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Technical Paper


Mr. Woolson points out that designers are continually trying to make 1 lb. do the work of 2 lb. but are prone to underestimate the important possibilities of alloyed cast iron in automotive engineering. Recent improvements in methods of handling molten metal for casting lends these methods to the obtaining of uniformity of castings and physical properties. Some readily obtainable properties of electric-furnace iron are strength approximately double that of ordinary cast iron, increased wear resistance, reduced growth characteristics, heat resistance and corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

Oil Consumption as Affected by Engine Characteristics

THE PROBLEM of oil consumption must be solved before the problem of winter starting and winter lubrication can be solved, asserts the author, since winter starting and winter lubrication require light oils, and light oils give poor results as regards oil consumption. Eight factors affecting oil consumption are listed in the order of their importance. Some of the reasons why they affect oil consumption are given and suggestions as to methods of overcoming the difficulties are made. The author concludes that oils of low viscosity, which are required for winter starting, can be made to give satisfactory oil consumption at all engine speeds by necessary changes which probably will involve other mechanical features besides those usually considered in connection with design of the lubrication system. They may include improved bearings, oil-coolers, air-cleaners, oil-filters, better control of cylinder and piston cooling, and other factors.
Technical Paper

Ceramic Insulators for Spark Plugs

THE word “ceramic” is derived from the Greek word “keramos” meaning “burned stuff,” thus indicating its inorganic character, Mr. Riddle explains. Although the word is commonly associated with the substance known as clay, in modern usage it includes a large number of minerals and rocks and a correspondingly large number of mineral products, such as the many clay products, glass in its many forms, enamels, and the cements. The chief actors on the stage of ceramic insulators, he indicates, are the silicates, especially the silicates of aluminum. Taking up clays first in his discussion of ceramics, he shows that clays differ enormously in their physical properties chiefly because of differences in mineral structure, particle size, and the impurities associated with them because of their geological history. Quartz, feldspar, porcelain and spark-plug porcelain also are treated in his presentation.
Training / Education

High Temperature Materials Bundle

Metals and alloys all have different melting ranges depending on their chemistry. High temperature metals are much harder at room temperature, have exceptionally high melting points (usually above 2000 degree Celsius), and are resistant to wear, corrosion and deformation. The following five on-demand courses are included in the High Temperature Materials bundle.  Each course is approximately one-hour in duration. See Topics/Outline for additional details.
Technical Paper

Rewards In Inorganic Polymers

The increasing demand for heat resistant materials with the added requirements of toughness, flexibility and chemical resistance has recently awakened a new interest in the subject of inorganic polymers. The development of silicones, especially those with elastomeric properties, is an example of what may, in time, be done with other inorganic systems. Polymers which are structurally similar to the silicones and others such as the phosphonitrilic halides have been synthesized and indicate that, with increased research and development in this field, flexible materials suitable for use in high-temperature environments may be produced.
Technical Paper

The B-70'S New Structural Design Concepts for Mach 3 Temperatures

The B-70 is becoming a reality through an intensive design and fabrication development of a heat resistant, fuel insulating, primary structure, which permits long range cruise at Mach 3. The novel design features machine fusion welding for joining brazed, heat treated steel honeycomb-panels into a homogeneous, compression resistant structure, with local stresses and shear flow based upon minimum strain energy. With a background of continuing metallurgical research and development of fabrication techniques throughout its design and construction, the first stainless steel XB-70 is being readied for flight by year's end.
Technical Paper

Decorative Finishes for Plastics in the Automotive Industry

Decorated plastics for automotive applications are fast assuming first-rank importance to designers because of outstanding properties such as crystal clearness, nonyellowing characteristics, high heat resistance, and better weather resistance. As first and second coatings, these physical and chemical properties portend the role of plastics as primary automotive materials. Constant research by the plastics industry is producing a stream of improvements and new products that have greater strength and are available at considerably lower cost than the metals they supplant. This paper describes the different kinds, the processes of their development, and the modes of application.
Technical Paper

Temperature Effect on Transmission Operation

Automatic transmissions have well proved their efficiency and durability, but they are still plagued by the problems of high temperature and fluid compatability with seal materials as well as fluid life. Fluid failure is accountable for most transmission deterioration. This paper discusses effects studied during Pikes Peak tests, bench tests, and ordinary city and expressway driving, with respect to heat resistance of fluid. The author proposes that level and condition indicators could prevent many fluid failures, and he offers suggestions as to how these may be designed.
Technical Paper

Performance of Motorcycle Engine Oil with Sulfur-Based Additive as Substitute Zn-DTP (Part II)

As well as a four-wheeled vehicle, in the field of motorcycle, development of the CO2 reduction technology and practical use are required for global environment. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (Zn-DTP) type additives are widely used for engine oil formulations. However, phosphorus compounds are environmental load materials. The reduction of the quantity of phosphorus compounds in engine oils is required to reduce poisoning of three-way catalysts used to purify exhaust gases from internal combustion engines. Ito1) reported that they developed a sulfur-based additive as a substitute for Zn-DTP. Their non-phosphorus engine oil formulation for four-wheeled vehicles with a sulfur-based additive was examined to evaluate its anti-wear performance using the following test methods: JASO M328 for gasoline engines (KA24E) and JASO M354 for Diesel engine (4D34T4).
Technical Paper

Enhanced Heat Resistance and Durability of Engine Mount Rubber

Engine mount heat resistance and durability were achieved while maintaining processability by using xanthogen modified chloroprene rubber which increases in molecular weight during curing. In addition, the dynamic characteristics were enhanced by reinforcement using surface-modified silica and optimization of the anti-aging ingredient. This enabled development of engine mount materials with dynamic characteristics equal to those of conventional natural rubber, and heat resistance and durability that quite exceeded those of conventional natural rubber. This technology can help to ensure noise and vibration product appeal over long periods at low cost without requiring special designs such as stoppers, heat shields, and extended radiator fan operating times, even in regions with harsh heat environments.
Technical Paper

Silicone Elastomers - Clear as Glass

Highly transparent, UV and heat-resistant, yet flexible and injection-moldable - these are the characteristics of the new, heat curable liquid silicone rubbers (LSR) which supplement the range of established materials used in lighting applications. With the rapid developments seen in recent years in lighting technology, the classic material - glass - is facing increasing competition from alternative transparent plastics entering into applications such as light guides, primary optics and lenses. This field is dominated by materials such as PC, PMMA, COP and PMMI, offering advantages in molding and high degree of design freedom, glass does not have. The injection molding process is the key to cost effective manufacturing, particularly in the case of high-volume production. Other advantages over glass are a less tendency to crack and a lower component weight. However, thermoplastics are also subject to application-related limitations such as temperature or UV-light resistance.
Technical Paper

Casting Process and Mechanical Properties of Large-Scale Extruded Mg-Zn-Y Alloys

In order to develop large-scale (100 mm in diameter) Mg-Zn-Y alloys with high strength beyond that of 4032-T6 alloy, we considered a novel casting process to produce large ingots with homogeneous microstructure, and investigated the mechanical properties of the extruded alloys. First, ingots (335 mm in diameter and 850 mm in height) were produced by a novel stir casting process in the ingot case. Then large-scale extruded alloys (100 mm in diameter) were prepared with an extrusion ratio of 10. The Mg-Zn-Y alloys exhibited higher yield and fatigue strengths than those of 4032-T6 aluminum alloy. The yield strengths of the aluminum alloy decreased drastically above 473 K, whereas those of the Mg-Zn-Y alloys did not. It is noteworthy that the yield strength (274 MPa) and fatigue strength (100 MPa) of the Mg-Zn-Y alloys at 473 K were about 1.3 and 1.2 times respectively as high as those of aluminum alloys.
Technical Paper

Research on the Development of the Bio Composites for Automotive Interior Parts

Since the environmental problems and new stricter regulations are forcing the industries to introduce more ecological materials for their products, biodegradable materials have attracted increasing attention. Among these materials, Polylactic acid (PLA) is remarkable for its modulus, strength, chemical resistance. However, PLA could not be used for automobile industries for its low heat resistance and impact strength. Therefore, in this study natural fiber was introduced as reinforcements in order to improve the properties of PLA. And for various experiments, Polypropylene (PP) was used as matrix resin instead of PLA. Especially for improving the properties of PLA composites, surface treatments, annealing, and adding rubber elements were performed. With surface treatments, we found that the mechanical properties of composite were improved. And with annealing treatment, we found the remarkable increase of heat resistance of PLA composite.
Technical Paper

Integral Molded Brake Pad with Long Fiber Thermosetting Molding Compound for Automotive Brake System

Recently, in view of environment, safety, comfort and convenience for cars, the demand of low fuel consumption is increasing more than before, and weight saving of the automotive parts is pursued. In the tide of weight saving, there is a strong demand of light weightening of the backing plate by replacing steel with plastics. We have been developing long fiber phenolic molding compound, which has excellent mechanical strength and excellent heat resistance, and have examined in order to apply it to the backing plate for brake pad. By applying this material to backing plate, the weight of brake pad can be reduced in half compared with that of conventional pad made of steel. In the automotive parts, it is said that reduction of part weight under the suspension is about ten times as effective for reducing fuel consumption as that of weight upper the suspension, therefore, phenolic brake pad has a big impact.
Technical Paper

The Development of the Ceramics Nano-Film Coating Having Both High Corrosion Resistance and Excellent Heat Resistance

The exhaust pipes of the motorcycle were always exposed to high temperature exhaust gas. There was a problem of the tarnish or the rust during use, and it might be sometimes complained from a user. Therefore we developed new surface treatment and could prevent these problems. New surface treatment is “Nano-film Coating” by the DC reactivity magnetron sputtering method (PVD method). We developed SiOxNy ceramic Nano-film of the thickness of 20-150 nm on the metal substrates. This Nano-film was evaluated heat resistance, corrosion resistance, wear resistance and optical characteristics. It is able to get these performance satisfied enough. And the metal coloration is possible by controlling a refractive index and a film thickness of the Nano-film. The film was deposited in a three-dimensional shape by controlling the reactive gas composition, the gas ratio and sputtering power. The exhaust parts are colored by three patterns that is “transparent and colorless”, “gold” and “blue”.
Technical Paper

Development of Vanadium-added Heat Resistant Cast Iron for Exhaust Manifold

The exhaust gas is getting to higher temperature in order to adapt higher power and lower fuel consumption of the engines, and the exhaust manifolds tends to use in more severe conditions. The exhaust manifolds of 660cc engines of the turbo specification had been made of the high-Si spheroidal graphite cast iron containing a small amount of Mo so far, but now it cannot help using Ni-resist for higher heat resistance. However, Ni-resist is extremely expensive because it contains much 35wt% nickel of the rare metal. Therefore, the development of the new cast iron having the performance and the cost between the conventional cast iron and Ni-resist is demanded. With such a background, the new spheroidal graphite cast-iron “Vanadium cast iron” for the low-cost exhaust manifolds that greatly improved the heat resistance than the conventional cast iron was developed.
Technical Paper

Development of High Cr Sintered Stainless Steel with High Heat and Wear Resistance

Against the background of environmental problems, the market for variable nozzle turbochargers, which enable countermeasures for improved fuel economy and exhaust gas regulations, has grown rapidly in recent years. Because the nozzle ring is a main part which is used under a particularly severe temperature environment, even among turbocharger parts, high Cr cast steel is generally used. In response to market needs for further improvement in heat resistance and cost reduction, EW-50 which has heat resistance and wear resistance was developed, as this material is suitable for parts such as nozzle rings. EW-50 has higher wear resistance and oxidation resistance than the conventional high Cr cast steel over the entire temperature range up to 1323K. As EW-50 also makes it possible to reduce costs by near net shape production, its large potential for application to variable nozzle-type turbocharger parts was confirmed.
Journal Article

Impacts of Non-Traditional Uses of Polyurethane Foam in Automotive Applications at End of Life

Polyurethane (PU) foam is used for many automotive applications with the benefits of being lightweight, durable, and resistant to heat and noise. Applications of PU foams are increasing to include non-traditional purposes targeting consumer comfort. An example of this is the use of PU foam between the engine and engine cover of a vehicle for the purpose of noise abatement. This addition will provide a quieter ride for the consumer, however will have associated environmental impacts. The additional weight will cause an increase in fuel consumption and related emissions. More significant impacts may be realized at the end-of-life stage. Recycling PU foams presents several challenges; a lack of market for the recyclate, contamination of the foams, and lack of accessibility for removal of the material.
Technical Paper

Cost effective and Sustainable Alternate Material for Air Brake Tubings (ABT) in Commercial Vehicles

The automotive industry is constantly looking for new alternate material and cost is one of the major driving factors for selecting the right material. ABT is a safety critical part and care has to be taken while selecting the appropriate material. Polyamide (PA12) [1] is the commonly available material which is currently used for ABT applications. Availability and material cost is always a major concern for commercial vehicle industries. This paper presents the development of ABT with an alternative material which has superior heat resistance. Thermoplastic Elastomer Ether Ester Block Copolymer (TEEE) [3] materials were tried in place Polyamide 12 for many good reasons. The newly employed material has better elastic memory and improved resistance to battery acid, paints and solvents. It doesn't require plasticizer for extrusion process because of which it has got excellent long term flexibility and superior kink resistance over a period of time.
Technical Paper

175°C-Capable Thermoplastic Elastomers for Automotive Air Management and Sealing Applications

Flexibility, oil resistance, and the need for heat resistance to 150°C-plus temperatures have traditionally limited automotive design engineers to two options - thermoset rubber or heat-shielding conventional thermoplastic elastomers (TPE). Both of these options present limitations in part design, the ability to consolidate the number of components in a part of assembly, and on total cost. This paper presents a class of high-performance, flexible thermoplastic elastomers based on dynamically vulcanized polyacrylate (ACM) elastomer dispersed in a continuous matrix of polyamide (PA) thermoplastic. These materials are capable of sustained heat resistance to 150°C and short-term heat resistance to 175°C, without requiring heat shielding. Recent advancements in blow molding and functional testing of the PA//ACM TPEs for automotive air management (ducts) and underhood sealing applications will be shown.