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RFID Selection, Application, and Use in Aerospace, Space, and Transportation

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an enabling technology that has been widely adopted in the retail industry. The powers of RFID are acknowledged by many, but a lack of understanding of the technology, its limitations, and how to select the right plan for its target installation has slowed efforts to migrate the technology into the aerospace, space, and transportation industries. While RFID is not a new technology, the rate at which it has been integrated into the aerospace industry has been slow due to unique considerations regarding qualification, regulations, and safety.
Video

Detecting Damage and Damage Location on Large Composite Parts using RFID Technology

2012-03-16
Probabilistic methods are used in calculating composite part design factors for, and are intended to conservatively compensate for worst case impact to composite parts used on space and aerospace vehicles. The current method to investigate impact damage of composite parts is visual based upon observation of an indentation. A more reliable and accurate determinant of impact damage is to measure impact energy. RF impact sensors can be used to gather data to establish an impact damage benchmark for deterministic design criteria that will reduce material applied to composite parts to compensate for uncertainties resulting from observed impact damage. Once the benchmark has been established, RF impact sensors will be applied to composite parts throughout their life-cycle to alert and identify the location of impact damage that exceeds the maximum established benchmark for impact.
Video

RFID on Aircraft Parts - Industry Initiatives, Testing Standards, and Best Practices for Storing Maintenance History Information Directly on Aircraft Parts

2012-03-22
The aerospace industry has long sought a solution for storing maintenance history information directly on aircraft parts. In 2005 leading airframe manufacturers determined that passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology presented a unique opportunity to address this industry need. Through the efforts of the Air Transport Association (ATA) RFID on Parts Committee and SAE International testing standards and data specifications are in place to support the broad adoption of passive RFID for storing parts history information directly on aircraft parts. The primary focus of the paper will be on the SAE AS-5678 environmental testing standard for passive RFID tags intended for aircraft use. Detail will be provided to help aerospace manufacturers understand their role and responsibilities for current programs and understand how this may impact their parts certification process.
Technical Paper

Entropy Generation in Flow Restrictions: Modeling and Identification for Engine Control

2000-03-06
2000-01-0937
An alternative method to modeling and identification of flow restrictions built-in the IC engine air-flow system has been pro-posed. It is based on modeling of flow losses, i.e the entropy change avoiding detailed geometry modeling. It allows to generate the integrated model of flow restriction covering all operating modes in one equation and, to some extent, to predict the temperature ratio over the flow restriction. A modified version of the model has been elaborated to achieve the computational stability. The model has been verified using the experimental data from SAAB'95 production engine throttle plate.
Technical Paper

Secondary O2 Feedback Using Prediction and Identification Type Sliding Mode Control

2000-03-06
2000-01-0936
Recently, much research has been carried out on secondary O2 feedback which performs control based on the output from a secondary O2 sensor (HEGO sensor). In this research it has been found that, regardless of catalyst aging conditions, the HEGO sensor output indicates 0.6 V when the catalyst reduction rate is maintained at the optimum level. Therefore, based on this relationship, we designed an accurate secondary O2 feedback with the aim of reducing emissions by stabilizing the HEGO sensor output to 0.6 V. In order to realize this control, it was necessary to solve the three problems of nonlinear catalyst characteristics, dead time characteristics, and changes in dynamic characteristics due to catalyst aging conditions. Therefore, these problems were solved using the modeling approach of robust control and a new robust adaptive control named Prediction and Identification Type Sliding Mode Control.
Technical Paper

Use of Raman Spectroscopy to Identify Automotive Polymers in Recycling Operations

2000-03-06
2000-01-0739
To support its recycling efforts, Ford Motor Company is using a Raman based instrument, the RP-1, co-developed with SpectraCode Inc. to identify unknown polymeric parts. Our recycling initiative involves detailed dismantling of our vehicles into individual parts, calculating the percentage recyclability and making recommendations for the future use of recycled polymers. While Ford has voluntarily adopted the SAE J1344 marking protocol for identifying part material composition, a large number of unmarked parts still exist and require identification. This identification is being done with the help of RP-1. To facilitate this identification, we have generated an accurate reference library of Raman spectra for comparison to those of unknown materials. This paper will describe the techniques that were used to develop and refine the RP-1 reference library to identify automotive polymers, especially black/dark plastics.
Technical Paper

CPJazz – A Software Framework for Vehicle Systems Integration and Wireless Connectivity

2000-03-06
2000-01-1312
Integration of new technology into vehicles continues at a rapid pace. New technology includes not only deeply embedded devices for vehicle systems management but also operator interfaces such as navigation systems, voice-recognition/text-to-speech interfaces and integration of consumer electronic appliances such as the Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). Standardization efforts have attempted to bring these technologies together through common buses, but because these devices have different capabilities and requirements of their own this is most likely impossible. The CPJazz framework was designed to provide integration of disparate devices and protocols through a dynamic and scalable component-like architecture. In this paper the capabilities and services provided by CPJazz for vehicle-based software integrators will be discussed as well as the identification of key scenarios that demonstrate its contributions to the vehicle and wireless environment.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Convection Model for Heat Release Analysis of IC Engine Pressure Data

2000-03-06
2000-01-1265
A contribution has been given to the thermodynamics approach usually used for analyzing the combustion process in IC engines on the basis of cylinder pressure data reduction. A survey of heat release type combustion models and of their calibration methods has first been carried out with specific attention paid to the bulk gas-wall heat transfer correlations used. Experimental results have given evidence that most of these correlations are incapable of predicting the phase shift occurring between the gas-wall temperature difference and the heat transfer during the engine compression and expansion strokes, owing to the transient properties of the fluid directly in contact with the wall. This work develops and applies a refined procedure for heat release analysis of cylinder pressure data including the unsteadiness effects of the convective heat transfer process.
Technical Paper

IDENTIFICATION AND REDUCTION OF SOUND SOURCES IN CAR WHEEL SUSPENSIONS

2000-01-15
2000-01-1437
The identification and reduction of sound sources in car wheel suspensions is one of today's major issues in the Automotive industry. The last five years a lot of effort has been spent identifying shock absorber noise. These investigations have now been extended towards complete suspensions. Due to its strong nonlinear characteristic, the shock absorber generates high frequency vibrations (100-900 Hz). First, the relationship between the structure borne noise and the damper behavior needs to be defined by means of a vehicle evaluation. Next the components that need to be modified are identified by comparing time-domain simulations and measurements. To deal with full suspension noise source identification and reduction some specific time-frequency techniques are applied. Additionally, some new techniques such as the 3D coherence function are proposed.
Technical Paper

Development of an Expert System for the Analysis of Track Test Data

2000-05-01
2000-01-1628
This paper describes the development of an expert system implemented in MATLAB that can identify various handling characteristics of interest by evaluating racecar track test data. The program quickly scans the data obtained during a track test and helps the race team by pinpointing those parts of the data that indicate oversteer and understeer events. Towards this goal, algorithms utilizing fuzzy logic were developed for the identification of the oversteer and understeer events. The details of these algorithms are given in this paper. The algorithms were successful in identifying these handling characteristics in actual track data. Examples for each of the cases are presented.
Technical Paper

The Nissan Hybrid Vehicle

2000-04-02
2000-01-1568
Technologies applied to the Nissan Tino Hybrid, marketed in March 2000, in Japan, are expected to evolve into the core powertrain technologies of the future, for the following technical advantages inherent to hybrid EVs: 1 Regeneration of deceleration energy 2 Motor driven propulsion at low speed, combined with power-assisted operation in the mid- and high-load ranges. It is expected that a number of models will be introduced to the market in the future, which pursue these advantages in various forms, resulting in HEV technologies to accelerate the use of electric power for the vehicle. Fuel cell vehicles will be included in this future scenario. In this paper, our view on the future HEV technologies will be described. In addition, the latest technologies applied to the Nissan Tino Hybrid will be introduced.
Technical Paper

Repeatability of Impedance and Ripple Tests for Automotive Pumps

1999-05-17
1999-01-1715
Pumps are usually tested for performance and efficiency as well as other pump characteristics. With the increased awareness of Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) in the automotive industry, new standardized tests have evolved for testing pumps. Two major tests are the impedance and ripple tests. Information collected on these signatures of pumps is vital for the success of any Fluid Born Noise (FBN) analysis of these important components and the system in which they function. The purpose of this paper is to study the repeatability and reproducibility of such tests for the same pump. Production variability will be found when pumps of the same ‘category’ or part number are tested. The information presented here is important for the generalization of these tests and establishing them as a part of the research, development and design process. A set of pumps commonly used in the vehicle is put to the test.
Technical Paper

Tire/Pavement Interaction Noise Source Identification Using Multi-Planar Nearfield Acoustical Holography

1999-05-17
1999-01-1733
In this study, multi-planar Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) is used to investigate noise radiated from the front, side and rear areas of single tires on a two-wheel trailer. Contributions to the radiated noise from the leading edge, trailing edge, and sidewall of the tire are identified. Two tires - an experimental monopitch tire and a production passenger car tire - are evaluated on a smooth asphalt pavement at 58 km/hr. From the measured complex pressure, acoustic intensity is reconstructed on three planes surrounding the tire using modified NAH procedures. Additionally, sound power levels are presented in tabulated and spectra forms. Tire noise generating mechanisms are inferred based on the results.
Technical Paper

Identification of Forces Transmitted onto Car Body Through Rubber Bushings in Suspension System Under Driving Conditions

1999-05-17
1999-01-1841
This paper presents a study on using rubber bushing as a sensor for the identification of forces transmitted onto the car body. The method starts from the idea that the transmission forces can be related to the deformation of the rubber bushing multiplied by its stiffness. Deformation of the rubber bushing is estimated from relative vibrations across the bushing. Simple theories are presented to deal with modeling of the rubber bushing and processing of the vibration mesurements on the link and car body to identify the transmission forces. Then, validity of the proposed approach is shown by applications to a suspension system under several driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Proportional Control Solenoid Valve for Automatic Transmission Using System Identification Theory

1999-03-01
1999-01-1061
As most of today's automatic transmissions adopt a electro-hydraulic control system, the role of electronically controlled solenoid valves occupies an important position. This paper presents a dynamic modelling technique of a proportional control solenoid valve(PCSV) for automatic transmissions in terms of the system identification theory, and analyzes the dynamic characteristics of the PCSV in frequency domain. Also we find that there are good matches between the nonlinear dynamic simulation results and the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Distributed Variable Reluctance Sensors

1999-03-01
1999-01-1039
This paper describes a novel variable reluctance speed sensor with distributed magnetic circuit configuration. It provides the sensor analysis well supported by test results. This sensor when compared with a lumped element sensor shows improved performance and simplicity because of its magnetically distributed configuration and reduced number of parts. Recommendations are made based on original analytical and experimental work with applications in the automotive industry.
Technical Paper

Seat Belt Survey: Identification and Assessment of Noncollision Markings

1999-03-01
1999-01-0441
The assessment of seat belt usage during a collision is typically made by considering four types of evidence: (1) the nature and location of the occupant’s injuries, (2) the presence or absence of occupant contact marks in the passenger compartment, (3) the occupant’s final position and (4) markings on the restraint system. This paper focuses specifically on seat belt restraint system markings. Markings or observable anomalies on the webbing and restraint system hardware can be classified into two categories: (1) those caused by collision forces, or “loading marks” and (2) those created by noncollision situations, or “normal usage marks”. Some normal usage marks can appear visually similar to loading marks. The purpose of this paper is to help the investigator distinguish between occupant loading marks and normal usage marks by presenting examples of marks found on belt restraint systems that have never experienced occupant loading in a collision.
Technical Paper

Progress in an FTIR-Based Multi-Component Monitoring System for Spacecraft Air Analysis

1999-07-12
1999-01-2150
In this paper, an advanced trace gas monitoring system for manned space cabins is presented. The principle of functioning of the measurement system is based on the detection of gas-specific absorption features in the Infrared area of the spectrum. The core element in the monitoring system is a Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer. When calibration is carried out applying sophisticated, novel analysis methods, the system can simultaneously detect and quantify all the interesting gases in manned space cabins. In a previous Trace Gas Monitoring multi-phase program (TGM 2) [1],[2], the FTIR technology has demonstrated its ability to handle multi-component, quasi on-line gas measurements, including identification and quantification of 23 important trace gases in a mixture. In the ongoing phase 3 (TGM 3), initiated end of 1997 [3], a fully operational FTIR technology demonstration model is tested being able to detect simultaneously 30 different trace gases in a mixture.
Technical Paper

DNA Microchip-Based Microbial Montoring

1999-07-12
1999-01-2031
Microbial monitoring of spacecraft and spacestations is crucial to maintaining system integrity and crew member health. Ribosomal RNA-based methods of microbial detection are particularly effective. A new DNA microchip technology now provides advantages over more traditional hybridization formats. This method utilizes a micro-array of gel elements containing hundreds of individual DNA-probes bound to a glass slide. The probes are complementary to the 16S rRNA of a selected bacterial species, genus, or higher taxonomic grouping. This format provides for massively parallel hybridization and the simultaneous identification of many microbial population types. We are developing a DNA microchip technology to monitor microbial contaminants of water systems
Technical Paper

New Developments in Multi-channel Test Systems

1999-05-17
1999-01-1854
A significant challenge in successful implementation of large channel count dynamic test systems, like multi-channel modal systems, has been efficient and error free test set-up and data collection. Newly developed instrumentation that digitally communicates self-identifying information (including transducer type and serial number, calibration value and physical location) greatly enhances system performance and drastically reduces the opportunity for human documentation errors. Sensors featuring this Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS, consistent with the impending IEEE P1451.4 standard), in addition to such techniques as sonic digitization for geometry definition and automated data acquisition with computer controlled, bank switching signal conditioners are continually improving accuracy and reducing the per channel price of multi-channel dynamic test systems.
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