Refine Your Search




Search Results

Training / Education

RFID Selection, Application, and Use in Aerospace, Space, and Transportation

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an enabling technology that has been widely adopted in the retail industry. The powers of RFID are acknowledged by many, but a lack of understanding of the technology, its limitations, and how to select the right plan for its target installation has slowed efforts to migrate the technology into the aerospace, space, and transportation industries. While RFID is not a new technology, the rate at which it has been integrated into the aerospace industry has been slow due to unique considerations regarding qualification, regulations, and safety.

RFID on Aircraft Parts - Industry Initiatives, Testing Standards, and Best Practices for Storing Maintenance History Information Directly on Aircraft Parts

The aerospace industry has long sought a solution for storing maintenance history information directly on aircraft parts. In 2005 leading airframe manufacturers determined that passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology presented a unique opportunity to address this industry need. Through the efforts of the Air Transport Association (ATA) RFID on Parts Committee and SAE International testing standards and data specifications are in place to support the broad adoption of passive RFID for storing parts history information directly on aircraft parts. The primary focus of the paper will be on the SAE AS-5678 environmental testing standard for passive RFID tags intended for aircraft use. Detail will be provided to help aerospace manufacturers understand their role and responsibilities for current programs and understand how this may impact their parts certification process.

Detecting Damage and Damage Location on Large Composite Parts using RFID Technology

Probabilistic methods are used in calculating composite part design factors for, and are intended to conservatively compensate for worst case impact to composite parts used on space and aerospace vehicles. The current method to investigate impact damage of composite parts is visual based upon observation of an indentation. A more reliable and accurate determinant of impact damage is to measure impact energy. RF impact sensors can be used to gather data to establish an impact damage benchmark for deterministic design criteria that will reduce material applied to composite parts to compensate for uncertainties resulting from observed impact damage. Once the benchmark has been established, RF impact sensors will be applied to composite parts throughout their life-cycle to alert and identify the location of impact damage that exceeds the maximum established benchmark for impact.

Numbering System for Standard Drills, Standard Taps, and Reamers

This hands-on manual provides a systematic method for identifying standard drills, standard taps, and various types of hand, machine and shell reamers used in industrial applications. Complete contents include: J2122 - Numbering System for Standard Drills; J2123 - Numbering System for Standard Taps; and J2124 - Numbering System for Reamers. A complete appendix section listing numerous examples of standard tool designations using the numbering scheme is also included. A valuable reference that will help OEMs and suppliers effectively communicate tool descriptions, as well as more efficiently catalog and supply tools!
Technical Paper

The Use of Trailers with Motor-Trucks

TRAILER registration figures for the entire United States are given to show the rapid increase in the use of trailers in the last seven years, and, for comparison, State registrations of all motor-vehicles in 1931 are given. To account for the relatively more rapid increase in trailers than in trucks, factors favoring the use of trailers are mentioned and illustrative examples of operation are briefly described. The factor of first importance is legislation, which in general is stated to have promoted the use of trailers to distribute the weight of heavy loads over more axles and wheels; but in some States the laws and regulations have a serious adverse effect. Next to legislation, savings in hauling costs through the use of trailers account for the increase in their numbers, and comparative figures of the cost of hauling per 100 lb. per 100 miles by truck, by truck and trailer and by rail are given to show the economy.
Technical Paper


When the volume and the variety of the parts produced by a plant increase beyond the point at which the shop mechanic is capable of devising the methods and building the tools for accomplishing the desired results, it becomes necessary to make a division of labor, and a special department on tool division is needed to determine the proper sequence of operations and the suitable equipment to produce the required quantity with the required degree of accuracy. It is necessary that the men be informed regarding the daily and the ultimate numbers of parts to be produced and the tolerances that will be allowed. The foremost consideration of the production engineer should be economy of production. In this phase of tool engineering, the ultimate number of parts to be produced plays an important role and equipment should be selected that will give the maximum production. All known methods of production should be compared and the most economical one chosen.
Technical Paper


Principal stresses in one type of eye-bolt have been determined in the laboratory of photoelasticity at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by the photoelastic method. In the test, an eye-bolt, designed in accordance with a method suggested for circular eyes in a course in machine design by the Institute, was made of celluloid 0.25 in. thick, 1 in. wide on either side of the eye, with a 1.405-in. diameter of eye, and a 1.333-in. width of shank. Steel loading-plates were pinned to the broadened end of the shank and a load of 100 lb. was suspended from the bolt, which gave a mean stress of 300 lb. per sq. in. in the shank. Plain polarized light was passed through the celluloid model and the isoclinic lines, or lines of equal inclination of principal stress, were observed and recorded. Two families of lines of principal stress, designated as P and Q stresses, were determined graphically from these isoclinic lines.
Technical Paper


The question as to whether a part should be made or bought is one that must be settled by the individual maker according to the value of his product, the nature of the part, his capital available for manufacturing purposes and the price at which his product is sold. The author describes the practice followed by some of the large companies, showing that in spite of their being quantity producers, they have found it desirable to buy a number of important parts. Certain parts are rarely made by automobile manufacturers, either because they can be bought more cheaply or because the machinery to produce them is intricate. The author sums up the problem by stating that a manufacturer makes the unit on account of not getting deliveries or because he does not get a fair price from the parts maker or an article good enough to satisfy his conditions. In order to give individuality to the product, the car maker often produces certain parts, such as the engine, himself.
Technical Paper


After quoting statistics that show the alarming increase in thefts of automobiles and analyzing numerous conditions under which automobiles are stolen, the authors discuss locks as theft retardants, saying that the providing and the improvement of locks has always been man's method of seeking security from thieves and comes in naturally for first consideration as the normal course to pursue in working toward adequate theft prevention. The present identification systems in use are mentioned, together with their features of advantage and disadvantage, and numerous practices that owners and drivers can adopt which tend to minimize theft are cited. The early forms of locking device are outlined and statistics are included which show the percentage of cars actually locked when they are equipped with a locking device.
Technical Paper

Effect of Weight/Power Ratio on Highway Transportation

THE purpose of this presentation is to focus attention upon the need for improving commercial highway vehicles in order to keep pace with the new standards of comfort and operation now prevailing in passenger-car design. The tendency to reduce the number of motions and the physical effort required to perform a task has led to the use of automatic transmissions in automobiles. Passenger-car manufacturers have designed higher-output engines without materially increasing weight, thereby providing a horsepower reserve which eliminates uneconomical operation of the engine at peak output at all times. Streetcars have been improved so that the operator need only apply foot-treadle pressure to start, accelerate, and stop the vehicle. This appears to be in direct contrast to the trend in bus and truck design.
Technical Paper

The New Packard Lightweight Diesel Engines

THE new Packard automotive diesel engine is reported to feature reductions in weight and space occupied, while maintaining good life expectancy. It is available in 6-cyl in-line, V8, V12, and V16 models. These models all have a large number of interchangeable parts. They all have the same bore and stroke. According to the authors, noteworthy points of these engines include: 1. Extensive use of aluminum. 2. Turbosupercharging. 3. One-piece cylinder and head assembly. 4. Four valves per cylinder, with stellite seating surfaces on valves and seats in the head.
Technical Paper

Pour-Point-Stability Characteristics of Winter-Grade Motor Oils

ANALYSIS of winter field storage test data on winter-grade oils containing pour depressants leads to identification of the basic features of the temperature cycles which result in severe pour reversion. The pour-stability test developed on the basis of the analysis exposes oils to a 6-day temperature cycle in a laboratory refrigerated cabinet. Two different cycles are used, one for oils of high cloud point and the other for oils of intermediate or low cloud point. Test results agree well with field observations for winter-grade motor oils, heavy-duty oils, and diluted heavy-duty oils.
Technical Paper

Engine Bearings - From Design to Maintenance

SIX major causes of bearing failures are catalogued, which include matters of engineering and design, procurement practices, misuse and abuse in operation, faulty installations, unsuitable lubricants, and mechanical faults in the bearings themselves. Although there are four general types of bearing materials in common use today for main and rod bearings - tin-base babbitts, high-lead babbitts, cadmium alloys, and copper-lead mixtures, the author shows that not one of them is a universal bearing material - each has its own particular field of usefulness, and these fields are defined in terms of maximum unit pressure, Zn/P, PV, oil-reservoir temperature, and crankshaft hardness. Design factors that react against indicated satisfactory performance are considered, including strength and stiffness of the bearing structure, oil flow to the rod bearing, restrictions in feed grooves, oil clearance, and so on. Standards of design pertaining to these points are set up.
Technical Paper

The Use of Zinc and Zinc Alloys in the Automotive Industry

THE PURPOSE of the paper is to discuss zinc as an engineering material. To this end the author reviews briefly the part that zinc and its alloys have played in the past and discusses recent development in zinc-base alloys which have greatly enlarged their field of use in the automotive industry. Among the various specific subjects treated by the author are brass, nickel and silver, rolled zinc and rolled zinc-alloys, zinc wire, extruded zinc shapes and die-castings. He states that in the early days of die-casting, alloys composed principally of tin or lead were used almost exclusively, but that castings made of these alloys did not possess the necessary strength and their use was greatly restricted. Zinc was tried and found to have certain advantages and, finally, a special zinc-alloy was adopted. Shortly after this the so-called high-grade zinc was introduced.
Technical Paper

Quality Control of Aluminum-Alloy Aircraft Castings

ARTICLES of a wide variety of sizes and shapes can be produced easily by the sand-casting process. The advantage of simplicity and low cost offered by the sand-casting process for small numbers of identical parts is offset by certain inherent limitations which must be recognized clearly if it is to yield optimum results. The various methods of inspecting and controlling structural variations that affect the strength and serviceability of aircraft castings are described. It is recognized that the user of castings must rely to a considerable extent on the foundryman for careful inspection. Several direct tests worthy of consideration as final acceptance tests of quality, such as the proof test, radiography (X-ray examination), and the static breakdown test, are described. However, this discussion leads to the conclusion that there is not yet available a satisfactory direct method of predicting the normal life of an aircraft casting.
Technical Paper

Magnaflux - What Does It Show?*

MAGNAFLUX testing has become an important adjunct in connection with the inspection of aircraft parts fabricated from magnetic materials. The method is very sensitive and may indicate not only defects which seriously weaken the part, but also non-injurious imperfections. The author has classified the several defects indicated by magnaflux which have been found in the routine inspection and examination of a large number of parts which have been in service in engines, airplanes, and accessories operated by the U. S. Army Air Corps.
Technical Paper

Camshaft-Tappet Problems in Ford Overhead-Valve Engines

IN THE first part of this paper dealing with the metallurgical aspects of the camshaft-tappet problems met with in the design of the new Ford overhead-valve V8 engines, Messrs. Laird and Stevens describe the events which led to the adoption of the as-cast alloy-iron camshaft, nitro-carburized martensitic tappet combination. The combination cited works well in the engines described, but it is not implied that it will perform satisfactorily elsewhere. In the second portion of the paper, Mr. Iles discusses the test schedule devised in connection with the development of the camshaft-tappet materials in the new engines. It is stated that important findings will occur when such tests involve a large number of parts, making possible the study of results on a frequency basis. Tests have shown that a predominantly martensitic tappet structure results in superior performance in combination with the as-cast alloy-iron camshaft used.
Technical Paper

Fluid Amplifier-Controlled Medical Devices

The fluid amplifier provides a solution for certain design problems associated with modern military medicine. The Military requires its medical equipment to possess not only a reliability and life compatible with its proposed use, but sufficient ruggedness to withstand the rigors of logistics and operation in the field. Where fluid amplifiers are used, these requirements are generously satisfied. By reducing the number of moving parts involved, logistics problems are simplified and manufacturing costs reduced. In illustration, this paper describes a volume limited respirator, a pressure cycled respirator, an external cardiac compressor, and a blood pump all utilizing fluid amplifiers for control and designed primarily for Army medicine.
Technical Paper

A One-Wire Brushless Integral Charging System for Earthmovers

It is apparent that a new generator and regulator design is needed to supply the additional electrical loads and meet the requirements for durability, reliability, and environmental protection on earthmoving equipment. The author discusses the d-c and alternator type systems which have been used to supply electrical needs. A detailed analysis of the integral charging system is presented. This system overcomes many of the shortcomings of the present electrical systems and, because it has a minimum number of moving parts, it is potentially the most reliable charging system in use on heavy duty equipment.
Technical Paper


This paper describes the status of efforts to improve the safety of motor vehicle operation through training. The following types of programs are described: (1) the safety components of driver education and improvement courses, (2) the remedial training of traffic violators, (3) programs utilizing simulation techniques, and (4) the use of mass media such as books and films. A general lack of conclusive evidence concerning various training approaches is noted. A greater research effort should be directed toward (1) better identification of means by which accidents can be anticipated and avoided, (2)methods of coping directly with driver habits and skills, and (3) techniques of maintaining safe driving behavior through periodic evaluation and retraining.