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RFID Selection, Application, and Use in Aerospace, Space, and Transportation

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an enabling technology that has been widely adopted in the retail industry. The powers of RFID are acknowledged by many, but a lack of understanding of the technology, its limitations, and how to select the right plan for its target installation has slowed efforts to migrate the technology into the aerospace, space, and transportation industries. While RFID is not a new technology, the rate at which it has been integrated into the aerospace industry has been slow due to unique considerations regarding qualification, regulations, and safety.
Video

RFID on Aircraft Parts - Industry Initiatives, Testing Standards, and Best Practices for Storing Maintenance History Information Directly on Aircraft Parts

2012-03-22
The aerospace industry has long sought a solution for storing maintenance history information directly on aircraft parts. In 2005 leading airframe manufacturers determined that passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology presented a unique opportunity to address this industry need. Through the efforts of the Air Transport Association (ATA) RFID on Parts Committee and SAE International testing standards and data specifications are in place to support the broad adoption of passive RFID for storing parts history information directly on aircraft parts. The primary focus of the paper will be on the SAE AS-5678 environmental testing standard for passive RFID tags intended for aircraft use. Detail will be provided to help aerospace manufacturers understand their role and responsibilities for current programs and understand how this may impact their parts certification process.
Video

Detecting Damage and Damage Location on Large Composite Parts using RFID Technology

2012-03-16
Probabilistic methods are used in calculating composite part design factors for, and are intended to conservatively compensate for worst case impact to composite parts used on space and aerospace vehicles. The current method to investigate impact damage of composite parts is visual based upon observation of an indentation. A more reliable and accurate determinant of impact damage is to measure impact energy. RF impact sensors can be used to gather data to establish an impact damage benchmark for deterministic design criteria that will reduce material applied to composite parts to compensate for uncertainties resulting from observed impact damage. Once the benchmark has been established, RF impact sensors will be applied to composite parts throughout their life-cycle to alert and identify the location of impact damage that exceeds the maximum established benchmark for impact.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Parameters and Identification of Effective Muscles in Low Speed Lateral Impact at Just Below the Knee

2009-04-20
2009-01-1211
Finite Element simulation of a lower extremity model is used to (1) determine which of the muscle parameters maximum force capacity (Fmax), initial activation levels (Na) and maximum muscle contraction velocity (Vmax) affect ligament strains the most and (2) to identify which muscles affect the knee response the most in low speed, just below the knee, lateral impact. Simulations have been performed with Fmax, Na and Vmax varying from their reference values. Sensitivity of ligament strains to variation in muscle parameters has been studied. It is observed that knee response is more sensitive to Fmax and Na than Vmax. Amongst the muscles varied, reduction in the Fmax and the Na in the hamstring and the gastrocnemius muscles affects the knee ligament strains the most. The hamstring parameters significantly affects the ACL, the PCL as well as the MCL strains whereas, change in the gastrocnemius parameters affects only the MCL strain.
Technical Paper

Extraction of Static Car Body Stiffness from Dynamic Measurements

2010-04-12
2010-01-0228
This paper describes a practical approach to extract the global static stiffness of a body in white (BIW) from dynamic measurements in free-free conditions. Based on a limited set of measured frequency response functions (FRF), the torsional and bending stiffness values are calculated using an FRF based substructuring approach in combination with inverse force identification. A second approach consists of a modal approach whereby the static car body stiffness is deduced from a full free-free modal identification including residual stiffness estimation at the clamping and load positions. As an extra important result this approach allows for evaluating the modal contribution of the flexible car body modes to the global static stiffness values. The methods have been extensively investigated using finite element modeling data and verified on a series of body in white measurements.
Technical Paper

Towards an Aspect Driven Approach for the Analysis, Evaluation and Optimization of Safety Within the Automotive Industry

2010-04-12
2010-01-0208
An approach will be presented how development projects for safety-related and software-intensive automotive systems can be controlled through the application of model-based risk assessment. Therefore specific control measures have to be developed, which represent the degree of fulfilment of several aspects of safety-related developments. The control measures are evaluated through the analysis of risk-reducing aspects, for which the process of identification and specification is described. Thus, a framework for the creation of a probabilistic and aspect-oriented risk-analysis model (AORA) for safety related projects within automotive industries is currently under development. With respect to the upcoming safety standard ISO 26262 the twofold approach focuses on both, the identification and specification of risk-reducing aspects within the development as well as the application of a probabilistic reasoning model.
Technical Paper

Development of a Dual-Clutch Transmission System for ATVs

2009-04-20
2009-01-0514
A demand for the easy driving made possible by automatic transmissions has been rising recently, even in the category of All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs), which are mostly used off road. At the same time, from a practical usage point of view, users are still conscious of both fuel economy and drivability. Thus, the authors focused on developing a dual-clutch transmission system, which would combine the ease of use of an automatic transmission and the efficiency of a conventional manual transmission. Conventional dual-clutch transmission systems that have been developed for passenger vehicles are difficult and complicated to fit onto ATVs as they are. In particular, the shifting system complicates the total mechanism, by appending a number of parts as the control device. We therefore developed a new shifting system that consists of manual transmission components like dog-clutch type gears, a shift-drum system, and a shifting motor.
Journal Article

Sequential Identification of Engine Subsystems by Optimal Input Design

2009-09-13
2009-24-0132
Complexity and nonlinearity of engines makes precise first principle engine models often difficult to obtain, as for instance for emissions. System identification is a well known possible alternative, successfully used in several automotive applications. In most cases system identification is concerned with the estimation of the unknown parameters of a known set of equations. Unfortunately, for many engine subsystems, there is no sufficiently precise or real time suitable model. This paper presents a sequential algorithm which allows to derive real time suitable models on line by a combination of model structure hypothesis of increasing complexity and an associated optimal input design and selection process. This paper introduces the method and shows its use both for a rather simple and a very difficult engine identification task, a dynamical model of the airpath of a Diesel engine and a dynamical model of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter.
Technical Paper

Auto-Tuning of PID Controllers for Calibration of Idle Speed Controller Maps in Diesel Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-0330
In this work we propose an automatic tuning method for the calibration of PID controllers of the idle speed functionality in Diesel engines. The tuning method is based on a closed-loop identification technique, which is employed to estimate the parameters of a first order model with integrator and delay. It is shown that this simple model has sufficient fidelity to provide satisfactory PID gains. The identification algorithm and the performance of the resulting PID controllers have been tested in different vehicles. The proposed methodology has the potential to automate the calibration process of idle speed controllers while satisfying requirements on stability, performance, and robustness of the closed-loop system.
Journal Article

Prediction of Interior Noise Based on Hybrid TPA

2009-05-19
2009-01-2115
This paper presents a practical real approach for predicting the interior noise caused by the vibration of the powertrain by using the hybrid transfer path analysis (TPA) method. The traditional TPA has been used for the identification of powertrain noise sources. However, with only experimental data for the identification of vibration and noise, it is difficult to determine the effects of modifications to the structure of a powertrain. In order to solve this problem, the vibration of the powertrain in a vehicle is numerically analyzed by using the finite element method (FEM). The vibration of other parts in a vehicle is investigated by using the experimental method based on vibro-acoustic transfer function (VATF) analysis. These two methods are combined for the prediction of interior noise caused by a powertrain.
Technical Paper

Torino Piemonte Aerospace (TPA) Project - Strategic Planning Model for SMEs

2009-11-10
2009-01-3153
Torino Piemonte Aerospace project (TPA) implemented a scientific, strategic planning method that simultaneously supports selected aerospace Piemonte Region (located in North-Western Italy) SMEs in their internationalisation process and offers the world aerospace community a competitive Supply Chain for professional procurement and for world-class partners and suppliers identification. Strategic Planning Framework adopted by TPA is a disciplinary tool which measured the competitive strength of the Piemonte aerospace cluster (TPA companies) and analyzed the external environment (market trends, business models, strategic assets). Within the limits of Competitive Positioning analysis, TPA Team performed the selection of the 66 top class aerospace and defence companies able to match buyers' needs and interact with international markets.
Journal Article

Application of System Identification for Efficient Suspension Tuning in High-Performance Vehicles: Full-Car Model Study

2009-04-20
2009-01-0433
One popular complement to track testing that successful race teams use to better understand their vehicle’s behavior is dynamic shaker rig testing, such as 7-post and 8-post testing. Compared to track testing, rig testing is more repeatable, costs less, and can be conducted around the clock. While rig testing certainly is an attractive option, an extensive number of tests may be required to find the best setup. To make better use of rig test time, more efficient testing methods are needed. One method to expedite rig testing is to use rig test data to perform system identification and generate a model of the experiment, which may then be applied to identify potential gains for further rig study. This study develops a system identification method for use in rig testing, using data generated from a known physical model. The results show that this method can be used to accurately predict sensor response during an 8-post test for different shock selections.
Technical Paper

A Modal-Geometrical Selection Criterion for Master Nodes Applied to Engine Components

2011-04-12
2011-01-0498
Usually, both an experimental modal analysis or a numerical modal analysis performed on reduced model present the problem of master nodes selection. A methodology based on the experience is normally used or computationally heavy criterion can be applied. In that paper, the Modal-Geometrical Selection Criterion (MoGeSeC) is applied to a crankshaft, both for an EMA (experimental modal analysis) and for a reduction procedure. Then the results are compared with other literature criteria. As far as the EMA is concerned, the nodes suggested by MoGeSeC and other criteria are used for identification of the component. The connection conditions between components are origin of uncertainty but in that case the comparison is done for each methodology in the same conditions. In that way MoGeSeC proves to be a very quick and accurate method because the nodes it selects depicts very well the dynamic behavior of the components.
Journal Article

New Adhesive Bonding Surface Treatment Technologies for Lightweight Aluminum-Polypropylene Hybrid Joints in Semi-Structural Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-0217
Atmospheric pressure plasma sources are new devices for modifying the surface condition of engineering materials such as thermoplastic and thermoset-based composites. Because they operate at ambient conditions, these plasma systems can be used on a production line as a pre-treatment solution prior to painting or adhesive bonding to significantly improve adhesion strength. However, their efficient use requires sound understanding on how they modify the surface state of materials and, by the same token, how these modifications can be detected and quantified as regards their ability to provide high-strength adhesive joints. Polypropylene, since it is one of the most difficult-to-bond thermoplastic polymers and, at the same time, one of the most interesting polymers for the automotive industry (due to low cost, widespread use in the formulation of composites, lightweight and recyclability), was used in this paper as a model polymer.
Technical Paper

Anti-Counterfeiting System of Drunk Driving Using Driver's Facial image Identification

2011-04-12
2011-01-0210
This study proposes an anti-counterfeiting system of drunk driving, which prevents drivers from drunken driving and cheat of driver's alcohol detection. The study develops the technology of driver's facial image match by a serial image processes. The methodology of facial image match uses the Adaboost algorithm, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to extract the facial features of drivers, is suitable to be applied under the internal environments of cabin. By analyzing the facial features of drivers, the time of driver's exchange is detected, and the driver's identity is indentified. When the cheat act of driver's alcohol detection occurred, the system will generate warning signals through a buzzer to notice the driver to take alcohol detection.
Journal Article

A Methodology to Integrate a Nonlinear Shock Absorber Dynamics into a Vehicle Model for System Identification

2011-04-12
2011-01-0435
High fidelity mathematical vehicle models that can accurately capture the dynamics of car suspension system are critical in vehicle dynamics studies. System identification techniques can be employed to determine model type, order and parameters. Such techniques are well developed and usually used on linear models. Unfortunately, shock absorbers have nonlinear characteristics that are non-negligible, especially with regard the vehicle's vertical dynamics. In order to effectively employ system identification techniques on a vehicle, a nonlinear mathematical shock absorber model must be developed and then coupled to the linear vehicle model. Such an approach addresses the nonlinear nature of the shock absorber for system identification purposes. This paper presents an approach to integrate the nonlinear shock absorber model into the vehicle model for system identification.
Journal Article

Real-time Tire Imbalance Detection Using ABS Wheel Speed Sensors

2011-04-12
2011-01-0981
This paper proposes an approach to use ABS wheel speed sensor signals together with other vehicle state information from a brake control module to detect an unbalanced tire or tires in real-time. The proposed approach consists of two-stage algorithms that mix a qualitative method using band-pass filtering with a quantitative parameter identification using conditional least squares. This two-stage approach can improve the robustness of tire imbalance or imbalances. The proposed approach is verified through vehicle testing and the test results show the effectiveness of the approach.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Parameters Identification and Estimation of the Vertical Forces of Heavy Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-0979
The aim of the presented work is to estimate the vertical forces of heavy vehicle and identify the unknown dynamic parameters using sliding mode observers approach. This observation needs a good knowledge of some dynamic parameters such as damping coefficient, spring stiffness…etc. We propose in this paper, to identify some of these parameters which are, in practice very difficult to obtain and to measure. This identification will improve the quality of vertical forces estimation. Some experimental results are presented in order to show the quality of the estimation and identification. These estimation results are then compared to the measures coming from an instrumented tractor.
Technical Paper

New Concept of a Compact Lidar Scanner for ACC and Safety Applications

2009-04-20
2009-01-0639
This contribution deals with the development of a new scanning time-of-flight Lidar device for automotive use. Originally designed for safety applications, it provides a horizontal field of view of up to 170°. The Lidar-inherent good lateral resolution allows for easy identification of position, width and outline of objects and obstacles in a traffic environment. A detection range of up to 170 m enables tasks such as Full Speed Range ACC (FSRA), thanks to its technology based on a production proven IDIS® 1.0 circuit with Multibeam Lidar. A brushless DC Motor and a small momentum of inertia ensure the precision and sturdiness required for automotive applications. Therefore the new device represents a versatile, robust, and compact sensor concept at reasonable costs.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation of Wall Wetting in a GDI Engine under Low Temperature Cranking Operations

2009-04-20
2009-01-0704
The paper reports a numerical activity on the investigation of the spray evolution within the combustion chamber of an automotive DISI engine under low-temperature cranking operations. In view of the high injected fuel amount and the strongly reduced fuel vaporization at cold cranking, wall wetting becomes a critical issue. Under such conditions, fuel deposits around the spark plug region can affect the ignition process, and even prevent engine start-up. In fact, due to the low injection pressure at engine start-up, the fuel shows almost negligible atomization and breakup, and the spray structure at the swirl-type injector nozzle is characterized by a single column of liquid fuel, strongly limiting the subsequent vaporization and enhancing the fuel-wall interaction. In order to properly investigate and understand the many involved phenomena, experimental visualization of the full injection process by means of an optically accessible engine would be a very useful tool.
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