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Training / Education

Introduction to Airframe Engineering Design for Manufacturing, Assembly and Automation

Why is a design for manufacturing, assembly and automation so important? This introductory course on airframe engineering will cover the importance of design for manufacturing, assembly and automation in aerospace. It will review what the key drivers are for a “good” design and some of the key points for manufacturing and assembly of aircraft components. It will look at how an engineer can combine traditional technologies with new, cutting-edge technologies, to determine the best scenario for success.
Training / Education

Design for Manufacturing & Assembly

Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFM+A), pioneered by Boothroyd and Dewhurst, has been used by many companies around the world to develop creative product designs that use optimal manufacturing and assembly processes. Correctly applied, DFM+A analysis leads to significant reductions in production cost, without compromising product time-to-market goals, functionality, quality, serviceability, or other attributes. This seminar will include information on how DFM+A fits in with QFD, Concurrent Engineering, Robust Engineering, and other disciplines.
Training / Education

Design for Manufacturing & Assembly (DFM/DFA)

Discounted pricing is in effect during the COVID-19 pandemic. Registration fees of $1355 applies to the special live, online August 3, 2020 offering. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFM+A), pioneered by Boothroyd and Dewhurst, has been used by many companies around the world to develop creative product designs that use optimal manufacturing and assembly processes. Correctly applied, DFM+A analysis leads to significant reductions in production cost, without compromising product time-to-market goals, functionality, quality, serviceability, or other attributes.
Video

Vertical Picture-Frame Wing Jig Structure Design with an Eye to Foundation Loading

2012-03-14
The foundation of many production aircraft assembly facilities is a more dynamic and unpredictable quantity than we would sometimes care to admit. Any tooling structures constructed on these floors, no matter how thoroughly analyzed or well understood, are at the mercy of settling and shifting concrete, which can cause very lengthy and costly periodic re-certification and adjustment procedures. It is with this in mind, then, that we explore the design possibilities for one such structure to be built in Belfast, North Ireland for the assembly of the Shorts C-Series aircraft wings. We evaluate the peak floor pressure, weight, gravity deflection, drilling deflection, and thermal deflection of four promising structures and discover that carefully designed pivot points and tension members can offer significant benefits in some areas.
Video

Spotlight on Design: 3D Printing in the Automotive Industry

2015-12-22
“Spotlight on Design” features video interviews and case studies, focusing on technology breakthroughs, hands-on testimonials, and the importance of fundamentals. Viewers are virtually taken to industry labs and research centers to learn how design engineers solve real-life problems. These challenges include enhancing product performance, reducing costs, improving quality and safety, while decreasing environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. In the episode “Additive Manufacturing: 3D Printing in the Automotive Industry” (20:00), engineers from Fiat Chrysler Corporation (FCA) explain the importance of using 3D printing to test multiple design scenarios and develop solutions that can be quickly evaluated on test tracks. And Local Motors shows how it builds a vehicle from the ground up with a 3D printer, and without a traditional assembly line.
Video

Business Model for Successful Commercialization of Aircraft Designs

2012-03-21
In any new aircraft development program there are many important design decisions that determine profitability potential. The key to making new aircraft profitable is to design features that will command more money than the cost to provide them within the market's ability to absorb them. The business model in this paper shows how to predict or find: 1) the costs to provide various aircraft features; 2) the values that aircraft buyers place on these features; 3) the amount of money that buyers have to commit to them, 4) the open spaces in the market in which to place new designs and 5) the predicted profits from new designs. In this process, this paper extends previous work on the law of value and demand, which states that attributes determine value; value determines price; and that price determines demand. This four-dimensional, non-negative system hosts a business model that describes the features needed to enable aircraft designs to go from concepts to profitable assembly lines.
Video

Orbital Drilling Machine for One Way Assembly in Hard Materials

2012-03-23
In Aeronautic industry, when we launch a new industrialization for an aircraft sub assembly we always have the same questions in mind for drilling operations, especially when focusing on lean manufacturing. How can we avoid dismantling and deburring parts after drilling operation? Can a drilling centre perform all the tasks needed to deliver a hole ready to install final fastener? How can we decrease down-time of the drilling centre? Can a drilling centre be integrated in a pulse assembly line? How can we improve environmental efficiency of a drilling centre? It is based on these main drivers that AIRBUS has developed, with SPIE and SOS, a new generation of drilling centre dedicated for hard materials such as titanium, and high thicknesses. The first application was for the assembly of the primary structure of A350 engine pylons. The main solution that was implemented meeting several objectives was the development of orbital drilling technology in hard metal stacks.
Technical Paper

Duralumin All-Metal Airplane Construction

1928-01-01
280030
PSYCHOLOGY of the public, as well as engineering structure and aerodynamics, is involved in commercial aviation. The public has confidence in metal. With quantity production in view, the author and his associates considered costs of production as related to quantity and also costs of maintenance at airports and in the field, and chose metal as the material of construction. Structural members are fashioned from sheet duralumin rather than from tubes and a type of construction was evolved that can be made with the minimum investment in tools, that is cheap to put together and that can be repaired with the smallest amount of equipment and labor. For compression loads, duralumin has a great deal more strength for a given weight than has steel. It cannot be used, however, for compression members in combination with steel in tension members because of the difference in coefficient of expansion.
Technical Paper

Methods of Building Metal Airplane Structures

1928-01-01
280029
USEFUL load-carrying capacity is a measure of the comparative value of two airplanes of the same size, having identical powerplants, speed, rate of climb and other flying characteristics. It seems to be feasible to combine in the same airplane both the greatest ability to carry useful load and the least cost of construction. Blanked and pressed metal work offers substantial advantage to the extent that parts, particularly sub-assemblies, can be made directly by machine in complete units ready to set in the final assembly. The author shows and describes the methods followed by his organization in forming the members, building the frames and assembling the units of metal aircraft. Trusses are blanked and the web members pressed to ¾-circle form. Dies for long members are variable in length by being made in pieces that can be removed or inserted as desired. Flanged-tube sections are employed for truss chords.
Technical Paper

Designing the Dual Valve-Spring

1928-01-01
280053
BECAUSE of the increased engine-speed and the limitations of progress by the previous method of designing valve-springs, Packard engineers entered upon fundamental studies of valve-spring behavior and of the influence of stress range upon durability. Various theories of the dynamics of valve-spring surge were investigated, and one was found which seems to agree fairly well with the observed phenomena. Jumping of valve push-rods and spring failures that could not be explained by the static analysis of spring design are accounted for by the dynamic analysis, which serves as an improved basis for design. Finding it impossible to design a single spring to meet the conditions, within the space limitations, a double spring with interlaced coils was designed. Descriptions are given of the provision for mounting the ends of the springs and the methods of assembly and inspection.
Technical Paper

The Wright Whirlwind-Engine Production Methods

1927-01-01
270062
REMARKABLE performance of the Wright Whirlwind J-5 engine in the transatlantic and transpacific flights of Lindbergh, Chamberlin, Byrd, Maitland, Smith, Goebel, Jensen and Brock in the summer just closed makes this paper of great timely interest. Methods of manufacture and testing that result in a degree of perfection which enables an engine to function continuously at high speed at almost full load for 40 hr. without the failure of a single part even momentarily must be of prime importance to all internal-combustion-engine production-engineers who hold reliability as an ideal. Extraordinary vigilance at every stage of production of every part is revealed by a reading of the paper to be the major factor contributing to success of the engine. Repeated tests and inspections are made of parts in process and of the engine after it is assembled.
Technical Paper

Material Handling in the Pontiac Assembly Plant

1929-01-01
290072
CONVEYORS and handling systems often are planned and installed after a building is erected. The Pontiac plant, described in this paper, is an exception because it was designed without limitations as to space and for a definite production program. With the aid of photographs and floor plans on which the positions from which the photographs were taken are indicated, the complete production line of the plant is shown in detail. The order of assembly and the points at which various units are applied to the chassis are shown; also the locations of the storage spaces for many of the parts and the provisions for transporting them to the assembly line. Among the striking features of the chassis-assembly line is a hump, midway of the length of the building, which raises the chassis to the mezzanine level to allow passage underneath.
Technical Paper

Future Clutch Progress Charted from Design A-B-C's

1933-01-01
330011
FIRST consideration is given by the author to basic improvements in clutches of the lever-release single-plate and to those of the two-plate types. He emphasizes that the severity of clutch service has increased very materially in the last few years and that the increased clutch duty of today is further augmented by the car manufacturer in providing cars having greater acceleration and higher torque, particularly at the higher speeds and usually without a proportionate increase in clutch size. Developments along logical lines which have resulted in improvements in design are cited as being (a) the design of the driven disc and the selection of facings, to produce improved engagement and greater life; (b) design of the cover-plate assembly to permit higher spring pressure with less retracting movement of the pressure plate; and better selection of facing and pressure-plate materials to reduce facing wear and pressure-plate distortion or scoring.
Technical Paper

Cageless Roller Bearings Develop High Carrying Capacities

1933-01-01
330047
A ROLLER having the same diameter as a corresponding ball and a length equal to the ball diameter has approximately four times the carrying capacity of a ball, according to Mr. Hermann. The data presented on cageless roller bearings are based upon knowledge of the carrying capacity and life of the ball bearing. The reason for the increased carrying capacity of a roller over that of a ball is due to the distribution of the load over a line of contact rather than at a point of contact. The roller bearing increases the number of such line contacts and therefore further distributes the load to the raceways. By increasing the number of line contacts, the cageless rollers reduce the stress per roller and failure due to fatigue. The fatigue factor is reduced 40 per cent, comparing a cageless with a caged roller.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Tires and Wheels as Causes of “Tramp”

1933-01-01
330042
THIS paper presents the solution of the factors in tires and wheels that cause a particular type of front-end vibration termed “tramp,” which is a vertical vibration of the front axle accompanied by a small degree of simultaneous oscillation of the wheel assembly about the king pin. This vibration in turn sets up the disturbance of the body and chassis. The front-axle vibration is caused by the unbalance and variation in rolling radius of the rotating front-wheel assemblies. The theoretical action of these two factors is developed in detail and supported by experimental results. The foregoing two factors act independently. The resultant of the two periodic forces which they set up depends on their phase relationship.
Technical Paper

Weight Saving by Structural Efficiency

1931-01-01
310034
METHODS employed by the author to reduce the weight of the structural frame without sacrificing strength are described in the paper. To obtain this result the best available cross-section must be selected and the members arranged to transmit the load directly to the final supports which should lie approximately in a plane that is parallel to the load vector; also where a bending moment is caused by the loading, the support attachment should produce a moment of the same amount and of opposite sign. Avoiding secondary bending and utilizing the advantages of full continuity over supports can be secured by a simple arrangement of the frame members. Substitution of power tools for hand tools will effect a reduction in assembly costs. Sections suitable for power assembly include closed hollow-sections, which have a high structural efficiency, as well as angles, channels, I-beams and similar shapes.
Technical Paper

COMMERCIAL-BODY SUPPLY AND SERVICE

1922-01-01
220026
Specifying the four general plans that have been followed by chassis builders in securing body equipment as being the building of bodies in their own shops; on contract by the body maker to plans and specifications of the chassis builder; by a local body maker to the order of the dealer or the owner; and the assembling from stock of standard sectional units recommended by the dealer or selected by the owner, the authors discuss each of these plans in detail. With regard to the plan of using standardized sectional bodies, the different sizes of chassis used for commercial purposes are separated into four specified groups and the production of a complete standard line including a number of styles of body for each chassis is commented upon and illustrated, inclusive of detailed considerations of the all-metal body.
Technical Paper

CONVEYOR EQUIPMENT IN A SMALL PRODUCTION PLANT1

1923-01-01
230052
To install conveyors in a going automobile manufacturing plant of moderate size, without interrupting production, and with a minimum amount of rearrangement of the plant and an investment commensurate with the saving to be effected, was the problem, the solution of which is herein described. The conditions that determined whether power-driven or gravity-actuated conveyors should be used are discussed and the various types required for handling raw stock, for machining operations, for sub-assemblies and for finished assemblies are indicated.
Technical Paper

PRACTICAL BALANCING OF A V-TYPE ENGINE CRANKSHAFT1

1924-01-01
240012
Supplementing a paper by another author that treats of the theoretical balancing of this engine, Mr. Anderson presents the practical methods that have been devised to accomplish the results desired. Since this crankshaft is not in running or in dynamic balance without its piston and its connecting-rod assemblies, it is necessary to apply equivalent weights on each of the crankpins when balancing it on a dynamic balancing-machine, and details are given of how these weights are determined. The selection of parts to obtain equal weights is also necessary; a description is given of how this is made. A combination static and dynamic balancing-machine that can be set for either operation is used for balancing the crankshaft. Details of its operation are presented. Service conditions to secure parts replacements within the weight limits specified are outlined, and flywheel, universal-joint assembly and other unit balancing is discussed. The method of testing the completed work is stated.
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