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Video

New Particulate Matter Sensor for On Board Diagnosis

2012-02-16
The presentation describes technology developments and the integration of these technologies into new emission control systems. As in other years, the reader will find a wide range of topics from various parts of the world. This is reflective of the worldwide scope and effort to reduce diesel exhaust emissions. Topics include the integration of various diesel particulate matter (PM) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) technologies as well as sensors and other emissions related developments. Presenter Atsuo Kondo, NGK Insulators, Ltd.
Video

The Correlation of As-Manufactured Products to As-Designed Specifications: Closing the Loop on Dimensional Quality Results to Engineering Predictions

2012-03-09
Simulation-based tolerance analysis is the accepted standard for dimensional engineering in aerospace today. Sophisticated 3D model-based tolerance analysis processes enable engineers to measure variation in complex, often large, assembled products quickly and accurately. Best-in-class manufacturers have adopted Quality Intelligence Management tools for collecting and consolidating this measurement data. Their goal is to completely understand dimensional fit characteristics and quality status before commencing the build process. This results in shorter launch cycles, improved process capabilities, reduced scrap and less production downtime. This paper describes how to use simulation-based approaches to correlate the theoretical tolerance analysis results produced during engineering simulations to actual as-built results. This allows engineers to validate or adjust as-designed simulation parameters to more closely align to production process capabilities.
Video

GreenZone Driving for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-05-29
Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have a large battery which can be used for electric only powertrain operation. The control system in a PHEV must decide how to spend the energy stored in the battery. In this paper, we will present a prototype implementation of a PHEV control system which saves energy for electric operation in pre-defined geographic areas, so called Green Zones. The approach determines where the driver will be going and then compares the route to a database of predefined Green Zones. The control system then reserves enough energy to be able to drive the Green Zone sections in electric only mode. Finally, the powertrain operation is modified once the vehicle enters the Green Zone to ensure engine operation is limited. Data will be presented from a prototype implementation in a Ford Escape PHEV Presenter Johannes Kristinsson
Video

On-Road Evaluation of an Integrated SCR and Continuously Regenerating Trap Exhaust System

2012-06-18
Four-way, integrated, diesel emission control systems that combine selective catalytic reduction for NOx control with a continuously regenerating trap to remove diesel particulate matter were evaluated under real-world, on-road conditions. Tests were conducted using a semi-tractor with an emissions year 2000, 6-cylinder, 12 L, Volvo engine rated at 287 kW at 1800 rpm and 1964 N-m. The emission control system was certified for retrofit application on-highway trucks, model years 1994 through 2002, with 4-stroke, 186-373 kW (250-500 hp) heavy-duty diesel engines without exhaust gas recirculation. The evaluations were unique because the mobile laboratory platform enabled evaluation under real-world exhaust plume dilution conditions as opposed to laboratory dilution conditions. Real-time plume measurements for NOx, particle number concentration and size distribution were made and emission control performance was evaluated on-road.
Technical Paper

High Performance Code Generation for Audo, an Automotive μController from Infineon Technologies

2000-03-06
2000-01-0393
The demands of the automotive market are decreasing the time-to-market required from the initial concept of new control systems to their implementation. The goal of automotive companies is to constantly reduce the development time to reap the full economic and strategic benefits of being quicker to market. The target is to reach a development time of less than 12 months for some applications. At the same time, the complexity of these new systems is growing almost exponentially. While new techniques like model-based control design with executable specifications, rapid control prototyping and hardware-in-the-loop simulation have helped significantly streamline the development process, the new strategies are still being transferred to the production target by hand. During an early project phase, automotive customers also need to explore different silicon architectures provided by semiconductor manufacturers to select the vendors who can offer the best solution at the lowest price.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Tire Model for Vehicle Simulation in Normal Driving Conditions

2000-03-06
2000-01-0356
In the simulation of the dynamic response of a vehicle, the accuracy of the predictions strongly depends on the tire properties. Since the physics of tire force generation is highly nonlinear and complex, semi-empirical models are used, which are mathematically curve fitted to experimental data. Although this approach yields realistic tire behavior, it requires many experimental coefficients. Even though tire forces generated by a real tire are nonlinear, there is a linear region where the slip and slip angle are low. Most normal driving is done in this region. This paper will present a new analytical tire model capable of simulating pure cornering, pure braking, and combined braking/cornering in this region. The dynamic properties of the tire are analytically derived as functions of the slip, slip angle, normal force, and road friction coefficient.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Advanced Autonomous and Infrastructure Based Drivetrain Control Systems with Minimized Emissions and Optimized Driving Comfort

2000-03-06
2000-01-0348
This paper will first describe the project FORFAHRT. The aim of FORFAHRT is the identification and analysis of improved low-emission drivetrain structures for integration into a driver assistance system. Part of the assessment during the project will be DI-spark-ignition engines, integrated starter alternator systems as well as different transmission concepts such as CVT-transmissions or automated manual transmissions. The analysis focuses on “conventional” drivetrain components, not on hybrid or electric propulsion. The analysis is done with the sub-microscopic traffic simulation program PELOPS [5], which was developed at the ‘Institut fuer Kraftfahrwesen Aachen’ in co-operation with the BMW AG. PELOPS models the fundamental elements of traffic -namely route, environment, driver and vehicle- with highest accuracy. The second part of the paper gives first results of the project work.
Technical Paper

The BMW Active Cruise Control ACC

2000-03-06
2000-01-0344
With series introduction of Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) systems, automotive industry at present makes a step towards a new category of vehicle control systems. For the first time in automotive history these systems make use of information about the surrounding traffic situation. This information is provided by new kinds of sensors and is being processed using intelligent algorithms. Thus new driver assistance functions are integrated in the car, ACC being the first representative of such kind of functions. This contribution describes possibilities and also limits of today's available technology on the example of the BMW ACC system, called „Active Cruise Control”.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Lidar-Based and Radar-Based Adaptive Cruise Control Systems

2000-03-06
2000-01-0345
Since the late 1980s, Delphi Automotive Systems has been very involved with the practical development of a variety of Collision Avoidance products for the near- and long-term automotive market. Many of these complex collision avoidance products will require the integration of various vehicular components/systems in order to provide a cohesive functioning product that is seamlessly integrated into the vehicle infrastructure. One such example of this system integration process was the development of an Adaptive Cruise Control system on an Opel Vectra. The design approach heavily incorporated system engineering processes/procedures. The critical issues and other technical challenges in developing these systems will be explored. Details on the hardware and algorithms developed for this vehicle, as well as the greater systems integration issues that arose during its development will also be presented.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Mixture Preparation Approach for Lean Stratified SI-Combustion by a Combined Use of GDI and Electronically Controlled Valve-Timing

2000-03-06
2000-01-0532
The first part of the paper gives an overview of the current status in fuel consumption gain of the GDI-vehicles previously launched on the European market. In order to increase the potential for a further gain in specific fuel consumption the behaviour of 3 different combustion chamber layouts are studied. The chamber layouts are aimed to adapt as well as possible to the particular requirements for application to a small displacement/small bore engine working in stratified lean conditions. The paper continues with a description of the application that shows the different steps of a structured optimisation methodology for a 1.2 litre, small bore 4-cylinder engine. The applications of an air-motion-guided and a wall-guided layout with a mechanically actuated valve train to the same combustion chamber are discussed. The potential of the air-motion-guided concept is enhanced through the introduction of an electromagnetic fully variable valve train.
Technical Paper

Development and Use of a Regenerative Braking Model for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2000-03-06
2000-01-0995
A regenerative braking model for a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is developed in this work. This model computes the line and pad pressures for the front and rear brakes, the amount of generator use depending on the state of deceleration (i.e. the brake pedal position), and includes a wheel lock-up avoidance algorithm. The regenerative braking model has been developed in the symbolic programming environment of MATLAB/SIMULINK/STATEFLOW for downloadability to an actual HEV's control system. The regenerative braking model has been incorporated in NREL's HEV system simulation called ADVISOR. Code modules that have been changed to implement the new regenerative model are described. Resulting outputs are compared to the baseline regenerative braking model in the parent code. The behavior of the HEV system (battery state of charge, overall fuel economy, and emissions characteristics) with the baseline and the proposed regenerative braking strategy are first compared.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Studies of Diesel Particulate Filters: Transient Loading, Regeneration and Aging

2000-03-06
2000-01-1016
Compliance with future emission standards for diesel powered vehicles is likely to require the deployment of emission control devices, such as particulate filters and DeNOx converters. Diesel emission control is merging with powertrain management and requires deep knowledge of emission control component behavior to perform effective system level integration and optimization. The present paper focuses on challenges associated with a critical component of diesel emission control systems, namely the diesel particulate filter (DPF), and provides a fundamental description of the transient filtration/loading, catalytic/NO2-assisted regeneration and ash-induced aging behavior of DPF's.
Technical Paper

Reliability Prediction of Fault Tolerant Automotive Systems

2000-03-06
2000-01-1049
This paper discusses a methodology for calculating the probability of a redundant system to fail in a specified time interval after a first fault has occurred. That probability is first derived in general and then specified for a system consisting of independent components having exponential failure rate densities. Four different redundant system configurations of a safety relevant automotive control system are discussed and compared with respect to their reliability characteristics. The four configurations differ in system topologies as well as the intelligence of the system components with respect to self-monitoring.
Technical Paper

Transmission Clutch Pressure Control System: Modeling, Controller Development and Implementation

2000-03-06
2000-01-1149
This paper describes the modeling, controller development, and implementation of a transmission clutch pressure control system. A nonlinear analytical model for the clutch pressure control system is developed and implemented using Matlab/Simulink, and validated by experimental data. The dominant dynamics are identified via model analysis, and a linear model is derived for controller design. Openloop (feedforward) and closed loop (feedback) pressure control strategies are designed and implemented in a test setup. Experimental results show that the combined feedforward and feedback control gives superior performance as compared to feedforward control alone.
Technical Paper

A Strategy of On-board Fault Diagnosis of Automated Mechanical Transmission

2000-03-06
2000-01-1160
The paper introduces an on-board fault diagnosis strategy based on analytical redundancy suit for automated mechanical transmission (AMT). Through experiment and theory analysis an identified engine model, a gear box model and a dry clutch model controlled by hydraulic actuators are respectively established. The information redundancy in the local models of the power train and the structure logic relations among the assemblages is used to detect and diagnose the fault in the sensors, the actuators and the unit assemblages of the AMT system. The method has been used in the AMT control system developed for the SVWSANTANA2000.
Technical Paper

Evaporative Leakage from Gas Caps

2000-03-06
2000-01-1171
The AirCare® vehicle emissions inspection and maintenance program is briefly described, together with the benefits which the program has already achieved. Additional benefits have been projected should the program include some more sophisticated assessment of evaporative emission control systems. The feasibility of including such an assessment has been investigated, and a pilot study has been conducted in the regular inspection lanes. The operational and systems implications are described. The pilot study has resulted in an analysis of the incidence of faulty gas caps in the Lower Fraser Valley light-duty vehicle fleet, and how this relates to other vehicle characteristics such as vehicle make, model, model year, mileage etc.; and inspection data including emission control system components tampering and tailpipe emissions. Approximately 10% of all gas caps tested failed the pressure test, compared to the 1% that were failed by visual inspection.
Technical Paper

OSEK Communications and Network Management on CAN and J1850: Software Implementation and Configuration

2000-03-06
2000-01-0555
This paper describes the use of an OSEK/VDX Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) and the implementation of an OSEK compliant communication protocol, layered on the CAN Bus or the SAE J1850 standard, that supports a distributed framework. The paper provides an overview of the OSEK/VDX specification and examines the application programming interface (API) and the code generation software necessary to configure and implement a distributed control system. The paper will use a simple illustration to demonstrate the implementation process, providing example OIL and C files.
Technical Paper

Second Generation of High-Response V6 Engine Series (3.0 and 3.5 Liters)

2000-03-06
2000-01-0668
Since the VQ engine series of lightweight, compact, low friction and high response engines was released in 1994, they have been rated highly both at home and abroad. Two new 3.0-liter and 3.5-liter V6 engines have been developed as the second generation of the VQ engine and introduced into the North American market. Continuing the characteristics of the first generation, this new VQ engine series achieves a performance figure of 98Nm/L as a result of adopting part shapes defined with a three-dimensional analysis method. The new VQ30DE engine adopts a plastic intake manifold which incorporates a variable induction system with a rotary valve. The new VQ35DE engine adopts a continuously variable valve timing control system and a long branch intake manifold with an inertial induction system. It also incorporates a new concept piston and a hot coined connecting rod to reduce its reciprocating inertial mass.
Technical Paper

A Side-Slip Angle Estimation Using Neural Network for a Wheeled Vehicle

2000-03-06
2000-01-0695
Decreasing a stabilizing yaw moment by a large side-slip angle of a vehicle causes an unstable motion in a nonlinear region. Recently, in order to stabilize the vehicle motion in the region, Direct Yaw Moment Control (DYC) by using differences of driving and braking forces on right and left wheels has been developed and focused. Especially, performances of the handling and the stability are improved by DYC became DYC the side-slip angle together with a yaw rate control. For such DYC, the side-slip angle is crucial information. However, it has been difficult to utilize a control system by using DYC with the side-slip angle, because a special devise for the measurement is necessary. Moreover, time-integration is not suitable for sensor data such as the lateral acceleration, the vehicle velocity, and the yaw rate because of an accumulation of noise and measurement errors.
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