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Video

New Particulate Matter Sensor for On Board Diagnosis

2012-02-16
The presentation describes technology developments and the integration of these technologies into new emission control systems. As in other years, the reader will find a wide range of topics from various parts of the world. This is reflective of the worldwide scope and effort to reduce diesel exhaust emissions. Topics include the integration of various diesel particulate matter (PM) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) technologies as well as sensors and other emissions related developments. Presenter Atsuo Kondo, NGK Insulators, Ltd.
Video

The Correlation of As-Manufactured Products to As-Designed Specifications: Closing the Loop on Dimensional Quality Results to Engineering Predictions

2012-03-09
Simulation-based tolerance analysis is the accepted standard for dimensional engineering in aerospace today. Sophisticated 3D model-based tolerance analysis processes enable engineers to measure variation in complex, often large, assembled products quickly and accurately. Best-in-class manufacturers have adopted Quality Intelligence Management tools for collecting and consolidating this measurement data. Their goal is to completely understand dimensional fit characteristics and quality status before commencing the build process. This results in shorter launch cycles, improved process capabilities, reduced scrap and less production downtime. This paper describes how to use simulation-based approaches to correlate the theoretical tolerance analysis results produced during engineering simulations to actual as-built results. This allows engineers to validate or adjust as-designed simulation parameters to more closely align to production process capabilities.
Video

On-Road Evaluation of an Integrated SCR and Continuously Regenerating Trap Exhaust System

2012-06-18
Four-way, integrated, diesel emission control systems that combine selective catalytic reduction for NOx control with a continuously regenerating trap to remove diesel particulate matter were evaluated under real-world, on-road conditions. Tests were conducted using a semi-tractor with an emissions year 2000, 6-cylinder, 12 L, Volvo engine rated at 287 kW at 1800 rpm and 1964 N-m. The emission control system was certified for retrofit application on-highway trucks, model years 1994 through 2002, with 4-stroke, 186-373 kW (250-500 hp) heavy-duty diesel engines without exhaust gas recirculation. The evaluations were unique because the mobile laboratory platform enabled evaluation under real-world exhaust plume dilution conditions as opposed to laboratory dilution conditions. Real-time plume measurements for NOx, particle number concentration and size distribution were made and emission control performance was evaluated on-road.
Video

GreenZone Driving for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-05-29
Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have a large battery which can be used for electric only powertrain operation. The control system in a PHEV must decide how to spend the energy stored in the battery. In this paper, we will present a prototype implementation of a PHEV control system which saves energy for electric operation in pre-defined geographic areas, so called Green Zones. The approach determines where the driver will be going and then compares the route to a database of predefined Green Zones. The control system then reserves enough energy to be able to drive the Green Zone sections in electric only mode. Finally, the powertrain operation is modified once the vehicle enters the Green Zone to ensure engine operation is limited. Data will be presented from a prototype implementation in a Ford Escape PHEV Presenter Johannes Kristinsson
Technical Paper

Filtration Technology Challenges for Common-Rail Diesel Engine Fuel Systems

2009-04-20
2009-01-0874
The focus of this study was to determine the role of liquid filtration in controlling debris in fuel and maintaining common-rail fuel system life for off-highway diesel engine applications. Three key areas of filtration design surfaced as most important areas of focus – basic filtration efficiency, robustness of filter manufacturing, and filter assembly cleanliness from production (before and during installation into fuel system). The study also revealed the importance of designing fuel filtration systems consisting of primary filtration (suction-side water separation and particulate filtration) combined with pressure-side particulate filtration. The performance characteristics of the filtration system as a whole were found to be extremely critical in optimum fuel system performance and life goals, especially in severe-duty applications.
Journal Article

Use of Accelerometers for Spark Advance Control of SI Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1019
Electronic engine controls based on non-intrusive diagnostics can significantly help in complying with the stricter and stricter regulations on pollutants emissions and fuel consumption. The aim of this paper is the use of a low-cost linear capacitive accelerometer placed on the engine block for non-intrusive diagnosis of combustion process in spark ignition engines. In particular, good correspondences between the engine block vibrations and the combustion pressure signal were obtained. The angular position of pressure peak evaluated by accelerometer data can be used in a closed-loop control system for real time control of spark advance.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Flare Component Specifications on the Sealing of Double Inverted Flare Brake Tube Joints

2009-04-20
2009-01-1029
While SAE double inverted flares have been in use for decades, leaking joints continue to be a problem for OEMs in production settings consuming time and energy to detect and correct them before releasing vehicles from the assembly plant. It should be noted that this issue is limited to first-time vehicle assembly; once a flared brake tube joint is sealed at the assembly plant it remains sealed during normal customer usage. From their inception through the late 1980s most brake tubes have been 3/16″ nominal diameter. With the advent of higher flow requirements of Traction Control and Yaw/Stability control systems, larger tubes of 1/4″ and 5/16″ size have also been introduced. While it was known that the first-time sealing capability of the 3/16″ joint was not 100%, leakers were generally containable in the production environment and the joint was regarded as robust.
Journal Article

Identification and Robust Control of LPG Fuel Supply System

2009-04-20
2009-01-1025
This paper proposes a new returnless LPG fuel supply system designed to increase the efficiency of current LPG engines. With a conventional engine fuel supply system, the fuel pump is driven at a certain speed to pressurize the fuel to an excessive level, and excess fuel that is discharged from the fuel pump but not injected from the injector is returned to the fuel tank via a pressure regulator and a return line. This arrangement keeps the pressure in the fuel supply line at a constant level. Accordingly, during engine idling, fuel cut-off or other times when very little or no fuel is injected from the injector, nearly all the fuel discharged from the fuel pump is returned to the fuel tank via the pressure regulator and return line. Therefore, the energy (electric power) applied to drive the fuel pump is wastefully consumed. Moreover, returning a large amount of excess fuel to the fuel tank can raise the fuel temperature in the tank, causing the fuel to evaporate.
Technical Paper

Robust Design of Control Systems with Physical System Variances

2009-04-20
2009-01-1041
Today’s automotive control system engineering requires precision and accuracy. The cost of a controller designed with conservative margins may increase significantly, causing the design, when produced and marketed, to be less competitive. On the other hand, a design with too little margin may lead to system malfunction under marginal environment conditions or due to component aging. A robust design is one that is immune to the effects of component variance due to tolerance, temperature, and aging, among other factors. Achieving a robust design involves careful analysis of the controller and plant operating together. This paper discusses how MATLAB and Simulink can be leveraged to ensure the robustness of a mechatronic system design. The merits of the network approach as a technique for modeling physical systems as an alternative to the signal flow (block diagram) approach are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Research of Electronically Controlled Throttle System for Large Motorcycles

2009-04-20
2009-01-1047
There are various demands concerning the motorcycle rider’s throttle input such as nonlinearly engine output attribute control and maximum speed control. To realize those demands by electronic control, we mounted the Drive-by-Wire (DBW) throttle system, which is currently being used on existing automobiles, to motorcycles, but the system failed to meet the demands of the motorcycle. Response to the throttle speed change was an issue; therefore, we built up the control system to satisfy the motorcycle’s demand for response by changing the high speed response equation of adaptive sliding mode control and adding the hysteresis property correction equation of the throttle body drive-train. As a result, we could realize response equivalent to that of a mechanical throttle.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of Microwave Plasma Combustion Engine (Part II: Engine Performance of Plasma Combustion Engine)

2009-04-20
2009-01-1049
The objective of this study was to develop an innovative microwave-induced plasma ignition system to improve the fuel economy of a current engine and achieve a higher efficiency without any configuration modifications. A new plasma generation technique was proposed for a stable and intense ignition source. A microwave plasma combustion system was developed consisting of a spark plug, microwave transfer system, and control system. A magnetron, like that found in a microwave oven, was used as a microwave oscillator. The spark plug had a microwave antenna inside that generated plasma in the engine cylinders. The microwave transfer system transmitted microwave power from the oscillator to the antenna. Combustion experiments were performed using a single-cylinder research engine. The microwave plasma expanded the range of lean operating conditions. The single-cylinder engine had an indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of 275 kPa at an engine speed of 2000 rpm.
Technical Paper

Improving Flow Tolerances of Mass Produced Carburetors through Pilot System Design

2009-04-20
2009-01-1055
Carburetors are widely used for two wheeler applications in India as well as countries like Taiwan, Indonesia and China. These carburetors are characterized by simple design and low cost. As the emission norms are becoming more and more stringent, matching the carburetors for vehicle application becomes very challenging. Earlier it was widely believed that, for meeting the Euro-3 regulations, even two wheelers with small engine capacity had to employ electronic fuel injection. However, many vehicle manufacturers have successfully developed carburetors for meeting Euro-3 norms by employing catalytic converters without any electronic control. This development has been essentially motivated by the need for low cost. Flow variation is inherent in mass produced carburetors because there are many parts, which contribute to the air-fuel ratio delivered by the carburetor. Carburetors with the mixture control pilot systems were mass-produced and compared for results with air control system.
Journal Article

Advanced Control System of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Engine with Dual Piston Mechanism

2009-04-20
2009-01-1063
A dual piston Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) engine has been newly developed. This compact VCR system uses the inertia force and hydraulic pressure accompanying the reciprocating motion of the piston to raise and lower the outer piston and switches the compression ratio in two stages. For the torque characteristic enhancement and the knocking prevention when the compression ratio is being switched, it is necessary to carry out engine controls based on accurate compression ratio judgment. In order to accurately judge compression ratio switching timing, a control system employing the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) was used to analyze vibration generated during the compression ratio switching. Also, in order to realize smooth torque characteristics, an ignition timing control system that separately controls each cylinder and simultaneously performs knocking control was constructed.
Journal Article

Model Based Control of SCR Dosing and OBD Strategies with Feedback from NH3 Sensors

2009-04-20
2009-01-0911
This paper presents a model-based control system for SCR urea dosing employing an embedded real-time SCR chemistry model and a NH3 sensor. The control algorithm consists of a number of control features designed to enhance ammonia storage control and closed-loop compensation using the mid-brick NH3 sensor. An adaptive control algorithm is developed to demonstrate robustness of the feedback control system to compensate for catalyst aging, urea injection malfunction, or dosing fluid concentration variation. Simulation and engine dynamometer testing following ESC and FTP emission cycles are used to demonstrate the advantages of this control approach for meeting both NOx emission requirements and NH3 slip targets. Furthermore this paper demonstrates potential of a NH3 sensor for on-board diagnostics. Additionally the feasibility of implementing model based algorithms in a 32-bit floating-point environment with an automotive controller is examined.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Development for an Automatic Transmission

2009-04-20
2009-01-0951
This paper presents the development of a transmission closed loop pressure control system. The objective of this system is to improve transmission pressure control accuracy by employing closed-loop technology. The control system design includes both feed forward and feedback control. The feed forward control algorithm continuously learns solenoid P-I characteristics. The closed loop feedback control has a conventional PID control with multi-level gain selections for each control channel, as well as different operating points. To further improve the system performance, Robust Optimization is carried out to determine the optimal set of control parameters and controller hardware design factors. The optimized design is verified via an L18 experiment on spin dynamometer. The design is also tested on vehicle.
Technical Paper

Torque Converter Clutch Control using H∞ Loop Shaping

2009-04-20
2009-01-0954
The development of a robust feedback slip controller for a torque converter clutch (TCC) is presented in this paper. The dynamic behavior of the TCC is modeled utilizing the principles of input-output system identification. An H∞ loop shaping controller design technique is applied in order to ensure robust stability against unmodeled system dynamics and large variations in system parameters. Road driving tests indicate that the control system achieves high levels of reliability and stability.
Technical Paper

Model Architecture, Methods, and Interfaces for Efficient Math-Based Design and Simulation of Automotive Control Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0241
Many of today's automotive control system simulation tools are suitable for simulation, but they provide rather limited support for model building and management. Setting up a simulation model requires more than writing down state equations and running them on a computer. The role of a model library is to manage the models of physical components of the system and allow users to share and easily reuse them. In this paper, we describe how modern software techniques can be used to support modeling and design activities; the objective is to provide better system models in less time by assembling these system models in a “plug-and-play” architecture. With the introduction of hybrid electric vehicles, the number of components that can populate a model has increased considerably, and more components translate into more possible drivetrain configurations. To address these needs, we explain how users can simulate a large number of drivetrain configurations.
Technical Paper

Advanced Catalysts for Combined (NAC + SCR) Emission Control Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0302
Emission control systems combining NOx Adsorber catalysts with Selective Catalytic Reduction catalysts (NAC + SCR) offer potential performance advantages for NOx control under lean conditions compared to systems consisting of only one of these technologies. The combined systems, however, also present new catalyst design challenges. In contrast to NAC-only systems, formation of NH₃ over the NAC component under NOx regeneration conditions is a desirable feature in the combined (NAC + SCR) system. The SCR component in the combined system needs to be as thermally durable as the stand-alone SCR technology and also has to withstand repeated high-temperature lean/rich transients encountered during periodic desulfation of the upstream NAC component. In this study, advanced NAC and SCR components were developed specifically for the combination system. The advanced NAC component exhibited a wider operating temperature window and higher NH₃ generation activity at reduced PGM loading.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation on Hydraulic Retarder Oil Charging & Discharging Control System

2010-04-12
2010-01-0269
Hydraulic retarder braking torque is needed to be controlled. Retarder braking torque refers to oil volume in retarder chamber, thus the key of braking torque control is oil charging & discharging control. The hydraulic oil charging & discharging system should have fast accurate response and provide enough flow rate. To achieve the requirement, the system is often complicated, many parameters need repeated test to determine, which increases the R&D cost and extends the research cycle. This paper tries to find a time-efficient research method on hydraulic retarder oil charging & discharging control system. The complete system is divided into some parts and every part is analyzed respectively based on mechanical theory and hydraulic theory. To build the precise model of all parts, the AMESim software is used.
Technical Paper

Integrated Powertrain Control

2010-04-12
2010-01-0368
This paper presents a newly developed integrated powertrain control system. The system coordinates the controls between engine and transmission to optimize powertrain operation for drive quality and fuel economy. This new control system uses the desired engine power as the common load variable for both engine and transmission control instead of throttle as is used in conventional powertrain controls. The main advantages to this control system are improved fuel economy and drive quality. Other advantages and a brief description of the control system will be described in more detail in the following discussion.
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