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The Principles and Applications of Powertrain Controls for the New Energy Vehicles

课程概述 Powertrain controls for NEVs is one of the most complex and highly confidential areas of NEV research and development. This two-day course takes the seemingly complicated field of NEV powertrain controls and summarizes it into a few basic principles. The latest and most popular NEV powertrains are also reviewed to illustrate these principles and the controls strategies used. 对于新能源汽车来说,动力总成控制一直以来都是最复杂的和高度机密的领域之一。在这两天的课程中,我们将把看似复杂的动力总成控制系统总结出几条基本规则,同时,通过对当今其他车型动力控制系统的案例分析,来把这些规则和原理进行融会贯通。

New Particulate Matter Sensor for On Board Diagnosis

The presentation describes technology developments and the integration of these technologies into new emission control systems. As in other years, the reader will find a wide range of topics from various parts of the world. This is reflective of the worldwide scope and effort to reduce diesel exhaust emissions. Topics include the integration of various diesel particulate matter (PM) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) technologies as well as sensors and other emissions related developments. Presenter Atsuo Kondo, NGK Insulators, Ltd.

The Correlation of As-Manufactured Products to As-Designed Specifications: Closing the Loop on Dimensional Quality Results to Engineering Predictions

Simulation-based tolerance analysis is the accepted standard for dimensional engineering in aerospace today. Sophisticated 3D model-based tolerance analysis processes enable engineers to measure variation in complex, often large, assembled products quickly and accurately. Best-in-class manufacturers have adopted Quality Intelligence Management tools for collecting and consolidating this measurement data. Their goal is to completely understand dimensional fit characteristics and quality status before commencing the build process. This results in shorter launch cycles, improved process capabilities, reduced scrap and less production downtime. This paper describes how to use simulation-based approaches to correlate the theoretical tolerance analysis results produced during engineering simulations to actual as-built results. This allows engineers to validate or adjust as-designed simulation parameters to more closely align to production process capabilities.

On-Road Evaluation of an Integrated SCR and Continuously Regenerating Trap Exhaust System

Four-way, integrated, diesel emission control systems that combine selective catalytic reduction for NOx control with a continuously regenerating trap to remove diesel particulate matter were evaluated under real-world, on-road conditions. Tests were conducted using a semi-tractor with an emissions year 2000, 6-cylinder, 12 L, Volvo engine rated at 287 kW at 1800 rpm and 1964 N-m. The emission control system was certified for retrofit application on-highway trucks, model years 1994 through 2002, with 4-stroke, 186-373 kW (250-500 hp) heavy-duty diesel engines without exhaust gas recirculation. The evaluations were unique because the mobile laboratory platform enabled evaluation under real-world exhaust plume dilution conditions as opposed to laboratory dilution conditions. Real-time plume measurements for NOx, particle number concentration and size distribution were made and emission control performance was evaluated on-road.

GreenZone Driving for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have a large battery which can be used for electric only powertrain operation. The control system in a PHEV must decide how to spend the energy stored in the battery. In this paper, we will present a prototype implementation of a PHEV control system which saves energy for electric operation in pre-defined geographic areas, so called Green Zones. The approach determines where the driver will be going and then compares the route to a database of predefined Green Zones. The control system then reserves enough energy to be able to drive the Green Zone sections in electric only mode. Finally, the powertrain operation is modified once the vehicle enters the Green Zone to ensure engine operation is limited. Data will be presented from a prototype implementation in a Ford Escape PHEV Presenter Johannes Kristinsson
Technical Paper

Concept Study on Windshield Actuation for Active Control of Wind Noise in a Passenger Car

The windshield is an integral part of almost every modern passenger car. Combined with current developments in the automotive industry such as electrification and the integration of lightweight material systems, the reduction of interior noise caused by stochastic and transient wind excitation is deemed to be an increasing challenge for future NVH measures. Active control systems have proven to be a viable alternative compared to traditional passive NVH measures in different areas. However, for windshield actuation there are neither comparative studies nor actually established actuation concepts available to the automotive industry. Based upon a numerical simulation of an installed windshield of a medium-sized car, this paper illustrates a conceptual study of both the evaluation of optimal positioning as well as a consideration of different electromechanical activation measures.
Technical Paper

Development, System Integration and Experimental Investigation of an Active HVAC Noise Control System for a Passenger Car

Current developments in the automotive industry such as electrification and consistent lightweight construction increasingly enable the application of active control systems for the further reduction of noise in vehicles. As different stochastic noise sources such as rolling and wind noise as well as noise radiated by the ventilation system are becoming more noticeable and as passive measures for NVH optimization tend to be heavy and construction space intensive, current research activities focus on the active reduction of noise caused by the latter mentioned sources. This paper illustrates the development, implementation and experimental investigation of an active noise control system integrated into the ventilation duct system of a passenger car.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of Occupant Ride Comfort by GA Optimized PID Control Active Suspension System

The main objective of this work is to enhance the occupant ride comfort. Ride comfort is quantified in terms of measuring distinct accelerations like sprung mass, seat and occupant head. For this theoretical evaluation, a 7- degrees of freedom (DOF) human-vehicle-road model was established and the system investigation was limited to vertical motion. Besides, this work also focused to guarantee other vehicle performance indices like suspension working space and tire deflection. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller was introduced in the vehicle model and optimized with the aid of the genetic algorithm (GA). Actuator dynamics is incorporated into the system. The objective function for PID optimization was carried out using root mean square error (RMSE) concept.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis and Validation of Automotive Windshield De-Fogging Simulation

Nowadays Climate component system plays a vital role in JD power rating of automotive vehicle. Apart from customer point of view, stringent homologation norms pose challenge in designing climate control system components. At extreme cold climate conditions either mist/ fog forms on the automobile windshield. This makes visibility issue on driver/Co driver side. To overcome this issue efficient demister system is required. Development of Demister system requires thorough knowledge on velocity spread over windscreen and thermal performance of heater (HVAC). This work is aimed for simulating windshield demisting patterns of a vehicle as described by ECC norms. New methodology was developed to simulate the actual behaviour of condensation and evaporation of mist on the windscreen. Transient demisting patterns were simulated with the CFD code and validated with experimental test results.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigations on Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics of Climate Control Systems in Electric Vehicles

Earth's surface temperatures would increase from 2.90 C to 3.40 C by the year 2100 due to global warming, which leads to conceivable calamitous effects on human livelihoods, livestock, ecosystems, and biodiversity. Overall globally several protocols were made to reduce carbon dioxide emission and greenhouse gases. The transportation sector is one of the prominent sources of carbon dioxide emissions. On account of the significant emissions caused by conventional buses, migrating to electric buses which have zero tailpipe emissions for public transport fleets is essential. Energy utilization for HVAC applications should be optimized in electric vehicles due to the limited specific energy of energy storage systems. Heat transfer and flow characteristics in the condenser and the evaporator zone of the climate control system for electric buses were numerically studied.
Technical Paper

Intake O2 Concentration Estimation in a Turbocharged Diesel Engine through NOE

Diesel engines with their embedded control systems are becoming more and more complex as the emission regulations tighten, especially concerning NOx pollutants. The combustion and emission formation processes in diesel engines are closely correlated to the intake manifold O2 concentration. Consequently, the performance of the main engine controllers can be improved significantly, if a model-based or sensor-based estimation of the intake O2 concentration is available in the ECU. The paper addresses the modeling of the intake manifold O2 concentration in a turbocharged diesel engine. Dynamic models, compared to generally employed steady state maps, capture the dynamic effects occurring over transients. It is right in the transient that the major deviations from the stationary maps are found. The dynamic model will positively affect the control system making it more effective.

Automotive Microcontrollers, Volume 2

This book contains 49 papers covering the past eight years (2000-2007) of research on automotive microcontrollers, providing a look at innovative design trends and the latest applications. Topics covered include: Microcontroller Design Concepts; Microcontroller Networking; System Testing/Diagnosis; Implementation Examples The book also includes editor Ronald K. Jurgen's introduction ("New Microcontroller Architectures Spark Innovative Applications") and a concluding section on future developments in automotive microcontrollers.
Technical Paper

The deLavaud Automatic Transmission

MENTIONING the various attempts that have been made to secure continuous progressive changes of gear in the automobile, the author states that nothing of this sort is of value unless it is automatic. He has designed a transmission consisting of a wabble-plate which actuates six connecting-rods that operate as many roller clutches on the rear axle. Changes in speed result from varying the inclination of the wabble-plate, and this is controlled automatically through the combined effects of inertia and the reaction of resistance. This transmission has been applied to a number of cars of different weights, some of which have seen much service. The action of the various elements of the transmission is analyzed with the aid of drawings, diagrams and formulas, and the proportions that have been found most successful are stated. This transmission is combined with a gearless differential and a planetary reverse-gear.
Technical Paper


A racing airplane seems to possess a special quality that sets it distinctly apart from the conventional type of airplane; but, unless a person has at least dabbled in its design, he cannot realize the enormous amount of time, effort and ingenuity that has been expended by the designers who have made these super-speed airplanes possible. Therefore, an outline is given of the procedure adopted in designing and producing a specific model of racing airplane, as well as an outline of the yearly progress made in development. The first procedure is to allocate the work to the various members of the engineering organization. Finally, a type of design is chosen after a series of engineering conferences, and the design section studies the detail design of the component parts. A wing section that is adapted to the design already chosen is developed, and an accurate weight estimate is made of each unit part of the complete airplane.
Technical Paper

Shaft Gas Turbines For Helicopters

THIS paper on helicopter gas turbines is divided into two parts. The first compares the performances of two helicopters, one powered with a two-shaft free turbine and the other with a single-shaft fixed turbine. The second part considers the engine and rotor control problems associated with each type of powerplant. Part one of the paper discusses helicopter performance advantages arising from the flexibility of the free turbine. Also, several modes of helicopter operation for each turbine are considered in two flight plans. Advantages in helicopter hovering time and range for various methods of turbine operation are assessed on the basis of steady-state engine performance. Part two of the paper considers the transient behavior of the two types of powerplants under several control actions. Anticipated helicopter maneuvers during a flight plan are studied.
Technical Paper


To provide maximum comfort for passengers, it is claimed that cabin pressures must be maintained within very-narrow limits. The various steps by which a system was developed to accomplish such control is discussed and illustrated by photographs and diagrams. The author believes that the final result of the research and development program is a system which will not only provide the necessary control, but will do so with a degree of reliability unknown in earlier systems, with a minimum of maintenance and extremely simple in operation. Two production systems are described in detail with a final explanation of how a transistorized pre-amplifier and magnetic amplifier is used.
Technical Paper


The military aviation services pay a phenomenal price due to turbine engine stall. Several of the major factors which comprise a substantial portion of the total price are presented. Included are weapon system development time, operational limitations, field maintenance problems, overhaul costs and accident rates. Also presented, in a general fashion, are several technical approaches to the solution of turbine engine stall. Fundamental research and orderly development of basic engine components, power control systems, and airframe and installation factors are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the need for tighter control of production tolerances and the requirement for united efforts in the integration of components into a complete system.
Technical Paper


DESIGN of stable turboprop control systems is greatly speeded up by the WAC electronic analog. This computing device simulates the physical relationship between the five prime variables involved: speed, torque, temperature, fuel flow, and propeller blade angle. Although as many as 25 design characteristics may be involved in a control system, the analog can determine the optimum values for them in the course of one day. The analog computing technique might be equally valuable in a number of other uses.
Technical Paper

Automatic Control Systems Satisfying Certain General Criteria on Transient Behavior

An analytic method for the design of automatic controls has been developed by these authors. The method starts from certain arbitrary criteria on the behavior of the controlled system. It then gives those physically realizable equations that the control system can follow in order to realize this behavior. The criteria used are developed in the form of certain time integrals. General results are shown for systems of second order and of any number of degrees of freedom. Detailed examples for several cases in the control of a turbojet engine are presented.
Technical Paper

Rolling Wheels Gather No Skids

A CONTROL system is described that has been successfully preventing premature rotation stoppage of airplane wheels when too much braking is used. The system has now been applied to a truck in a series of tests conducted on an icy roadway. It is shown that wheels exert their greatest braking effect when the brakes are applied almost to the point where the wheels lock. Thus, when used on airplanes, the device (1) detects when a brake is about to lock the wheel, (2) releases the brake pressure to allow the wheel to pick up speed, and (3) again permits brake application. This cycle is then repeated until a stop is attained. Similarly, when used on ground vehicles, the device functions by sensing the impending wheel lock, and then relays a signal to actuate the brake valve. The tests showed that individual wheel control devices can prevent out-of-control skidding in trucks and buses, and jackknifing of tractor-trailers.