, in AIR1168/9: 2A-Properties of the Natural Environment 2B-Properties of Gases 2C-Properties of Liquids 2D-Properties of Solids
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Thermophysical Properties of the Natural Environment, Gases, Liquids, and Solids

1991-10-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/9
This AIR is arranged in the following four sections: 2A - Properties of the Natural Environment 2B - Properties of Gases 2C - Properties of Liquids 2D - Properties of Solids A summary of each section is given below. Section 2A - This section includes currently applicable earth atmosphere standards (Refs. 101 and 103) and data on the near-Earth environment. Limited data on Mars and Venus reflected solar and planetary-emitted radiation and on micrometeorite data are also included. For space vehicle applications, environmental models are of two general types: orbital and reentry. For orbital models, variable properties such as time and solar flux are usually averaged. Reentry atmospheres are chiefly a function of location and altitude, and selection may be based on reentry location. Variation with latitude is an important local effect (Ref. 106). The electromagnetic solar radiation data in this section are for altitudes above the Earth’s atmosphere.
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Aerothermodynamic Test Instrumentation and Measurement

1990-02-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/5
Like the technologies to which it contributes, the science of instrumentation seems to be expanding to unlimited proportions. In considering instrumentation techniques, primary emphasis was given in this section to the fundamentals of pressure, temperature, and flow measurement. Accent was placed on common measurement methods, such as manometers, thermocouples, and head meters, rather than on difficult and specialized techniques. Icing, humidity, velocity, and other special measurements were touched on briefly. Many of the references cited were survey articles or texts containing excellent bibliographies to assist a more detailed study where required.
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Aerothermodynamic Test Instrumentation and Measurement

2011-07-25
CURRENT
AIR1168/5A
Like the technologies to which it contributes, the science of instrumentation seems to be expanding to unlimited proportions. In considering instrumentation techniques, primary emphasis was given in this section to the fundamentals of pressure, temperature, and flow measurement. Accent was placed on common measurement methods, such as manometers, thermocouples, and head meters, rather than on difficult and specialized techniques. Icing, humidity, velocity, and other special measurements were touched on briefly. Many of the references cited were survey articles or texts containing excellent bibliographies to assist a more detailed study where required.
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Spacecraft Thermal Balance

2011-07-25
CURRENT
AIR1168/12A
In the design of spacecraft, heat transfer becomes a criterion of operation to maintain structural and equipment integrity over long periods of time. The spacecraft thermal balance between cold space and solar, planetary, and equipment heat sources is the means by which the desired range of equipment and structural temperatures are obtained. With the total spacecraft balance set, subsystem and component temperatures can be analyzed for their corresponding thermal requirements. This section provides the means by which first-cut approximations of spacecraft surface, structure, and equipment temperatures may be made, using the curves of planetary and solar heat flux in conjunction with the desired coating radiative properties. Once the coating properties have been determined, the material to provide these requirements may be selected from the extensive thermal radiative properties tables and curves.
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Spacecraft Thermal Balance

2004-09-08
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/12
In the design of spacecraft, heat transfer becomes a criterion of operation to maintain structural and equipment integrity over long periods of time. The spacecraft thermal balance between cold space and solar, planetary, and equipment heat sources is the means by which the desired range of equipment and structural temperatures are obtained. With the total spacecraft balance set, subsystem and component temperatures can be analyzed for their corresponding thermal requirements. This section provides the means by which first-cut approximations of spacecraft surface, structure, and equipment temperatures may be made, using the curves of planetary and solar heat flux in conjunction with the desired coating radiative properties. Once the coating properties have been determined, the material to provide these requirements may be selected from the extensive thermal radiative properties tables and curves.
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Spacecraft Equipment Environmental Control

1999-11-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/13
This part of the manual presents methods for arriving at a solution to the problem of spacecraft inflight equipment environmental control. The temperature aspect of this problem may be defined as the maintenance of a proper balance and integration of the following thermal loads: equipment-generated, personnel-generated, and transmission through external boundary. Achievement of such a thermal energy balance involves the investigation of three specific areas: 1 Establishment of design requirements. 2 Evaluation of properties of materials. 3 Development of analytical approach. The solution to the problem of vehicle and/or equipment pressurization, which is the second half of major environmental control functions, is also treated in this section. Pressurization in this case may be defined as the task associated with the storage and control of a pressurizing fluid, leakage control, and repressurization.
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Spacecraft Equipment Environmental Control

2011-07-25
CURRENT
AIR1168/13A
This part of the manual presents methods for arriving at a solution to the problem of spacecraft inflight equipment environmental control. The temperature aspect of this problem may be defined as the maintenance of a proper balance and integration of the following thermal loads: equipment-generated, personnel-generated, and transmission through external boundary. Achievement of such a thermal energy balance involves the investigation of three specific areas: 1 Establishment of design requirements. 2 Evaluation of properties of materials. 3 Development of analytical approach. The solution to the problem of vehicle and/or equipment pressurization, which is the second half of major environmental control functions, is also treated in this section. Pressurization in this case may be defined as the task associated with the storage and control of a pressurizing fluid, leakage control, and repressurization.
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