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Book

Green Technologies and Active Safety in the Mobility Industry

2011-09-12
This set includes two books, edited by Delphi's Chief Technology Officer Dr. Andrew Brown, Jr., which explore some of the most significant challenges currently facing the automotive industry-building green and safer vehicles. "Green Technologies and the Mobility Industry" and "Active Safety and the Mobility Industry" each include 20 SAE technical papers on their respective topics, originally published from 2009 through 2011. Green Technologies and the Mobility Industry Covers a wide range of subjects showcasing how the industry is developing greener products and keeping up with-if not staying ahead of-new standards and regulations. Active Safety and the Mobility Industry Details the latest innovations and trends in active safety technology and driver distraction prevention techniques. Buy a Combination of Books and Save!
Technical Paper

Mechanical Mind Reading (Transmissions)

1935-01-01
350124
THE author gives results of several years' experience in the development of automatic transmissions. Early designs are shown and explained and reasons for changes to present designs are given. Driver reaction to different types of automatic shifting is discussed and conclusions are drawn. Graphs are presented showing the acceleration characteristics of different jobs. A detailed description of the author's latest development in fully automatic transmissions is given.
Technical Paper

OBJECTIVE MEASUREMENTS OF INDIVIDUAL DRIVER BEHAVIOR

1964-01-01
640433
Research studies to date have indicated that objective measurements of driver behavior, vehicle motion and highway environment obtained by the use of the drivometer, are far more revealing than those obtained by subjective evaluations Five areas have undergone initial study using the drivometer: driver education on-the-road teaching techniques; single driver performance; effects of fatigue; driver performance rating, and driver classification studies. The results of this research have suggested other areas which may be able to benefit from the objective driver measurements afforded by the drivometer. These areas include: driver licensing; driver motivation; driving simulators; engineering test driver, and further investigation into driver education teaching techniques. The ultimate capabilities of the drivometer, not yet ascertained, will be brought to light by future studies in the areas of driver behavior, vehicle characteristics and highway environment.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Some Side Mirror Parameters on the Decisions of Drivers

1969-02-01
690270
General considerations about the use of convex mirrors indicate that they may be very useful to enlarge the field of view. There seems to be no need to use smaller values for the radius of the mirror than 1000 mm. A reaction time experiment is described in which plane mirrors of equal size at different positions on the fender are used. There are indications that the position of about 20° out of the line of sight straight ahead might be optimal. Whether this also holds for convex mirrors is not investigated. An experiment is described in which a driver must decide whether he can overtake a car in front of him, while a car behind him is approaching. This is done with several speeds of the car behind and with different curvatures of the side mirrors. Especially if the radius of curvature is not less than 1200 mm, no serious effects on driver behavior is observed. The instrumented car used in the studies is briefly described.
Journal Article

Modeling/Analysis of Pedestrian Back-Over Crashes from NHTSA's SCI Database

2011-04-12
2011-01-0588
An analysis of the first 35 back-over crashes reported by NHTSA's Special Crash Investigations unit was undertaken with two objectives: (1) to test a hypothesized classification of backing crashes into types, and (2) to characterize scenario-specific conditions that may drive countermeasure development requirements and/or objective test development requirements. Backing crash cases were sorted by type, and then analyzed in terms of key features. Subsequent modeling of these SCI cases was done using an adaptation of the Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Methodology (DREAM) and Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Methodology (CREAM) (similar to previous applications, for instance, by Ljung and Sandin to lane departure crashes [10]), which is felt to provide a useful tool for crash avoidance technology development.
Technical Paper

Development of a Semi-Autonomous System for Testing with Somnolent Drivers

2011-04-12
2011-01-0589
Driving is a highly complex activity which requires the driver's full attention. Presently, the human factor is related to 90% [1] of accidents and driver distraction is one of the principle causes. The objective of this project was to create a semi-autonomous system for testing with somnolent drivers. Our system is comprised of a GPS which checks position and velocity of the car continuously, a robot which decides with data from the CAN and GPS if the vehicle is being driven properly and an actuator on the brakes and the engine to stop the car. The robot will monitor these parameters continuously in order to take control of the car if it detects that the vehicle is not being properly driven in order to avoid a possible accident. This device will be on standby. To do this, it was necessary to create a system which allows the driver to handle the car without any influence, but when it detects driving errors can stop the car to put it in a safe state.
Journal Article

Extension of the Honda-DRI Safety Impact Methodology for the NHTSA Advanced Crash Avoidance Technology (ACAT) Program and Application to the Evaluation of an Advanced Collision Mitigation Braking System - Final Results of the ACAT-I Program

2011-04-12
2011-01-0581
The Advanced Crash Avoidance Technologies (ACAT) program initiated by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration had two major overall objectives. These were to develop a standardized Safety Impact Methodology (SIM) tool to evaluate the effectiveness of advanced technologies in avoiding and mitigating specific types of vehicle crashes; and to develop and demonstrate objective tests that are used in the SIM to verify the safety impact of a real system. Honda and Dynamic Research Inc. (DRI) had been developing and applying such SIMs for several years and had a Cooperative Agreement with NHTSA to further develop a SIM in order to determine the feasibility of developing estimates of effectiveness for specific not-yet-deployed safety technologies in the absence of data from real world or field operational tests, and linking it to the results from objective tests.
Journal Article

Method for Estimating Time to Collision at Braking in Real-World, Lead Vehicle Stopped Rear-End Crashes for Use in Pre-Crash System Design

2011-04-12
2011-01-0576
This study presents a method for determining the time to collision (TTC) at which a driver of the striking vehicle in a real-world, lead vehicle stopped (LVS) rear-end collision applied the brakes. The method employs real-world cases that were extracted from the National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System (NASS / CDS) years 2000 to 2009. Selected cases had an Event Data Recorder (EDR) recovered from the striking vehicle that contained pre-crash vehicle speed and brake application. Of 59 cases with complete EDR records, 12 cases (20%) of drivers appeared not to apply the brakes at all prior to the collision. The method was demonstrated using 47 rear-end cases in which there was driver braking. The average braking deceleration for those cases with sufficient vehicle speed information was found to be 0.52 g's. The average TTC that braking was initiated at was found to vary in the sample population from 1.1 to 1.4 seconds.
Journal Article

Issues Related to the Use and Design of a Backing Rear Cross Traffic Alert System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0578
Alternative implementations of a Rear Cross Traffic Alert (RCTA) system intended to actively notify drivers of the presence of rear cross-path traffic when backing were evaluated in naturalistic settings. The feature is one of several emerging technologies designed to assist drivers when backing - in this case, enhancing drivers' awareness of traffic approaching from the rear. The study allowed performance under a range of RCTA system driver interface implementations to be contrasted with conventional and wide Field of View (FOV) Rear Vision systems. Evaluations were conducted using a sample of 70 drivers under naturalistic settings and environments with repeated exposures to backing tasks. The study also made use of a staged conflict situation with a confederate vehicle in order to more precisely quantify driver behavior and system usage across drivers under controlled conflict situations.
Technical Paper

Connecting the J287 Reach Curves with Usability Research

2011-04-12
2011-01-0555
Navigation systems have clear design and location guidelines independent of conventional controls and displays such as radios and HVAC. However, drivers switch between advanced and conventional devices while driving, so to lessen driver distractions, the location and usability of controls and displays needs to be as efficient as possible. Because of this, ease of interactivity between advanced and conventional controls and displays should employ a systems solution during initial phases of vehicle development to create a cohesive interactive system. Research findings presented in this discussion indicate that easy to see, reach and use onboard and third party technologies empower drivers to better manage core vehicle functions. Guidance to accomplish this is provided on p.8 in The Alliance of Automotive Manufacturers (The Alliance) [1] Statement of Principles, Criteria and Verification Procedures on Driver Interactions with Advanced In-Vehicle Information and Communication Systems.
Technical Paper

Factors Moderating the Effectiveness of Rear Vision Systems: What Performance-Shaping Factors Contribute to Drivers' Detection and Response to Unexpected In-Path Obstacles When Backing?

2011-04-12
2011-01-0549
General Motors (GM) and the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) have partnered to conduct a series of studies characterizing the use and effectiveness of technologies designed to assist drivers while backing. A major emphasis of this research has been on Rear Vision Camera (RVC) systems that provide drivers with an enhanced view of the area behind the vehicle. RVC systems are intended to aid in positioning the vehicle when executing low-speed parking and backing-related tasks and are not necessarily well suited for detecting unexpected in-path obstacles (particularly if the RVC image is not coupled with object detection alerts issued to the driver).
Technical Paper

Kinetic Energy Method to Vehicle Behavior Assessment for Economic Energy Consumption under Practical Conditions

2013-03-25
2013-01-0099
Normally, the energy conversion efficiency in road vehicle was presented in term of amount of unit fuel per distance within specific condition where it could not be comparable in practice that the variations of dynamic traffic condition and driver behavior were impacted. To minimized energy consumption, the both traffic conditions and driver behavior needs to be managed. The traffic conditions improves as infrastructure development, but the driver behavior needs personal training with equipment In this study, the alternative practical indicator was proposed with applying specific positive kinetic energy concept to indicate the level of vehicle dynamic behavior which relate to the level of fuel consumption rate. Furthermore, the experimental were taken place in Pahonyothin Rd. (Bangkok, Thailand) including urban, sub-urban and highway with various traffic congestion level.
Journal Article

The Naturalistic Study of Distracted Driving: Moving from Research to Practice

2011-09-13
2011-01-2305
2011 - 56th L. Ray Buckendale Lecture Driver distraction has become an important topic in society and the research community. A telltale sign of how driver distraction has impacted society is evidenced by the designation of the term "distracted driving" as Webster's New World® College Dictionary 2009 Word of the Year. Since the release of a key study directed at commercial vehicle drivers, there have been two U.S. Department of Transportation summits to address the topic, in addition to legislation banning texting-while-driving in commercial motor vehicles. Given that "driver distraction" is a construct without a consensus definition, many studies on driver distraction have focused on its fundamental and theoretical underpinning, which is a critical first step in understanding the phenomenon.
Journal Article

Pedal Misapplication: Crash Characteristics and Contributing Factors

2013-04-08
2013-01-0446
Pedal misapplication events were examined using police-reported crash data to determine crash characteristics and other contributing factors. The study used police-reported crash data narratives from North Carolina (1994-2009) and included detailed manual review of each selected police report to identify possible pedal misapplication events. A comprehensive keyword search of all the records in the North Carolina data was performed to identify crashes most likely to be associated with pedal misapplications. The identified records were reviewed by engineers and classified as either “Yes,” “Possible,” or “No” pedal misapplication. For the “Yes” and “Possible” records, examination was made of the sequence of events leading up to the possible pedal misapplication. Findings show that the most frequently reported pedal misapplication events include: parking, slowing, stopped, starting, and backing, which are all low-speed events.
Technical Paper

Driver Distraction: Are We Mistaking a Symptom for the Problem?

2013-04-08
2013-01-0439
In recent years it seems we have been continuously bombarded by research and popular press articles dealing with the dangers of driver distraction, particularly that resulting from the use of cell phones or other telematic systems while behind the wheel. Based on the volume and vitriolic nature of these articles, one would suppose that the U.S. was undergoing a dramatic increase in the number of accidents on our roadways, largely as a function of operators focusing on these devices, rather than on the road. In reality, the opposite is true. Fifty years worth of vigilance research suggests that our entire perspective on the “driver distraction” problem may be incorrect. It is possible that we are fixating on the result of a problem, rather than on a problem cause. Research has repeatedly demonstrated that high workload levels negatively affect performance; what is less well-recognized is that too low of a workload level has virtually the same impact.
Technical Paper

Opportunities on Fuel Economy Utilizing V2V Based Drive Systems

2013-04-08
2013-01-0985
It is well known that driver behavior can affect fuel consumption to a large extent hence modifying it can lead to reasonable reduction in the magnitude of 10 to 20%. However, it is also known that effects of training are short lived and therefore many authors and companies suggest the use of monitoring systems, sometimes called eco-driver, which allow recognizing opportunities for reduction. V2V is an emerging technology which has been widely studied especially for safety applications. In terms of fuel consumption, there has also been a significant effort for methods directed to coordinate the movement of vehicles, especially of trucks, to improve fuel consumption by platooning [1].
Journal Article

Automatic Driving Maneuver Recognition and Analysis using Cost Effective Portable Devices

2013-04-08
2013-01-0983
The use of portable devices for in-vehicle environments has become a major cause for driver distraction which can be a contributing factor in crashes of varying intensity. Despite this fact, the number of drivers choosing to use using these devices while driving is increasing rapidly. On the positive side, smart portable devices are equipped with a variety of useful sensors such as cameras, microphones, accelerometer, gyroscope, etc. which could be leveraged to help reduce driver distraction. Careful utilization and delivery of information extracted from these sensors could potentially prove more useful to drivers rather than distracting them. As a proof of concept, using the sensor information available from an off-the-shelf smart portable device, an automatic system is proposed here for driving maneuver recognition and analysis. Driving maneuvers form the basic building blocks of the driver's intent in completing a route.
Technical Paper

Subjective Evaluation of Advanced Driver Assistance by Evaluation of Standardized Driving Maneuvers

2013-04-08
2013-01-0724
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for collision avoidance/mitigation have already demonstrated their benefit on vehicle safety. Often those systems have an additional functionality for comfort to assist the driver in non-critical driving. The verification of ADAS functionality using different test scenarios is currently investigated in many different projects worldwide. A harmonization of test scenarios and evaluation criteria is not yet accomplished. Often, these test scenarios focus on objective collision avoidance and not on the subjective interaction between driver and vehicle. The present study deals with the development of an experimental validation plan for the systems Automatic Cruise Control (ACC), Lane Departure Warning (LDW) and Lane Keeping Assist (LKA). Standardized driving maneuvers with two or more vehicles equipped with synchronized measurement are performed by professional test drivers.
Journal Article

Forward Collision Warning Timing in Near Term Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-0727
Forward Collision Warning (FCW) is a system intended to warn the driver in order to reduce the number of rear end collisions or reduce the severity of collisions. However, it has the potential to generate driver annoyances and unintended consequences due to high ineffectual (false or unnecessary) alarms with a corresponding reduction in the total system effectiveness. The ineffectual alarm rate is known to be closely associated with the “time to issue warning.” This results in a conflicting set of requirements. The earlier the time the warning is issued, the greater probability of reducing the severity of the impact or eliminating it. However, with an earlier warning time there is a greater chance of ineffectual warning, which could result in significant annoyance, frequent complaints and the driver's disengagement of the FCW. Disengaging the FCW eliminates its potential benefits.
Journal Article

Considerations in HMI Design of a Reverse Braking Assist (RBA) System

2013-04-08
2013-01-0720
The Reverse Braking Assist (RBA) feature is designed to automatically activate full braking in a backing vehicle. When this feature activates, a backing vehicle is suddenly stopped or may slide to a stop. During this process, an understanding of the driver's behavior may be useful in the design of an appropriate human-machine-interface (HMI) for the RBA. Several experimental studies were done to examine driver behavior in response to an unexpected and automatic braking event while backing [1]. Two of these studies are reported in this paper. A 7-passenger Crossover Utility Vehicle was fitted with a rear-view camera, a center-stack mounted LCD screen, and ancillary recording devices. In the first study, an object was suddenly placed in the path of a backing vehicle. The backing vehicle came to a sudden and complete stop. The visual image of the backing path on the LCD prominently showed that an obstacle was present in the backing path of the vehicle.
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