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Technical Paper

Modeling the Effect of Engine Speed on the Combustion Process and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine

Previous studies have shown that air motion affects the combustion process and therefore also the emissions in a DI diesel engine. Experimental studies indicate that higher engine speeds enhance the turbulence and this improves air and fuel mixing. However, there are few studies that address fundamental combustion related factors and possible limitations associated with very high speed engine operation. In this study, operation over a large range of engine speeds was simulated by using a multi-dimensional computer code to study the effect of speed on emissions, engine power, engine and exhaust temperatures. The results indicate that at higher engine speeds fuel is consumed in a much shorter time period by the enhanced air and fuel mixing. The shorter combustion duration provides much less available time for soot and NOx formations. In addition, the enhanced air/fuel mixing decreases soot and NOx by reducing the extent of the fuel rich regions.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Predictions and Experiments in a Motored Engine

In the first part of this study, a one-dimensional code was used to compare predictions from six different two-equation turbulence models. It is shown that the application of the traditional k-ε models to the viscous-dominated region of the boundary layer can produce errors in both the calculated heat flux and surface friction. A low-Reynolds-number model does not appear to predict similar non-physical effects. A new one-dimensional model, which includes the effect of compression, has been formulated by multiparameter fit to the numerical solution of the energy equation. This model can be used in place of the law-of-the-wall to calculate the surface heat flux. The experiments were performed in a specially-instrumented engine, allowing optical access to the clearance volume. Measurements of heat flux, swirl velocities, and momentum boundary layer thickness were made for different engine speeds.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Ignition Delay, Heat Transfer and Combustion During Dynamic Load Changes in a Diesel Engine

In this paper we report the results of experiments done during the transient operation of a single cylinder Cummins NH engine. The data taken include cycle resolved pressure, combustion chamber surface temperatures and ignition delay. The data was taken during a special type of engine operation in which the engine was repeatedly hopped from one load to another. In this way cycle to cycle variations could be averaged out by ensemble averaging individual cycles after the step load change. For analysis of the heat transfer a unique finite difference temperature probe was developed to delineate the 3-D heat transfer effects in place of the standard 1-D assumptions and a new analysis technique was developed to calculate the instantaneous heat flux during the transient. Analysis of the data indicates that the combustion reaches an equivalent steady state condition within 2000 engine cycles after the load change.
Technical Paper

Predictions of Autoignition in a Spark-Ignition Engine Using Chemical Kinetics

A model developed to predict outoignition is used with data from a premixed charge, spark-ignition engine. A detailed chemical kinetics mechanism is used to predict the reactions which occur in the end-gas and lead to autoignition. Experimental pressure data from a CFR engine are used in the model to determine end-gas temperatures. The initial temperature at the time of spark must be increased above the bulk temperature for the predicted time of outoignition to agree with the observed time. A method for estimating the initial temperature based on an adiabotic compression from the time of intake valve closing is presented. The predictions of the model are examined over a range of engine speeds and fuel-air equivalence ratios. The magnitude by which the initial temperature must be increased above the bulk temperature decreases with increasing engine speed. This magnitude follows a trend which can be related to a heat transfer correlation.
Technical Paper

Can Paper Engines Stand the Heat?

Accurate and useful mathematical models of physical processes can be made when we understand all of the phenomena involved. This paper reviews our understanding of the fluid flow, heat transfer and thermodynamic processes occurring in engines and the status of mathematical models expressing this understanding. Thermodynamic single system rate models are found to be extremely useful in predicting power and fuel consumption performance but of limited value in predicting emission performance. Multiple-zone, nonequilibrium models are essential for predicting emissions but are limited in accuracy by computer capacity and our understanding of engine phenomena which vary rapidly both with space and time. The need for and ability of new types of instrumentation, primarily optical, to increase our understanding of engine phenomena and improve our models is discussed.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Benefits of Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engines

A detailed thermodynamic analysis was performed to demonstrate the fundamental efficiency advantage of an opposed-piston two-stroke engine over a standard four-stroke engine. Three engine configurations were considered: a baseline six-cylinder four-stroke engine, a hypothetical three-cylinder opposed-piston four-stroke engine, and a three-cylinder opposed-piston two-stroke engine. The bore and stroke per piston were held constant for all engine configurations to minimize any potential differences in friction. The closed-cycle performance of the engine configurations were compared using a custom analysis tool that allowed the sources of thermal efficiency differences to be identified and quantified.
Technical Paper

Effects of Low Pressure EGR on Transient Air System Performance and Emissions for Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

Low pressure EGR offers greater effectiveness and flexibility for turbocharging and improved heat transfer compared to high pressure EGR systems. These characteristics have been shown to provide potential for further NOx, soot, and fuel consumption reductions in modern diesel engines. One of the drawbacks is reduced transient response capability due to the long EGR path. This can be largely mitigated by combining low pressure and high pressure loops in a hybrid EGR system, but the changes in transient response must be considered in the design of an effective control strategy. The effect of low pressure EGR on transient emissions was evaluated using two different combustion strategies over a variety of transient events. Low pressure EGR was found to significantly lengthen the response time of intake oxygen concentration following a transient event, which can have a substantial effect on emissions formation.
Technical Paper

Soot Structure in a Conventional Non-Premixed Diesel Flame

An analysis of the soot formation and oxidation process in a conventional direct-injection (DI) diesel flame was conducted using numerical simulations. An improved multi-step phenomenological soot model that includes particle inception, particle coagulation, surface growth and oxidation was used to describe the soot formation and oxidation process. The soot model has been implemented into the KIVA-3V code. Other model Improvements include a piston-ring crevice model, a KH/RT spray breakup model, a droplet wall impingement model, a wall-temperature heat transfer model, and the RNG k-ε turbulence model. The Shell model was used to simulate the ignition process, and a laminar-and-turbulent characteristic time combustion model was used for the post-ignition combustion process. Experimental data from a heavy-duty, Cummins N14, research DI diesel engine operated with conventional injection under low-load conditions were selected as a benchmark.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of a Diesel Exhaust System Thermal Model

A modeling study has been conducted in order to characterize the heat transfer in an automotive diesel exhaust system. The exhaust system model, focusing on 2 exhaust pipes, has been created using a transient 1-D engine flow network simulation program. Model results are in excellent agreement with experimental data gathered before commencement of the modeling study. Predicted pipe exit stream temperatures are generally within one percent of experimental values. Sensitivity analysis of the model was the major focus of this study. Four separate variables were chosen for the sensitivity analysis. These being the external convective heat transfer coefficient, external emissivity, mass flow rate of exhaust gases, and amplitude of incoming pressure fluctuations. These variables were independently studied to determine their contribution to changes in exhaust gas stream temperature and system heat flux. There are two primary benefits obtained from conducting this analysis.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of EGR and Injection Pressure on Soot Formation in a High-Speed Direct-Injection (HSDI) Diesel Engine Using a Multi-Step Phenomenological Soot Model

Low-temperature combustion concepts that utilize cooled EGR, early/retarded injection, high swirl ratios, and modest compression ratios have recently received considerable attention. To understand the combustion and, in particular, the soot formation process under these operating conditions, a modeling study was carried out using the KIVA-3V code with an improved phenomenological soot model. This multi-step soot model includes particle inception, surface growth, surface oxidation, and particle coagulation. Additional models include a piston-ring crevice model, the KH/RT spray breakup model, a droplet wall impingement model, a wall heat transfer model, and the RNG k-ε turbulence model. The Shell model was used to simulate the ignition process, and a laminar-and-turbulent characteristic time combustion model was used for the post-ignition combustion process.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurement of Particulate Radiant Heat Transfer in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

A method of determining the total hemispherical in-cylinder radiant heat transfer of a direct injection diesel engine was developed using the Two Color theory. A radiant probe was installed in the head of a single cylinder test engine version of a Cummins N14 diesel engine to facilitate the optical measurement. Two probes, installed one at a time, were used to provide the data to calculate the hemispherical radiant heat flux. Each of the probes had a different field of view but both had a near-hemispherical field of view and used a window material that exhibits a cosine-normalized response. The radiant probes were designed to be self-cleaning and remained free of soot deposits during engine operation at high load. The test engine was operated at 1200 and 1500 RPM and at 50, 75, and 100% load for each engine speed. At each operating combination of engine speed and load, measurements were made at several injection timings.
Journal Article

Investigations into the Effects of Thermal and Compositional Stratification on HCCI Combustion – Part II: Optical Engine Results

The effect that thermally and compositionally stratified flowfields have on the spatial progression of iso-octane-fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion were directly observed using highspeed chemiluminescence imaging. The stratified in-cylinder conditions were produced by independently feeding the intake valves of a four-valve engine with thermally and compositionally different mixtures of air, vaporized fuel, and argon. Results obtained under homogeneous conditions, acquired for comparison to stratified operation, showed a small natural progression of the combustion from the intake side to the exhaust side of the engine, a presumed result of natural thermal stratification created from heat transfer between the in-cylinder gases and the cylinder walls. Large differences in the spatial progression of the HCCI combustion were observed under stratified operating conditions.