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How Detroit Became the Automotive Capital

Published in 1996, as the 100th Anniversary of the automobile industry was celebrated in the United States, this book details the amazing story of how Detroit become the automobile capital of the U.S. All the of the automobile manufacturers in Detroit and surrounding areas are covered along with 49 additional topics that are woven in-between and presented in chronological order. This book includes over 500 time period photographs of factories, both inside and outside, personnel, cars, and logos. Readers will gain an appreciation for the talented people that created Detroit's automobile industry.

SAE Eye on Engineering: GM Buyout Offer

The cost of developing electric and self-driving vehicles is forcing all automakers to make dramatic changes. In this episode of SAE Eye on Engineering, Editor-in-Chief Lindsay Brooke looks at GM's recent buyout offers. SAE Eye on Engineering also airs Monday mornings on WJR 760 AM Detroit's Paul W. Smith Show.

Vehicle Electronic Programming Stations (VEPS) System Specification for Win32®

SAE J2461 specifies the recommended practices of a Vehicle Electronics Programming Stations (VEPS) a Win32® environment. This system specification, SAE J2461, was a revision of the requirements for Vehicle Electronics Programming Stations (VEPS) set forth in SAE J2214, Vehicle Electronics Programming Stations (VEPS) System Specification for Programming Components at OEM Assembly Plants (Cancelled Jun 2004). The J2214 standard has been cancelled indicating that it is no longer needed or relevant.

Tube Fittings, Aerospace Fluid Systems, Separable, For 24° Cone, General Specification, Metric (ISO 7169)

This document specifies performance and quality requirements for the qualification and manufacture of 24° cone fittings to ensure reliable performance in aircraft hydraulic systems. This document specifies baseline criteria for the design and manufacture of system fittings that are qualification tested on engines. This document covers fittings of temperature types and pressure classes specified in MA2001.
White Paper

Innovative Assembly Systems for the Aerospace Industry

The aerospace industry is facing new challenges to meet burgeoning customer demand. An unprecedented number of orders for commercial aircraft is forcing aerospace manufacturing to make gains in efficiency throughout aircraft production and operation. However, current manufacturing systems are using technologies and production methods unsuited to a future dynamic market. To ensure its profitability, the aerospace industry must seize the opportunity to innovate and readdress approaches to manufacturing. This whitepaper looks at four advanced manufacturing (AM) solutions designed to improve assembly process efficiency, automation, and accuracy.
Technical Paper

Accounting for Manufacturing Variability in Interior Noise Computations

A formulation that accounts for manufacturing variability in the analysis of structural/acoustic systems is presented. The methodology incorporates the concept of fast probability integration with finite element (FEA) and boundary element analysis (BEA) for producing the probabilistic acoustic response of a structural/acoustic system. The advanced mean value method is used for integrating the system probability density function. FEA and BEA are combined for producing the acoustic response that constitutes the performance function. The probabilistic acoustic response is calculated in terms of a cumulative distribution function. The new methodology is used to illustrate the difference between the results from a probabilistic analysis that accounts for manufacturing uncertainty, and an equivalent deterministic simulation through applications. The probabilistic computations are validated by comparison to Monte Carlo simulations.
Technical Paper

Total Environmental Warming Impact (TEWI) Calculations for Alternative Automotive Air-Conditioning Systems

The Montreal Protocol phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has led manufacturers to develop refrigeration and air-conditioning systems that use refrigerants that do not damage stratospheric ozone. Most refrigeration industries have adapted their designs to use hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) or hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants; new automobile air-conditioning systems use HFC-134a. These industries are now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants on global warming. Automobile air-conditioning has three separate impacts on global warming; 1) the effects of refrigerant inadvertently released to the atmosphere from accidents, servicing, and leakage; 2) the efficiency of the cooling equipment (due to the emission of CO2 from burning fuel to power the system); and 3) the emission of CO2 from burning fuel to transport the system.
Technical Paper

Quality Systems Management--A Process Control Model

The Single Process Initiative and Commercialization of government contracts have catapulted us into a state of virtual agility. This state provides unlimited potential by allowing the company to leverage its resources and define whatever systems and processes are necessary to achieve specified performance requirements. These requirements are robust enough to provide necessary controls (i.e., checks and balances), and simultaneously foster development of best commercial practices that ensure continued success in the global market place. An effective quality management system supported by integrated process based management of day-to-day business systems and manufacturing processes coupled with strategic alliances with key suppliers is the method for harnessing this potential.
Technical Paper

Modular Concept for Underbody-BIW Manufacturing System

Customer demands for body assembly systems have increased due to the global competition for international operating automotive companies in order to reach cost advantages, shorter lead-times from vehicle concept to start of production (SOP) and a short launch period to get the maximum output in a very short time. TMS has applied a modular concept approach including computer aided engineering and design (CAE/CAD) to realize a body assembly system for an underbody rear complete with cost and uptime advantages.
Technical Paper

Real-time Scheduling for Assembly Processes

The assembly system under consideration is composed with several machines, and some of these machines may be identical or able to perform the same operations. The manufacturing system is fully automated, and semi-finished products or components are not stored during the process. A limited flexibility exists since the manufacturing times can be extended within certain limits at the expense of the unavailability of the resource. There are no conflicts between the resources; in other words, the same machine is not used to perform different operations for a same product. Due to the intensity of the flow of products to be manufactured, it is not allowed to reschedule products which have been previously scheduled. Thus, when a new product requirement arrives in the system, we have to take advantage of the idle time windows. The goal is to complete the product as soon as possible.
Technical Paper

Testing of an Integrated Air Revitalization System

Long-duration missions in space will require regenerative air revitalization processes. Human testing of these regenerative processes is necessary to provide focus to the system development process and to provide realistic metabolic and hygiene inputs. To this end, the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC), under the sponsorship of NASA Headquarters Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, is implementing an Early Human Testing (EHT) Project. As part of this project, an integrated physicochemical Air Revitalization System (ARS) is being developed and tested in JSC's Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF). The components of the ARS include a Four-Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) Subsystem for carbon dioxide (CO2) removal, a Sabatier CO2 Reduction Subsystem (CRS), and a Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE)™ Oxygen Generation Subsystem (OGS). A Trace Contaminant Control Subsystem (TCCS) will be incorporated at a later date.
Technical Paper

Trends in Data Acquisition for Sled Testing

If one is to look at the Trends in Data Acquisition for Sled Testing, it is important to consider both TESTING TRENDS, and TECHNOLOGY TRENDS. With communication between the Testing Community, and the Data Equipment Manufactures the marriage of these trends will result in more efficient higher performance data acquisition systems. The goal of every test engineer should be to produce accurate and verifiable test results at a reasonable cost. Co-operative efforts between the sled testing industry and the data system manufactures will benefit all, the testor, the equipment manufacture and the end user of the product under test.
Technical Paper

The Robustness of Weld-Bonding Technology in Aluminium Vehicle Manufacturing

The paper summarises work which has been carried out to establish the sensitivity of the Alcan AVT weld-bonding system to manufacturing process variability. The robustness of the joint-line to factors such as panel fit-up, bondline thickness, adhesive fillet size and missing adhesive is discussed and their effects demonstrated. Manufacturing factors, such as pretreatment damage during part forming and the cure-cycle window for the adhesive, are considered and their effects on performance are indicated. Finally the effect of a series of manufacturing shortfalls and environmental factors have been put together in one experiment and the resulting strength and fatigue performance of bonded joints has been established.
Technical Paper

Structural Adhesives for Aluminum Vehicles

This paper describes adhesive technology that has been developed for structural bonding of aluminum automotive vehicles. The adhesive technology was developed as part of a design and manufacturing system for constructing automotive unibody structures from stamped aluminum sheet. The manufacturing feasibility of this technology, as will be discussed, has been substantiated by a number of automotive companies. Adhesive performance characteristics are detailed including environmental durability, fatigue resistance and impact resistance.
Technical Paper

Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) - A Pragmatic Discussion

Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) have evolved from manufacturing control systems. The driving force is the increased requirements for mass customization [1] and a higher number of customer options. As the name implies, MES have an emphasis on Execution not just passive data collection. This paper looks at the functionality and architecture of MES applications. The primary conclusion is that MES are no more a silver bullet than other software fads have been over the last 30 years. The benefits come to those organizations willing to act on the information and go beyond just installing another software package.
Technical Paper

Automatic Generation of Toolpath for Sculptured Surface Machining

Based on a 3D model generated in a CAD system, a rapid prototyping system can manufacture a prototype in few hours. The most common techniques for rapid prototyping use materials like resins and polymers. The difference between the material of the manufactured prototype and the real piece makes the realization of some tests with the prototype almost impossible, such as analysis of mechanical and chemical resistance. This work proposes a technique to make a prototype by machining it using a 3D machine. The great part of the industrial machining can be realized using 2½D machining. Some authors proposed methods to machine the sculptured surfaces in a 2½D machining; however, the surface finishing, depending of the application, is not so good. We proposed an algorithm capable of generating the toolpath for a 3D machining to attend this demand.
Technical Paper

Drag Forces Experienced by Two, Full-Scale Vehicles at Close Spacing

The present study aims to document the drag reduction for a two-vehicle platoon by operating two full-scale Ford Windstar vans in tandem on a desert lakebed. Drag forces are measured with the aid of a special tow bar force measuring system designed and manufactured at USC. The testing procedure consists of a smooth acceleration, followed by a smooth deceleration of the platoon. Data collected during acceleration allows the calculation of the drag force on the trail-vehicle, while data collected during deceleration is used to calculate the drag on the lead vehicle. Results from the full-scale tests show that the drag behaviors for the two vans are in general agreement with the earlier conclusions drawn from the wind tunnel testsænamely, both vans experience substantial drag savings at spacings of a fraction of a car length.
Technical Paper

Requirements for P/M Stainless Steel Materials in Order to Meet Future Exhaust System Performance Criteria

Due to more stringent regulatory restrictions, the requirements for exhaust system components have become more demanding. The flanges, in particular, must provide tight sealing capability, and they must maintain this sealing capability for countless numbers of thermal cycles. The tough creep and oxidation criteria, coupled with the increased corrosion resistance required to meet the long term durability and weld integrity is moving exhaust system components toward Stainless Steel materials. The competitive cost benefits offered by the Powder Metal forming technology for fabricating Stainless steel exhaust system flanges has driven extensive study and testing of a variety of P/M exhaust flange applications.

Aerospace Engineering 2007-03-01

Management promotes sharing The extensive use of CAD tools in aerospace design brings many benefits, but also a number of challenges. Getting robots to multi-task The demand to fulfill continually increasing customer requirements forces suppliers to offer state-of-the-art system manufacturing solutions.