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Standard

Mechanical Properties of Heat Treated Wrought Steels

1978-11-01
HISTORICAL
J413B_197811
The figures in this SAE Information Report illustrate the principle that, regardless of composition, steels of the same cross-sectional hardness produced by tempering after through hardening will have approximately the same longitudinal tensile strength at room temperature. Figure 1 shows the relation between hardness and longitudinal tensile strength of 0.30 to 0.50% carbon steels in the fully hardened and tempered, as rolled, normalized, and annealed conditions. Figure 2 showing the relation between longitudinal tensile strength and yield strength, and Figure 3 illustrating longitudinal tensile strength versus reduction of area, are typical of steels in the quenched and tempered condition. Figure 3 shows the direct relationship between ductility and hardness and illustrates the fact that the reduction of area decreases as hardness increases, and that, for a given hardness, the reduction of area is generally higher for alloy steels than for plain carbon steels.
Standard

Mechanical Properties of Heat Treated Wrought Steels

1990-06-01
HISTORICAL
J413_199006
The figures in this SAE Information Report illustrate the principle that, regardless of composition, steels of the same cross-sectional hardness produced by tempering after through hardening will have approximately the same longitudinal tensile strength at room temperature. Figure 1 shows the relation between hardness and longitudinal tensile strength of 0.30 to 0.50% carbon steels in the fully hardened and tempered, as rolled, normalized, and annealed conditions. Figure 2 showing the relation between longitudinal tensile strength and yield strength, and Figure 3 illustrating longitudinal tensile strength versus reduction of area, are typical of steels in the quenched and tempered condition. Figure 3 shows the direct relationship between ductility and hardness and illustrates the fact that the reduction of area decreases as hardness increases, and that, for a given hardness, the reduction of area is generally higher for alloy steels than for plain carbon steels.
Standard

Mechanical Properties of Heat Treated Wrought Steels

2011-10-27
CURRENT
J413_201110
The figures in this SAE Information Report illustrate the principle that, regardless of composition, steels of the same cross-sectional hardness produced by tempering after through hardening will have approximately the same longitudinal1 tensile strength at room temperature. Figure 1 shows the relation between hardness and longitudinal tensile strength of 0.30 to 0.50% carbon steels in the fully hardened and tempered, as rolled, normalized, and annealed conditions. Figure 2 showing the relation between longitudinal tensile strength and yield strength, and Figure 3 illustrating longitudinal tensile strength versus reduction of area, are typical of steels in the quenched and tempered condition. Figure 3 shows the direct relationship between ductility and hardness and illustrates the fact that the reduction of area decreases as hardness increases, and that, for a given hardness, the reduction of area is generally higher for alloy steels than for plain carbon steels.
Standard

Carbon and Alloy Steels

1997-09-01
HISTORICAL
J411_199709
This SAE Information Report describes the processing and fabrication of carbon and alloy steels. The basic steelmaking process including iron ore reduction, the uses of fluxes, and the various melting furnaces are briefly described. The various types of steels: killed, rimmed, semikilled, and capped are described in terms of their melting and microstructural differences and their end product use. This document also provides a list of the commonly specified elements used to alloy elemental iron into steel. Each element’s structural benefits and effects are also included. A list of the AISI Steel Products Manuals is included and describes the various finished shapes in which steel is produced.
Standard

Carbon and Alloy Steels

2015-01-23
CURRENT
J411_201501
This SAE Information Report describes the processing and fabrication of carbon and alloy steels. The basic steelmaking process including iron ore reduction, the uses of fluxes, and the various melting furnaces are briefly described. The various types of steels: killed, rimmed, semikilled, and capped are described in terms of their melting and microstructural differences and their end product use. This document also provides a list of the commonly specified elements used to alloy elemental iron into steel. Each element’s structural benefits and effects are also included. A list of the AISI Steel Products Manuals is included and describes the various finished shapes in which steel is produced.
Standard

CASE HARDENABILITY OF CARBURIZED STEELS

1997-11-01
CURRENT
J1975_199711
This SAE Information Report summarizes the characteristics of carburized steels and factors involved in controlling hardness, microstructure, and residual stress. Methods of determining case hardenability are reviewed, as well as methods to test for freedom from non-martensitic structures in the carburized case. Factors influencing case hardenability are also reviewed. Methods of predicting case hardenability are included, with examples of calculations for several standard carburizing steels. A bibliography is included in 2.2. The references provide more detailed information on the topics discussed in this document.
Standard

Selecting and Specifying Hot-Rolled Steel Bar Products

2010-03-01
CURRENT
J2281_201003
This SAE Information Report relates to hot-rolled steel bar products. It is intended as a guideline to assist in the selection and specification of hot-rolled steel bar; however, it is not to be interpreted as a material specification in itself.
Standard

Mechanical Properties of Heat Treated Wrought Steels

2002-02-27
HISTORICAL
J413_200202
The figures in this SAE Information Report illustrate the principle that, regardless of composition, steels of the same cross-sectional hardness produced by tempering after through hardening will have approximately the same longitudinal tensile strength at room temperature. Figure 1 shows the relation between hardness and longitudinal tensile strength of 0.30 to 0.50% carbon steels in the fully hardened and tempered, as rolled, normalized, and annealed conditions. Figure 2 showing the relation between longitudinal tensile strength and yield strength, and Figure 3 illustrating longitudinal tensile strength versus reduction of area, are typical of steels in the quenched and tempered condition. Figure 3 shows the direct relationship between ductility and hardness and illustrates the fact that the reduction of area decreases as hardness increases, and that, for a given hardness, the reduction of area is generally higher for alloy steels than for plain carbon steels.
Standard

Potential Standard Steels

1979-02-01
HISTORICAL
J1081A_197902
This SAE Information Report provides a uniform means of designating wrought steels during a period of usage prior to the time they meet the requirements for SAE standard steel designation. The numbers consist of the prefix PS followed by a sequential number starting with 1. A number once assigned is never assigned to any other composition. A PS number may be obtained for steel composition by submitting a written request to SAE Staff, indicating the chemical composition and other pertinent characteristics of the material. If the request is approved according to established procedures, SAE Staff will assign a PS number to the grade. This number will remain in effect until the grade meets the requirements for an SAE standard steel or the grade is discontinued according to established procedures. Table 1 is a listing of the chemical composition limits of potential standard steels which were considered active on the date of the last survey prior to the date of this report.
Standard

Potential Standard Steels

2000-11-10
CURRENT
J1081_200011
This SAE Information Report provides a uniform means of designating wrought steels during a period of usage prior to the time they meet the requirements for SAE standard steel designation. The numbers consist of the prefix PS1 followed by a sequential number starting with 1. A number once assigned is never assigned to any other composition. A PS number may be obtained for steel composition by submitting a written request to SAE Staff, indicating the chemical composition and other pertinent characteristics of the material. If the request is approved according to established procedures, SAE Staff will assign a PS number to the grade. This number will remain in effect until the grade meets the requirements for an SAE standard steel or the grade is discontinued according to established procedures. Table 1 is a listing of the chemical composition limits of potential standard steels which were considered active on the date of the last survey prior to the date of this report.
Standard

High-Strength, Hot-Rolled Steel Bars

2003-09-24
CURRENT
J1442_200309
This SAE Recommended Practice covers two levels of high strength structural low-alloy steel bars having minimum Yield Points of 345 MPa (50 ksi) and 450 MPa (65 ksi). The two strength levels are 345 and 450 MPa or 50 and 65 ksi minimum yield point. Different chemical compositions are used to achieve the specified mechanical properties. In some cases there are significant differences in chemical composition for the same strength level, depending on the fabricating requirements. It should be noted that although the mechanical properties for a steel grade sourced from different suppliers may be the same, the chemical composition may vary significantly. The fabricator should be aware that certain compositional differences may effect the forming, welding, and/or service requirements of the material. It is therefore recommended that the fabricator consult with the producer to understand the effect of chemical composition.
Standard

Restricted Hardenability Bands for Selected Alloy Steels

2010-02-15
CURRENT
J1868_201002
Restricted hardenability steels have been in use for some time but the specific restrictions for a particular grade depend upon customer needs and vary from mill to mill. Such steels are desirable to provide more controlled heat treatment response and dimensional control for critical parts. Because of increasing interest in steels with restricted hardenability, the SAE Iron and Steel Technical Committee directed Division 8 to prepare a set of standard steels with restricted hardenability. In 1993, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) adopted the twelve SAE restricted hardenability steels and added ten more. SAE decided to include in SAE J1868 the additional 10 steels. In general, steels with restricted hardenability (RH steels) will exhibit a hardness range not greater than 5 HRC at the initial position on the end-quench hardenability bar and not greater than 65% of the hardness range for standard H-band steels (see SAE J1268) in the "inflection" region.
Standard

General Characteristics and Heat Treatments of Steels

1976-07-01
HISTORICAL
J412H_197607
The information and data contained in this SAE Information Report are intended as a guide in the selection of steel types and grades for various purposes. Consideration of the individual types of steel is preceded by a discussion of the factors affecting steel properties and characteristics. SAE steels are generally purchased on the basis of chemical composition requirements (SAE J403, J404, and J405). High-strength, low alloy (HSLA) steels (SAE J1392 and J1442) are generally purchased on the basis of mechanical properties; different chemical compositions are used to achieve the specified mechanical properties. Because these steels are characterized by their special mechanical properties obtained in the as-rolled condition, they are not intended for any heat treatment by the purchaser either before, during, or after fabrication. In many instances, as in the case of steels listed in SAE J1268 and J1868, hardenability is also a specification requirement.
Standard

General Characteristics and Heat Treatments of Steels

2013-08-14
WIP
J412
The information and data contained in this SAE Information Report are intended as a guide in the selection of steel types and grades for various purposes. Consideration of the individual types of steel is preceded by a discussion of the factors affecting steel properties and characteristics. SAE steels are generally purchased on the basis of chemical composition requirements (SAE J403, J404, and J405). High-strength, low alloy (HSLA) steels (SAE J1392 and J1442) are generally purchased on the basis of mechanical properties; different chemical compositions are used to achieve the specified mechanical properties. Because these steels are characterized by their special mechanical properties obtained in the as-rolled condition, they are not intended for any heat treatment by the purchaser either before, during, or after fabrication. In many instances, as in the case of steels listed in SAE J1268 and J1868, hardenability is also a specification requirement.
Standard

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND HEAT TREATMENTS OF STEELS

1995-10-01
CURRENT
J412_199510
The information and data contained in this SAE Information Report are intended as a guide in the selection of steel types and grades for various purposes. Consideration of the individual types of steel is preceded by a discussion of the factors affecting steel properties and characteristics. SAE steels are generally purchased on the basis of chemical composition requirements (SAE J403, J404, and J405). High-strength, low alloy (HSLA) steels (SAE J1392 and J1442) are generally purchased on the basis of mechanical properties; different chemical compositions are used to achieve the specified mechanical properties. Because these steels are characterized by their special mechanical properties obtained in the as-rolled condition, they are not intended for any heat treatment by the purchaser either before, during, or after fabrication. In many instances, as in the case of steels listed in SAE J1268 and J1868, hardenability is also a specification requirement.
Standard

General Characteristics and Heat Treatments of Steels

1989-06-01
HISTORICAL
J412_198906
The information and data contained in this SAE Information Report are intended as a guide in the selection of steel types and grades for various purposes. Consideration of the individual types of steel is preceded by a discussion of the factors affecting steel properties and characteristics. SAE steels are generally purchased on the basis of chemical composition requirements (SAE J403, J404, and J405). High-strength, low alloy (HSLA) steels (SAE J1392 and J1442) are generally purchased on the basis of mechanical properties; different chemical compositions are used to achieve the specified mechanical properties. Because these steels are characterized by their special mechanical properties obtained in the as-rolled condition, they are not intended for any heat treatment by the purchaser either before, during, or after fabrication. In many instances, as in the case of steels listed in SAE J1268 and J1868, hardenability is also a specification requirement.
Standard

Selection and Use of Steels

1977-11-01
HISTORICAL
J401_197711
The SAE system of designating steels, described in SAE J402, classifies and numbers them according to chemical composition. In the case of the dent resistant, high strength and ultra high strength steels in SAE J2340, advanced high strength steels described in SAE J2745, and the high strength steels in SAE J1442 and the high-strength carbon and alloy die drawn steels in SAE J935, minimum mechanical property requirements have been included in the designations. In addition, hardenability data on most of the alloy steels and some of the carbon steels will be found in SAE J1268.
Standard

Selection and Use of Steels

2012-03-12
CURRENT
J401_201203
The SAE system of designating steels, described in SAE J402, classifies and numbers them according to chemical composition. In the case of the dent resistant, high strength and ultra high strength steels in SAE J2340, advanced high strength steels described in SAE J2745, and the high strength steels in SAE J1442 and the high-strength carbon and alloy die drawn steels in SAE J935, minimum mechanical property requirements have been included in the designations. In addition, hardenability data on most of the alloy steels and some of the carbon steels will be found in SAE J1268.
Standard

Selection and Use of Steels

1981-04-01
HISTORICAL
J401_198104
The SAE system of designating steels, described in SAE J402, classifies and numbers them according to chemical composition. In the case of the dent resistant, high strength and ultra high strength steels in SAE J2340, advanced high strength steels described in SAE J2745, and the high strength steels in SAE J1442 and the high-strength carbon and alloy die drawn steels in SAE J935, minimum mechanical property requirements have been included in the designations. In addition, hardenability data on most of the alloy steels and some of the carbon steels will be found in SAE J1268.
Standard

Selection and Use of Steels

1988-12-01
HISTORICAL
J401_198812
The SAE system of designating steels, described in SAE J402, classifies and numbers them according to chemical composition. In the case of the dent resistant, high strength and ultra high strength steels in SAE J2340, advanced high strength steels described in SAE J2745, and the high strength steels in SAE J1442 and the high-strength carbon and alloy die drawn steels in SAE J935, minimum mechanical property requirements have been included in the designations. In addition, hardenability data on most of the alloy steels and some of the carbon steels will be found in SAE J1268.
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