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Training / Education

Introduction to Rubber Science and Technology

Rubber – a loosely cross-linked network of polymer chains that when strained to high levels will forcibly return to at or near it original dimensions. This course is designed to provide the participant with a thorough understanding of rubber’s engineering characteristics. This class will introduce the various sources of rubber, both natural and synthetic. The class will contrast the differences between rubber and plastics; including thermoplastic rubber. Detailed discussions on how to select the correct rubber polymer for the application, highlighting the pros and cons of each major rubber type.
Training / Education

Introduction to Commercial and Off-Road Vehicle Cooling Airflow Systems

Vehicle functional requirements, emission regulations, and thermal limits all have a direct impact on the design of a powertrain cooling airflow system. Given the expected increase in emission-related heat rejection, suppliers and vehicle manufacturers must work together as partners in the design, selection, and packaging of cooling system components. An understanding and appreciation of airflow integration issues and vehicle-level trade-offs that effect system performance are important to the team effort. The severe duty cycles, minimal ram air, and sometimes unconventional package layouts present unique challenges.

Neural Network-based Optimal Control for Advanced Vehicular Thermal Management Systems

Advanced vehicular thermal management system can improve engine performance, minimize fuel consumption, and reduce emissions by harmoniously operating computer-controlled servomotor components. In this paper, a neural network-based optimal control strategy is proposed to regulate the engine temperature through the advanced cooling system. Presenter Asma Al Tamimi, Hashemite University

Cooling Airflow System Modeling in CFD Using Assumption of Stationary Flow

Today CFD is an important tool for engineers in the automotive industry who model and simulate fluid flow. For the complex field of Underhood Thermal Management, CFD has become a very important tool to engineer the cooling airflow process in the engine bay of vehicles. Presenter Peter Gullberg, Chalmers University of Technology

Ice Phobic Coatings for Control and Covered Surfaces

Silicones have been utilized in multiple industries in the last 50 years and their applications are still expanding as technology grows. Ice phobic coatings, as an example, have been utilized on lock walls, navigation channels, wind turbines, hydropower intakes, and aircraft. Without protection these applications have a high risk of failure in the functions they perform. For example, ice build up on an aircraft?s aerodynamic surfaces increases drag which reduces lift during flight operations. Utilizing a silicone ice phobic coating significantly reduces the adhesion of ice to aerodynamic surfaces. Compared to other polymeric materials, silicones are known for their broad operating temperature range and lend themselves to excellent performance in a variety of harsh environments. Especially in low temperatures where ice adhesion is a concern, silicones retain their elastomeric physical properties and low modulus.

5000 Hours Aging of THERBAN® (HNBR) Elastomers in an Aggressive Biodiesel Blend

TERBAN® hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) is a specialty elastomer used in demanding engineering applications such as the automotive, heavy duty, and industrial markets. It has excellent combination of heat, oil and abrasion resistance in addition to its high mechanical strength, very good dynamic and sealing properties. This paper will present data on aging HNBR for five thousand hours in an aggressive and un-stabilized B30A biodiesel fuel blend (70% ULSD, 30% SME, and an aggressive additive package) and explore the effect of HNBR polymer properties and vulcanizate composition on the performance in such fuel blends. Presenter Victor Nasreddine

High Speed Machining of CFRP Parts

High Speed Machining of CFRP Parts Investigation of the influence of new geometries, cutting datas and coolant capabilities on the surface finish of CFRP parts. State of the art: Different CFRP grades and machining conditions make geometry adjustments to the tool necessary. Mechanical failures through machining operations can be avoided in most of the cases. New unidirectional CFRP grades and dry machining processes again lead to machining problems. This study investigates new geometries to avoid heat damage with dry maching and air coolant in case of unidirectional CFRP. With help of a thermo camera and the surface investigation with a scanning electron microscope, heat damage can be analysed and therefore new geometries can be developed and tested. Target is to develop a new multi purpose CFRP geometry to meet the requirements of the future. The reduction of different geometries used leads to major cost savings. Presenter Ingo von Puttkamer, Guhring oHG
Training / Education

Introduction to Cooling Airflow Systems Web Seminar RePlay

Vehicle functional requirements, diesel emission regulations, and subsystem thermal limits all have a direct impact on the design of a powertrain cooling airflow system. Severe duty cycles, minimal ram air, fouling, and sometimes unconventional package layouts present unique challenges to the designer. This course introduces many airflow integration issues and vehicle-level trade-offs that effect system performance and drive the design. The goal of this course is to introduce engineers and managers to the basic principles of diesel cooling airflow systems for commercial and off-road vehicles.
Technical Paper

Innovative Material Characterisation Methodology for Tyre Static and Dynamic Analyses

Tyre structures are based on composite materials that constitute numerous layers, each providing specific properties to the tyre mechanic and dynamic behaviour. In principle, the understanding of the partial contributions of the individual layers requires knowledge of its mechanical properties. In case of non-availability of such critical information, it is difficult to perform tyre FE analyses. In the current work, a methodology is proposed to study the tyre static and dynamic behaviour to estimate its constituents properties based on the measured quasi-static responses of the tyre for certain specific loads. As a first step, a simplified tyre numerical model with standard rubber material properties is modeled that can substantively predict the necessary tyre static responses, i.e. radial, longitudinal and lateral stiffness. These responses are correlated with the physical tyre response that are measured using a kinematic and compliance (K&C) test rig in the laboratory.
Technical Paper

Installation Effects on the Flow Generated Noise From Automotive Electrical Cooling Fans

With the electrification of road vehicles comes new demands on the cooling system. Not the least when it comes to noise. Less masking from the driveline and new features, as for example, cooling when charging the batteries drives the need for silent cooling fans. In this work a novel e-fan is studied in different generalized installations and operating conditions. The fans (a cluster configuration) are installed in a test rig where the operation could be controlled varying the speed, flow rate and pressure difference over the fan. On the vehicle side of the fan a generalized packaging space (similar to an engine bay for conventional vehicles) is placed. In this packaging space different obstruction can be placed to simulate the components and radiators used in the vehicle. Here generalized simple blocks in different configuration are used to provide well defined and distinct test cases.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Narrow-Band Noise Generation by Automotive Cooling Fans

Axial cooling fans are commonly used in electric vehicles to cool batteries with high heating load. One drawback of the cooling fans is the high aeroacoustic noise level resulting from the fan blades and the obstacles facing the airflow. To create a comfortable cabin environment in the vehicle, and to reduce exterior noise emission, a low-noise installation design of the axial fan is required. The purpose of the project is to develop an efficient computational aeroacoustics (CAA) simulation process to assist the cooling-fan installation design. This paper reports the current progress of the development, where the narrow-band components of the fan noise is focused on. Two methods are used to compute the noise source. In the first method the source is computed from the flow field obtained using the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (unsteady RANS, or URANS) model.
Technical Paper

Reinforcement of Low-Frequency Sound by Using a Panel Speaker Attached to the Roof Panel of a Passenger Car

The woofer in a car should be large to cover the low frequencies, so it is heavy and needs an ample space to be installed in a passenger car. The geometry of the woofer should conform to the limited available space and layout in general. In many cases, the passengers feel that the low-frequency contents are not satisfactory although the speaker specification covers the low frequencies. In this work, a thin panel is installed between the roof liner and the roof panel, and it is used as the woofer. The vibration field is controlled by many small actuators to create the speaker and baffle zones to avoid the sound distortion due to the modal interaction. The generation of speaker and baffle zones follows the inverse vibro-acoustic rendering technique. In the actual implementation, a thin acrylic plate of 0.53ⅹ0.2 m2 is used as the radiator panel, and the control actuator array is composed of 16 moving-coil actuators.

Principles of Engine Cooling Systems, Components and Maintenance

Completely revised as a result of the significant progress made in cooling system design and maintenance practices and procedures, HS-40 provides current, comprehensive information on the description, function, and maintenance of engine liquid-cooling systems used in light and heavy-duty vehicles. Information-packed chapters discuss the interrelation between the cooling system and other engine systems, cooling system components, general preventive maintenance, and troubleshooting.
Technical Paper

Front-Wheel Drives

ENGINEERING considerations leading to the former almost universal practice of steering with the front wheels and driving and braking with the rear wheels are reviewed, and the desire for bodies lower than can be made with conventional design is given as the main reason for the present interest in front drives. For early history, European development, racing practice and the closely related subject of four-wheel drives, the reader is referred to a previous paper by Herbert Chase.2 One major advantage to be secured with front-drive design is lower unsprung weight, which should promote easy riding and road-holding ability and reduce tire wear. An inherent disadvantage is that driving-torque reaction and hill climbing shift some weight from the front axle to the rear axle, thus slightly reducing the tractive effort possible; but this shift is not considered important, since the control of weight distribution is in the hands of the designer.
Technical Paper

Engine Cooling

FROM 25 to 35 per cent of the heat energy of the fuel inducted into the cylinders of an internal-combustion engine must be eliminated by the cooling system. As this waste requires the expenditure of energy, the devising of an efficient cooling system is imperative. The author, who is a leading American authority on engine problems, discusses the theory of liquid-cooling, gives heat-transfer and temperature-balance equations that must be satisfied and points out the three interrelated variable factors that must be incorporated in their most economical relation. The cooling system must be studied as a whole, rather than from the standpoint of any particular unit. Some commonly held beliefs regarding fans, fuel-pumps and oil-temperature control are controverted. Five elements necessary for an efficient cooling system are enumerated.
Technical Paper

Frame Design and Front-End Stability

EXPERIMENTAL work done to ascertain the influence of frame and body structures upon front-end stability of the automobile is described by the author and definite means of preventing the phenomena of wheel wabble, shimmy and vibratory movements of the radiator, head-lamps and fenders are set forth. Early investigation showed that the problem involved not only the unsprung portions of the car but also the structural arrangement of the frame and the body. Chassis-dynamometer tests revealed a nodal point of zero torsional vibration approximately at a plane through the front seat but varying with different cars and body types, the forward portion of the chassis vibrating torsionally about the longitudinal axis in opposite phase to the rear portion. Experiments rather conclusively proved that damping is needed in the frame and body.
Technical Paper

Gaging Airplane-Engine Performance

WHILE virtually all aircraft builders agree in placing reliability as the most important factor in gaging engine performance, from there on agreement is lacking. The author believes that all factors exclusive of reliability can be evaluated so as to provide a good basis for choosing an engine. These factors include durability, which despite the opinion of some aeronautic engineers is not synonymous with reliability; weight per horsepower of the complete powerplant, including radiators and cowling; head resistance; fuel consumption; and first cost. The effect of changes in engine weight on operating cost are discussed, the text being supplemented by tables showing the effect of increased engine-weight, operating cost and the operation-expense items that are affected.
Technical Paper

Development of the Franklin Direct Air-Cooled Engine

FEATURES of the design of the various cylinders built by the Franklin organization in its development program leading up to the present design are discussed in this paper. The relation of waste heat to cooling-fin areas and cooling-blast velocities is shown and discussed for cylinders up to 3½-in. bore. Characteristics of the cooling system, including fan, fan housing and air housings, are discussed at length, and the authors contend that no more power, if as much, will be absorbed in the cooling system as in that of the indirect air-cooled engine. Results of tests showing the ability of the engine to cool under the severest conditions of load and temperature are given. Since the quietness of any engine is dependent upon constant valve-clearances, the authors describe in detail the method followed in the Franklin design to maintain at less than 0.003 in. any variation in clearance. A careful analysis is made for each part in the valve-gear mechanism that is affected by expansion.