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Can America Plug In?

There are many macro drivers that are creating opportunities for transportation electrification. They include the environment, dependence on foreign oil, national security, battery technology and government incentives to name a few. In light of this growing momentum consumers will have choices to where they can charge ? at home, workplace or publicly. Electrical vehicle supply equipment will drive value throughout the supply chain ? installer, building owner, automaker, suppliers, utilities and consumers. Market acceptance will occur when consumer?s needs and wants are met. To meet these needs access to products through multiple channels will be required. Presenter Manoj Karwa, Leviton Manufacturing Co. Inc.

A Method for Testing GPS in Obstructed Environments Where GPS/INS Reference Systems Can Be Ineffective

When vehicles share certain information wirelessly via Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC), they enable a new layer of electronic vehicle safety that, when needed, can generate warnings to drivers and even initiate automatic preventive actions. Vehicle location and velocity provided by Global Navigation Systems (GNSS), including GPS, are key in allowing vehicle path estimation. GNSS is effective in accurately determining a vehicle's location coordinates in most driving environments, but its performance suffers from obstructions in dense urban environments. To combat this, augmentations to GNSS are being contemplated and tested. This testing has been typically done using a reference GNSS system complimented by expensive military-grade inertial sensors, which can still fail to provide adequate reference performance in certain environments.

Market Analysis Mini-e

We report here results from first year of the BMW MINI E deployment. BMW deployed 450 MINI E?s to North America. Nearly 50% were leased by households in Los Angeles and the New York area. PH&EV Center researchers surveyed MINI E drivers throughout their year with the vehicles, focusing on the experiences of 50 households who volunteered for more detailed interviews. We report here their experiences with driving electric vehicles, adaptions to daily range limitations, and using electricity as a fuel. Presenter Thomas Turrentine, Univ. of California-Davis

Eurocae WG-72 Activities

The presentation provides an overview about the activities of Eurocae Working Group 72 (WG-72) starting with a brief synopsis of the context which suggested why such a committee should be established in 2006. It then goes into further detail about the drivers for the work of the committee, which call for the products to be delivered. It addresses some of the challenges with respect to its users. It points out that one of the lessons the committee learned was importance of the focus on the users, such that the products provide their maximum utility. Hence, the users should better be among the participants to achieve this objective. Other industries have dealt with the subject of Information System (or Cyber-Physical) Security long before this industry was forced to consider it. Consequently there are many industry standards and national or international norms, which may help to develop what is deemed needed for Civil Aviation.

Safety Element out of Context - A Practical Approach

ISO 26262 is the actual standard for Functional Safety of automotive E/E (Electric/Electronic) systems. One of the challenges in the application of the standard is the distribution of safety related activities among the participants in the supply chain. In this paper, the concept of a Safety Element out of Context (SEooC) development will be analyzed showing its current problematic aspects and difficulties in implementing such an approach in a concrete typical automotive development flow with different participants (e.g. from OEM, tier 1 to semiconductor supplier) in the supply chain. The discussed aspects focus on the functional safety requirements of generic hardware and software development across the supply chain where the final integration of the developed element is not known at design time and therefore an assumption based mechanism shall be used.

Orbital Drilling Machine for One Way Assembly in Hard Materials

In Aeronautic industry, when we launch a new industrialization for an aircraft sub assembly we always have the same questions in mind for drilling operations, especially when focusing on lean manufacturing. How can we avoid dismantling and deburring parts after drilling operation? Can a drilling centre perform all the tasks needed to deliver a hole ready to install final fastener? How can we decrease down-time of the drilling centre? Can a drilling centre be integrated in a pulse assembly line? How can we improve environmental efficiency of a drilling centre? It is based on these main drivers that AIRBUS has developed, with SPIE and SOS, a new generation of drilling centre dedicated for hard materials such as titanium, and high thicknesses. The first application was for the assembly of the primary structure of A350 engine pylons. The main solution that was implemented meeting several objectives was the development of orbital drilling technology in hard metal stacks.

Green Technologies and Active Safety in the Mobility Industry

This set includes two books, edited by Delphi's Chief Technology Officer Dr. Andrew Brown, Jr., which explore some of the most significant challenges currently facing the automotive industry-building green and safer vehicles. "Green Technologies and the Mobility Industry" and "Active Safety and the Mobility Industry" each include 20 SAE technical papers on their respective topics, originally published from 2009 through 2011. Green Technologies and the Mobility Industry Covers a wide range of subjects showcasing how the industry is developing greener products and keeping up with-if not staying ahead of-new standards and regulations. Active Safety and the Mobility Industry Details the latest innovations and trends in active safety technology and driver distraction prevention techniques. Buy a Combination of Books and Save!

The Carroll Smith Race Car Set

This series of books have become the worldwide "bibles" of race car tuning and preparation. This set includes: Prepare to Win,Drive to Win,Tune to Win, Engineer to Win and Carroll Smith's Nuts, Bolts, Fasteners, and Plumbing Handbook.
Technical Paper

Automobile Bodies, from the Abstract Customer's Viewpoint

CONSTRUCTIVE criticism of automobile bodies as now built is given herein, based on experience gained in driving five-passenger sedan cars of many makes a total distance of nearly 10,000,000 miles in one year in tests at the General Motors Proving Ground. The fault finding, although humorously exaggerated, will be valuable if taken seriously, as it gives to all body designers and builders the benefit of testing experience that few companies are in a position to gain at first hand. The author treats his subject from the viewpoint of the abstract customer; that is, the automobile-purchasing public as a whole and as represened by the imaginary average man, who is assumed to have average stature and body structure and to drive all the different makes of car. Thus he is assumed to change from one to another make frequently, instead of becoming used to only one or two cars.
Technical Paper

Long-Haul Passenger Transportation

THE creation of additional operating divisions and maintenance units, based on the California Transit Co. system originally operated by the author, which had proved successful in long-haul passenger transportation on the Pacific Coast, expanded the business so that the Yelloway Pioneer Stages, Inc., now includes about 9000 miles of route. The design of the equipment for the service was developed to meet the severe operating conditions, which demand that the same vehicle run satisfactorily over a sea-level desert and through mountainous country having an average altitude of more than 5000 ft. and, at the same time, that safety and comfort be provided for the passengers. This requires factors of strength and safety that are greatly in excess of those possessed by the ordinary commercial motorcoach.
Technical Paper

Long-Distance Passenger Services

EXTENSION of motorcoach services over routes of 100 miles or more in length in all parts of the Country is shown by a map, and figures are given of the number of routes, the miles of highway over which the services are operated, running time, rates of fare charged and like data. Facilities and operating methods differentiating long-distance from suburban services are mentioned and the similarity to railroad practice pointed out. A characteristic of routes ranging from several hundred to nearly 1500 miles is that service is afforded continuously for 24 hr. per day seven days per week and many passengers ride day and night. Such long runs are broken into stages so that a driver does not work more than 8 to 10 hr. as a rule and vehicles are changed at the end of a run of a certain distance, which may vary from about 200 to nearly 750 miles.
Technical Paper

Bodily Steadiness-A Riding-Comfort Index

This is the fourth report by Dr. Moss on the investigation of riding comfort at the George Washington University and is a progress report on the measurement of automobile riding-qualities. The previous reports were published in the S.A.E. JOURNAL as follows: September, 1929, p. 298; January, 1930, p. 99; and April, 1930, p. 513. In this report, which was presented at the 1930 Semi-Annual Meeting, the author describes improvements made in two wabblemeters for measuring physiological fatigue caused by riding and the use of two accelerometers to correlate the behavior of the automobile with the physiological results. Results obtained with two groups of subjects, one consisting of taxicab drivers and the other of university students, are summarized, and the results of preliminary tests of the comparative riding-qualities of different cars as shown by their effects on the subjects are also given.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Comfort in Automobile Riding

EXPERIMENTS that have been in progress since the 1929 Semi-Annual Meeting to measure the fatigue caused by an automobile ride, using the human body as a measuring instrument, and to predict there-from the possible effects of various types of spring-suspension, shock-absorber and other comfort-giving components are described. Initially, the problem was approached from the physiological standpoint because fatigue is definitely known to be a physiological phenomenon and, if the physiological changes are sufficiently marked to be measured, physiological tests are definite and quantitative. Changes in the human body are a good index of relative comfort, and, if the normal reactions of an individual or any group of individuals before a test are known, similar measurements at the end of a test or at the end of an automobile ride should show an appreciable difference.
Technical Paper

Essentials of Motorcoach Maintenance

AFTER reviewing motorcoach history and outlining the transition period of development, the author says that operation and maintenance go hand in hand, but too much stress is placed on maintenance methods and not enough on operation. He has yet to find a transportation superintendent who makes motorcoach operation a subject of paramount importance, although the manner in which the coach is driven may decide whether that particular coach makes money or loses it. In the author's opinion, the success of any coach and its freedom from repairs are dependent upon how well the driver knows how to drive it and, secondly, upon systematic lubrication and scheduled maintenance. The selection and training of drivers is a function of the transportation department, and too much stress cannot be laid on these functions and on continuous close supervision so that the department is certain that the vehicles are driven correctly.
Technical Paper

The Relationship between Automobile Construction and Accidents

DISPARITY between the factors of automobile and highway design that are far advanced and the factors that lag far behind constitutes the cause of many of our transportation difficulties, according to the author. The paper therefore aims to show the demand for safety and its economic advantage to the automotive industry and to indicate some of the principles necessary for its accomplishment. After stating that the automobile manufacturers should take a far-sighted view of the situation, take positive steps toward safety and cash in on the demand that is growing and that cannot be stopped by denying its existence, the author considers and comments upon some of the characteristics of automobiles that undoubtedly are partly responsible for accident potentialities. Visibility from the driver's seat is considered in detail, together with devices that assist visibility. The other driver's viewpoint also is considered.
Technical Paper


Instead of representing light intensity by lines to indicate photometric values the author recommends an arrangement for denoting the intensity by varying degrees of tint on the surface of a chart that is supposed to represent the roadway. In the opening paragraph the thought is brought out that present-day automobile lighting-equipment is not designed in such a way as to make its performance a selling feature and the several reasons why the efficient distribution of light on the road has been overlooked are pointed out, emphasis being laid on the fact that the average car-designer is not an illuminating engineer, and that even if he did wish to use the best light available on the car he would have to make personal tests of the devices under all conditions of night driving before being in a position to recommend the most efficient head-lighting device.
Technical Paper


Brakes have three functions: (a) maintaining a car at rest, (b) reducing the speed of a vehicle or bringing it to a stop and (c) holding a vehicle to a constant speed on a descending grade. The kinetic energy of a moving vehicle is directly proportional to the weight of the vehicle and to the square of its speed. The amount of heat produced in the braking surfaces of a vehicle descending a given grade for a given distance will be the same whether the speed be high or low, but the rate of heat production will vary inversely as the speed. In addition to the retarding effect of the braking system a braking effect is constantly present that depends on the tractive resistance of the vehicle at various speeds and on the engine itself. Wind resistance and the resistance of the engine when the throttle is closed also produce retarding effects that assist in the work of braking.
Technical Paper


Since the road-service tests of the four special fuels supplied by the Research Department, made under 1922 summer-weather conditions, gave results that were deemed inconclusive, arrangements were made for a repetition of both series of tests under the winter-weather conditions of 1923 to determine whether the relative fuel mileages for different fuels are dependent on the temperature at which car operation is conducted. The paper is a report upon the results obtained. Four fuels that bore a relation to those used in the 1922 summer tests were specified and means adopted whereby knowledge of their quality was concealed from the drivers, special emphasis being placed on crankcase-oil dilution and on the performance as reflected by the drivers' comments.
Technical Paper


The author discusses the factors that must be considered in solving the transportation problems and then describes the operation of the English-railway cartage-system in some detail under the two main divisions of delivery and collection. An important feature of the system is that of the control afforded by locating a controller, or dispatcher, in a central office and holding him responsible for the movements of the carmen, or drivers. The details of this control are explained. The field for the motor truck in railway-terminal service is outlined and a presentation is made of the merits and demerits of unit containers, together with an illustrated description of the English “fiats,” or demountable bodies. Other subjects treated include cartage costs, tonnage hauled, unified control of cartage and expressions of opinion quoted from numerous English trade organizations.
Technical Paper


Relative ease or difficulty of steering has in the past been largely a matter of psychology, of comparison rather than of measurement. One driver may find a car difficult to steer that another finds easy. Safety is the first essential, then comfort. Because the parts used in steering seldom break, present practice is considered safe, but the steering-ratio is very important. A low ratio that produces fast steering-effects may be entirely safe in the hands of a strong, safe, experienced driver, but absolutely unsafe in those of a weaker driver, even though he may be expert. Fatigue, however, will eventually affect the strong as well as the weak driver, so that comfort enters as well as safety.