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Design for Manufacturing & Assembly

Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFM+A), pioneered by Boothroyd and Dewhurst, has been used by many companies around the world to develop creative product designs that use optimal manufacturing and assembly processes. Correctly applied, DFM+A analysis leads to significant reductions in production cost, without compromising product time-to-market goals, functionality, quality, serviceability, or other attributes. This seminar will include information on how DFM+A fits in with QFD, Concurrent Engineering, Robust Engineering, and other disciplines.
Training / Education

Introduction to Airframe Engineering Design for Manufacturing, Assembly and Automation

Why is a design for manufacturing, assembly and automation so important? This introductory course on airframe engineering will cover the importance of design for manufacturing, assembly and automation in aerospace. It will review what the key drivers are for a “good” design and some of the key points for manufacturing and assembly of aircraft components. It will look at how an engineer can combine traditional technologies with new, cutting-edge technologies, to determine the best scenario for success.
Training / Education

Design for Manufacturing & Assembly (DFM/DFA)

Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFM+A), pioneered by Boothroyd and Dewhurst, has been used by many companies around the world to develop creative product designs that use optimal manufacturing and assembly processes. Correctly applied, DFM+A analysis leads to significant reductions in production cost, without compromising product time-to-market goals, functionality, quality, serviceability, or other attributes. In this two-day seminar, you will not only learn the Boothroyd Dewhurst Method, you will actually apply it to your own product design!

Fatigue Modeling/Testing & CAE Durability Analysis, 2017

This collection of papers focus on state-of-the-art fatigue theory and advanced development in fatigue testing, material behavior under cyclic loading, and fatigue analysis methodology & research in the ground vehicle industry. Studies and discussions on innovative and improved fatigue theory/methods in will be discussed along with and engineering applications of CAE durability analysis.

Vertical Picture-Frame Wing Jig Structure Design with an Eye to Foundation Loading

The foundation of many production aircraft assembly facilities is a more dynamic and unpredictable quantity than we would sometimes care to admit. Any tooling structures constructed on these floors, no matter how thoroughly analyzed or well understood, are at the mercy of settling and shifting concrete, which can cause very lengthy and costly periodic re-certification and adjustment procedures. It is with this in mind, then, that we explore the design possibilities for one such structure to be built in Belfast, North Ireland for the assembly of the Shorts C-Series aircraft wings. We evaluate the peak floor pressure, weight, gravity deflection, drilling deflection, and thermal deflection of four promising structures and discover that carefully designed pivot points and tension members can offer significant benefits in some areas.

Spotlight on Design: 3D Printing in the Automotive Industry

“Spotlight on Design” features video interviews and case studies, focusing on technology breakthroughs, hands-on testimonials, and the importance of fundamentals. Viewers are virtually taken to industry labs and research centers to learn how design engineers solve real-life problems. These challenges include enhancing product performance, reducing costs, improving quality and safety, while decreasing environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. In the episode “Additive Manufacturing: 3D Printing in the Automotive Industry” (20:00), engineers from Fiat Chrysler Corporation (FCA) explain the importance of using 3D printing to test multiple design scenarios and develop solutions that can be quickly evaluated on test tracks. And Local Motors shows how it builds a vehicle from the ground up with a 3D printer, and without a traditional assembly line.

Development of Scratch Resistant Clear Coat for Automotive

Scratch resistance is one of the most important customer requirements for automotive painting. Scratches occur as a result of a load being imposed on a paint film, which then destroys or deforms it. In order to improve the scratch resistance properties of clear coat, a specially developed molecular that act to accelerate closslinking reaction was added to the clear coat main resin. This developed molecular facilitates closslinking between multiple molecules and creates an unprecedentedly fine molecular structure. The result is a soft, highly elastic, and durable clear coat with improved resistance to light and acid as well as enhanced deformation recovery properties. It requires no special maintenance, prevents luster degradation caused by surface scratches and helps to prolong new-car color and gloss. Developmental Clear Coat is introduced into the flagship of the Lexus range - the LS as Self-restoring Coat in 2009. Presenter Junya Ogawa, Developmental Center

Business Model for Successful Commercialization of Aircraft Designs

In any new aircraft development program there are many important design decisions that determine profitability potential. The key to making new aircraft profitable is to design features that will command more money than the cost to provide them within the market's ability to absorb them. The business model in this paper shows how to predict or find: 1) the costs to provide various aircraft features; 2) the values that aircraft buyers place on these features; 3) the amount of money that buyers have to commit to them, 4) the open spaces in the market in which to place new designs and 5) the predicted profits from new designs. In this process, this paper extends previous work on the law of value and demand, which states that attributes determine value; value determines price; and that price determines demand. This four-dimensional, non-negative system hosts a business model that describes the features needed to enable aircraft designs to go from concepts to profitable assembly lines.

Orbital Drilling Machine for One Way Assembly in Hard Materials

In Aeronautic industry, when we launch a new industrialization for an aircraft sub assembly we always have the same questions in mind for drilling operations, especially when focusing on lean manufacturing. How can we avoid dismantling and deburring parts after drilling operation? Can a drilling centre perform all the tasks needed to deliver a hole ready to install final fastener? How can we decrease down-time of the drilling centre? Can a drilling centre be integrated in a pulse assembly line? How can we improve environmental efficiency of a drilling centre? It is based on these main drivers that AIRBUS has developed, with SPIE and SOS, a new generation of drilling centre dedicated for hard materials such as titanium, and high thicknesses. The first application was for the assembly of the primary structure of A350 engine pylons. The main solution that was implemented meeting several objectives was the development of orbital drilling technology in hard metal stacks.
Technical Paper

Duralumin All-Metal Airplane Construction

PSYCHOLOGY of the public, as well as engineering structure and aerodynamics, is involved in commercial aviation. The public has confidence in metal. With quantity production in view, the author and his associates considered costs of production as related to quantity and also costs of maintenance at airports and in the field, and chose metal as the material of construction. Structural members are fashioned from sheet duralumin rather than from tubes and a type of construction was evolved that can be made with the minimum investment in tools, that is cheap to put together and that can be repaired with the smallest amount of equipment and labor. For compression loads, duralumin has a great deal more strength for a given weight than has steel. It cannot be used, however, for compression members in combination with steel in tension members because of the difference in coefficient of expansion.
Technical Paper

Methods of Building Metal Airplane Structures

USEFUL load-carrying capacity is a measure of the comparative value of two airplanes of the same size, having identical powerplants, speed, rate of climb and other flying characteristics. It seems to be feasible to combine in the same airplane both the greatest ability to carry useful load and the least cost of construction. Blanked and pressed metal work offers substantial advantage to the extent that parts, particularly sub-assemblies, can be made directly by machine in complete units ready to set in the final assembly. The author shows and describes the methods followed by his organization in forming the members, building the frames and assembling the units of metal aircraft. Trusses are blanked and the web members pressed to ¾-circle form. Dies for long members are variable in length by being made in pieces that can be removed or inserted as desired. Flanged-tube sections are employed for truss chords.
Technical Paper

Service Aviation, Aeronautical Engineering and Commercial Aviation

INFLUENCE that the research and development work done in aeronautics by the naval and military services has had in the advancement of design and construction of airplanes and aircraft engines suitable for commercial operations is pointed out and exemplified by citing a few instances of direct adaptability of military types of airplane to commercial uses. Nearly all of this work would have been done much later or not at all if the airplane had been purely a commercial vehicle, but the constructor for purely commercial purposes and the commercial operator have had the benefit of it. Major fundamentals, such as speed, safety, reliability and economy, are the same in both types of aviation; divergencies between the requirements for the two kinds of service begin to appear in materiel, personnel, or methods of operation only at a somewhat advanced stage of evolution.
Technical Paper

Material Handling in the Pontiac Assembly Plant

CONVEYORS and handling systems often are planned and installed after a building is erected. The Pontiac plant, described in this paper, is an exception because it was designed without limitations as to space and for a definite production program. With the aid of photographs and floor plans on which the positions from which the photographs were taken are indicated, the complete production line of the plant is shown in detail. The order of assembly and the points at which various units are applied to the chassis are shown; also the locations of the storage spaces for many of the parts and the provisions for transporting them to the assembly line. Among the striking features of the chassis-assembly line is a hump, midway of the length of the building, which raises the chassis to the mezzanine level to allow passage underneath.
Technical Paper

Powerplant Economics - Piston Displacement versus Horsepower per Dollar

AN ENDEAVOR is made herein by the author to prove by argument and charts based on data that the greatest result per dollar of car cost is obtained by the greatest piston displacement obtainable per dollar expended rather than by the greatest horsepower per dollar. Maximum result per dollar is a major principle of economics, but horsepower per dollar and piston displacement per dollar are controversial economic fundamentals. The latter is declared to be the accepted principle in the low-price car field, and the author asserts that it should be accepted in the high-price field. Price class controls the cost of the powerplant, and ingenuity of the engineering and manufacturing departments will control piston displacement. The trends in the different price classes as regards car weight, piston displacement, ratio of weight to piston displacement, and potential and actual performance in the items of economy, durability, acceleration and speed, are shown by charts and discussed.
Technical Paper

Future Clutch Progress Charted from Design A-B-C's

FIRST consideration is given by the author to basic improvements in clutches of the lever-release single-plate and to those of the two-plate types. He emphasizes that the severity of clutch service has increased very materially in the last few years and that the increased clutch duty of today is further augmented by the car manufacturer in providing cars having greater acceleration and higher torque, particularly at the higher speeds and usually without a proportionate increase in clutch size. Developments along logical lines which have resulted in improvements in design are cited as being (a) the design of the driven disc and the selection of facings, to produce improved engagement and greater life; (b) design of the cover-plate assembly to permit higher spring pressure with less retracting movement of the pressure plate; and better selection of facing and pressure-plate materials to reduce facing wear and pressure-plate distortion or scoring.
Technical Paper

Cageless Roller Bearings Develop High Carrying Capacities

A ROLLER having the same diameter as a corresponding ball and a length equal to the ball diameter has approximately four times the carrying capacity of a ball, according to Mr. Hermann. The data presented on cageless roller bearings are based upon knowledge of the carrying capacity and life of the ball bearing. The reason for the increased carrying capacity of a roller over that of a ball is due to the distribution of the load over a line of contact rather than at a point of contact. The roller bearing increases the number of such line contacts and therefore further distributes the load to the raceways. By increasing the number of line contacts, the cageless rollers reduce the stress per roller and failure due to fatigue. The fatigue factor is reduced 40 per cent, comparing a cageless with a caged roller.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Tires and Wheels as Causes of “Tramp”

THIS paper presents the solution of the factors in tires and wheels that cause a particular type of front-end vibration termed “tramp,” which is a vertical vibration of the front axle accompanied by a small degree of simultaneous oscillation of the wheel assembly about the king pin. This vibration in turn sets up the disturbance of the body and chassis. The front-axle vibration is caused by the unbalance and variation in rolling radius of the rotating front-wheel assemblies. The theoretical action of these two factors is developed in detail and supported by experimental results. The foregoing two factors act independently. The resultant of the two periodic forces which they set up depends on their phase relationship.
Technical Paper

Weight Saving by Structural Efficiency

METHODS employed by the author to reduce the weight of the structural frame without sacrificing strength are described in the paper. To obtain this result the best available cross-section must be selected and the members arranged to transmit the load directly to the final supports which should lie approximately in a plane that is parallel to the load vector; also where a bending moment is caused by the loading, the support attachment should produce a moment of the same amount and of opposite sign. Avoiding secondary bending and utilizing the advantages of full continuity over supports can be secured by a simple arrangement of the frame members. Substitution of power tools for hand tools will effect a reduction in assembly costs. Sections suitable for power assembly include closed hollow-sections, which have a high structural efficiency, as well as angles, channels, I-beams and similar shapes.
Technical Paper


Specifying the four general plans that have been followed by chassis builders in securing body equipment as being the building of bodies in their own shops; on contract by the body maker to plans and specifications of the chassis builder; by a local body maker to the order of the dealer or the owner; and the assembling from stock of standard sectional units recommended by the dealer or selected by the owner, the authors discuss each of these plans in detail. With regard to the plan of using standardized sectional bodies, the different sizes of chassis used for commercial purposes are separated into four specified groups and the production of a complete standard line including a number of styles of body for each chassis is commented upon and illustrated, inclusive of detailed considerations of the all-metal body.